Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being. Social functioning is the way in which people perform their social roles, the structural institutions that are provided to sustain them. Social work applies social sciences, such as sociology, political science, public health, community development and economics, to engage with client systems, conduct assessments, develop interventions to solve social and personal problems. Social work practice is divided into micro-work, which involves working directly with individuals or small groups; the social work industry developed in the 19th century, with some of its roots in voluntary philanthropy and in grassroots organizing. However, responses to social needs had existed long before primarily from private charities and from religious organizations; the effects of the Industrial Revolution and of the Great Depression of the 1930s placed pressure on social work to become a more defined discipline.
Social work is a broad profession. Social work organizations offer the following definitions: “Social work is a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development, social cohesion, the empowerment and liberation of people. Principles of social justice, human rights, collective responsibility and respect for diversities are central to social work. Underpinned by theories of social work, social sciences and indigenous knowledge, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance well-being." –International Federation of Social Workers "Social work is a profession concerned with helping individuals, families and communities to enhance their individual and collective well-being. It aims to help people develop their skills and their ability to use their resources and those of the community to resolve problems. Social work is concerned with individual and personal problems but with broader social issues such as poverty and domestic violence."
–Canadian Association of Social Workers Social work practice consists of the professional application of social work values and techniques to one or more of the following ends: helping people obtain tangible services. The practice of social work requires knowledge of human behavior. –National Association of Social Workers"Social workers work with individuals and families to help improve outcomes in their lives. This may be helping to protect vulnerable people from harm or abuse or supporting people to live independently. Social workers support people, act as advocates and direct people to the services they may require. Social workers work in multi-disciplinary teams alongside health and education professionals." –British Association of Social Workers The practice and profession of social work has a modern and scientific origin, is considered to have developed out of three strands. The first was individual casework, a strategy pioneered by the Charity Organization Society in the mid-19th century, founded by Helen Bosanquet and Octavia Hill in London, England.
Most historians identify COS as the pioneering organization of the social theory that led to the emergence of social work as a professional occupation. COS had its main focus on individual casework; the second was social administration, which included various forms of poverty relief –'relief of paupers'. Statewide poverty relief could be said to have its roots in the English Poor Laws of the 17th century but was first systematized through the efforts of the Charity Organization Society; the third consisted of social action – rather than engaging in the resolution of immediate individual requirements, the emphasis was placed on political action working through the community and the group to improve their social conditions and thereby alleviate poverty. This approach was developed by the Settlement House Movement; this was accompanied by a less defined movement. All had their most rapid growth during the nineteenth century, laid the foundation basis for modern social work, both in theory and in practice.
Professional social work originated in 19th century England, had its roots in the social and economic upheaval wrought by the Industrial Revolution, in particular, the societal struggle to deal with the resultant mass urban-based poverty and its related problems. Because poverty was the main focus of early social work, it was intricately linked with the idea of charity work. Other important historical figures that shaped the growth of the social work profession are Jane Addams, who founded the Hull House in Chicago and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931. Social work is an interdisciplinary profession, meaning it draw
Katie Joplin is an American television sitcom created by Tom Seeley and Norm Gunzenhauser that aired for one season on The WB Television Network from August 9, 1999 to September 6, 1999. It was produced by Warner Bros. Television; the show revolves around the titular character, who hosts a Philadelphia radio program about relationship advice. Storylines focus on her relationship with her 14-year-old son Greg; the series was optioned as a mid-season replacement for the 1998–1999 television season, but it was delayed for a year due to production issues. Katie Joplin attracted the lowest viewership for any original programming that the WB aired during its time slot; the series received a mixed response from television critics. The series follows Katie Joplin, who moves from Tennessee to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, she is a single mother to her 14-year-old son Greg, has