SoHo, sometimes written Soho, is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, which in recent history came to the public's attention for being the location of many artists' lofts and art galleries, but is now better known for its variety of shops ranging from trendy upscale boutiques to national and international chain store outlets. The area's history is an archetypal example of inner-city regeneration and gentrification, encompassing socioeconomic, cultural and architectural developments; the name "SoHo" refers to the area being "South of Houston Street", a name coined in 1962 by Chester Rapkin, an urban planner and author of The South Houston Industrial Area study known as the "Rapkin Report". The name recalls Soho, an area in London's West End. All of SoHo is included in the SoHo–Cast Iron Historic District, designated by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1973, extended in 2010, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and declared a National Historic Landmark in 1978.
It consists of 26 blocks and 500 buildings, many of them incorporating cast-iron architectural elements. Many side streets in the district are paved with Belgian blocks. SoHo is part of Manhattan Community District 2 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10012 and 10013, it is patrolled by the 1st Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Because of the nature of neighborhoods in New York City, different sources will give different boundaries for each one. In the case of SoHo, all sources appear to agree that the northern boundary is Houston Street, the southern boundary is Canal Street, but the location of the eastern and western boundaries is disputed. In 1974, shortly after SoHo first came into existence, The New York Times described the boundaries as "stretching from Houston to Canal Streets between West Broadway and Lafayette Street" – a definition it continued to hold to in 2016 – but The Encyclopedia of New York City reports that SoHo is bounded by Crosby Street on the east, Sixth Avenue to the west.
These are the same boundaries shown by Google Maps. However, the AIA Guide to New York City gives the western boundary of SoHo north of Broome Street as being West Broadway, New York magazine gives the eastern boundary as Lafayette Street and the western boundary as the Hudson River; the map at the Community Board 2 profile page on New York City's official website has "SOHO" written near Broadway in the space equidistant between Houston Street and Canal Street. In the 1990s, real estate agents began giving an adjacent neighborhood below West Houston Street various appellations, with no general agreement on whether it should be called West SoHo, Hudson Square or the South Village; the AIA Guide calls that neighborhood "An intersection of brick and glass, searching for an identity", refers to the western section of it as "The Glass Box District". Unlike Hudson Square, the South Village has traditionally appeared on maps of Community District 2, centered near the intersection of Houston Street and Avenue of the Americas.
The more recent map of Community District 2 contains both the South Village and Hudson Square, with the latter written in the area below Houston Street, between Hudson Street and the Hudson River. The SoHo–Cast Iron Historic District is contained within the zoned SoHo neighborhood. Ending in the west at the eastern side of West Broadway and to the east at the western side of Crosby Street, the SoHo–Cast Iron Historic District was expanded in 2010 to cover most of West Broadway and to extend east to Lafayette and Centre Streets; the boundary lines are not straight, some block-fronts on West Broadway and Lafayette are excluded from the District. During the colonial period, the land, now SoHo was part of a grant of farmland given to freed slaves of the Dutch West Indies Company, the site of the first free Black settlement on Manhattan island; this land was acquired in the 1660s by Augustine Hermann, passed to his brother-in-law, Nicholas Bayard. The estate was confiscated by the state as a result of Bayard's part in Leisler's Rebellion, but was returned to him after the sentence was annulled.
In the 18th century natural barriers – streams and hills – impeded the growth of the city northward into the Bayard estate, the area maintained its rural character. During the American Revolution, the area was the location of numerous fortifications and breastworks. After the war, who had suffered financially because of it, was forced to mortgage some of the property, divided up into lots, but then there was little development in the area, aside from some manufacturing at Broadway and Canal Street. Serious development of the area did not begin until the Common Council, answering the complaints of landowners in the area, drained the Collect Pond, which had once been an important source of fresh water for the island, but which had become polluted and rank and a breeding ground for mosquitoes. A canal was built to drain the pond into the Hudson, the canal and pond were both filled in using earth from nearby Bayard's Hill. Once Broadway was paved and sidewalks were built there and along Canal Street, more people began to make their homes there, joining earlier arrivals such as James Fennimore Cooper.
By the mid-19th century, the early Federal- and Greek Revival-style homes were replaced by more-solid structures of masonry and cast iron, along Broadway, large marble-skinned commercial establishments began to open, such as Lord & Taylor, Arnold Constable & Company and Tiffany & Company, as well as grand hotels such as the St. Nicholas and the Metropolitan. Theatres followed in their wake, Broadway between Canal and Houston Streets became a lively theater and shopping district and the en
Mark Pieth is Professor of Criminal Law at the University of Basel, Switzerland and a prominent anti-corruption expert. Pieth's career as a legal expert, defence lawyer and compliance advisor includes several roles on the international stage, such as a member of the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, Chair of a United Nations Intergovernmental Expert Group on illicit drug trafficking and 24 years as Chair of the OECD Working Group on Bribery, which monitors the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, he is known for spearheading initiatives to combat corruption and money laundering in all its forms through regulations, country monitoring, compliance and arbitration. In the field of commodities, he was appointed by the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan to the Independent Inquiry Committee into the Iraq Oil-for-Food Programme, he is President of the Basel Institute on Governance, a research and policy institute he founded to help combat public and private sector abuses of power. Over the last 17 years, Mark Pieth has authored or edited 34 books in the fields of economic and organised crime, money laundering and criminal law.
The ones in English include: Pieth, Lucinda A. Low, Nicola Bonucci; the OECD Convention on Bribery: A Commentary: a Commentary on the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions of 21 November 1997. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. Pieth, Mark. Financing Terrorism. Dordrecht: Springer, 2011. Pieth and Eva Joly. Recovering stolen assets. Bern ]: Peter Lang, 2008. Pieth and Gemma Aiolfi. A Comparative Guide to Anti-Money Laundering: A Critical Analysis of Systems in Singapore, the UK and the USA. Cheltenham: Elgar, 2004. Recent publications aimed the general public include: Pieth, Mark. Confronting Corruption: Past Concerns, Present Challenges, Future Strategies. Oxford University Press. Pieth, Mark. Gold Laundering: The Dirty Secrets of the Gold Trade - And How to Clean Up. Salis. Personal website and CV
Conway is a census-designated place and an unincorporated area in Orange County, United States. The population was 13,467 at the 2010 census, it is Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. Settled in the 1850s, Conway was an important place in the early 1900s. One of the first five paved highways built in Orange County was the brick Conway Road from Orlando to Conway, running along what is now Briercliff Drive, Curry Ford Road, Conway Road, ending at Anderson Road, the center of Conway. Conway is located at 28°29′52″N 81°19′59″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 9.4 km², of which 8.9 km² is land and 0.4 km² is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 14,394 people, 5,267 households, 4,034 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 1,610.9/km². There were 5,414 housing units at an average density of 605.9/km². The racial makeup of the CDP was 90.20% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.54% of the population. There were 5,267 households out of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.6% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.4% were non-families.
17.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.08. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 12.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $53,509, the median income for a family was $59,205. Males had a median income of $40,510 versus $31,429 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $23,538. About 4.1% of families and 5.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over
The Ethiopian forest brush-furred rat or golden-footed brush-furred rat, is a species of rodent in the family Muridae. It is endemic to Ethiopia where its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, it is threatened by habitat loss. This is a small rat with a tail of about 80 mm; the blackish-brown dorsal fur is long and somewhat stiff, each individual hair having a reddish-brown base, a broad black band, a narrower yellowish band and a black tip. The underparts are creamy-grey with dark speckles; the fore-feet have blackish hairs on top while those on the hind feet are greyish-red, the toes being black and the claws pale. The tail is bicoloured, the upper surface being clad with dark scales and blackish hairs, the underside with pale scales and grey hairs with white tips. There is a difference in colour between populations on either side of the Great Rift Valley; the chromosome number is 2n = 54 which distinguishes it from the short-tailed brush-furred rat where it is 2n = 68.
The species is endemic to Ethiopia where there are two separate populations, separated by the Great Rift Valley. Its habitat is moist evergreen rainforest on the mountainsides and plateaus at altitudes ranging from 1,200 to 2,760 m; the Ethiopian forest brush-furred rat is one of the commonest rodents in the mountain forests of Ethiopia, only exceeded in total number by the Ethiopian white-footed mouse, which inhabits shrubland as well as forest. It lives in the Bale Mountains National Park where it is protected, but is elsewhere threatened by the continual loss of forest cover; the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed its conservation status as of "least concern"
Fania Esiah Mindell was an American feminist and theater artist. Mindell was born in Minsk, Russia on December 15, 1894, she emigrated to Brooklyn, New York in 1906 with her parents and family, became a US citizen in 1919. She was an accomplished artist, became a set and costume designer for Broadway theaters in New York, she translated dramatic materials from Russian to English including her version of Maxim Gorky's play, "Night Lodging", performed at the Plymouth Theater in 1920. Edward G. Robinson was among the performers. Fania was the proprietor of Little Russia, a small boutique in Greenwich Village, just off Washington Square which featured curios from Russia, but her true passion was for feminist and progressive causes; as a young political activist in 1916 she met the now famous feminist Margaret Sanger and her sister Ethel Byrne. Together, the three women opened the first birth control clinic in the United States in Brooklyn known as the "Brownsville Clinic"; the clinic caused an immediate sensation in the press, getting national attention, all three women were arrested and tried for "distributing obscene materials".
"The police monitored the Clinic from its opening and sent in a female undercover agent to purchase contraceptive supplies. On October 26 an undercover police woman and vice-squad officers raided the clinic, confiscated an assortment of contraceptives from pessaries to condoms, along with 20'books on young women', arrested Sanger and Mindell. After being arraigned and Mindell spent the night in the Raymond Street jail, Byrne at the Liberty Avenue station. All were released the next morning on $500.00 bail." All three women were found guilty, but the verdicts were overturned, their campaign was successful, leading to major changes in social policy and to the laws governing birth control and sex education around the world. The clinic closed but became the basis for what was to become known as Planned Parenthood. On December 3, 1929 Fania married Ralph Edmund LeClercq Roeder, a scholar and author who shared her interest in drama and theater, in leftist causes; the couple traveled extensively- in Europe, the Caribbean, Haiti in the 1930s- but seem to have fallen in love with Mexico by the 1940s.
Fania's brother, Jacob "Pop" Mindel, a dentist by profession, was a Communist Party member, prosecuted and jailed under the Smith Act. Her brother's views and her association with leftist causes may have influenced the Roeder's decision to move to Mexico by the 1950s when McCarthyism was prevalent in the United States. During this period many political activists and intellectuals from the United States sought refuge in Mexico. Fania and her husband spent much of their lives there as expatriates in Mexico City where Ralph studied and authored a number of books including a seminal biography of Benito Juárez for which he was honored with Mexico's highest literary award, the Orden del Águila Azteca. Fania and her husband both died in Mexico City in 1969 – Fania on July 18 and her husband in October. Both are buried there in the city's Panteón de Dolores
Abdurrahman Nafiz Gürman was an officer of the Ottoman Army and a general of the Turkish Army. After his retirement in 1949, he was Ambassador to South Korea and Iran, until 1959. Piyadenin Muharebesi Piyade Takımının Muharegesi Alman ve Fransız Harp Usulleri Arasındaki Fark ve Bizim Bundan Edeceğimiz İstifade Piyade Neferi ve Mangası Muharebe İçin Nasıl Yetiştirilmeli Piyade Takım ve Bölüğü Muharebe İçin Nasıl Yetiştirilmeli 1912-1913 Balkan Savaşında İşkodra Müdafaası Büyük Harpte Kuzey Afrika'da Türkler İstiklâl Harbinde 1 nci Piyade Tümeni List of high-ranking commanders of the Turkish War of Independence List of Chiefs of the Turkish General Staff Media related to Abdurrahman Nafiz Gürman at Wikimedia Commons Abdurrahman Nafiz GÜRMAN in the official website of the Turkish General Staff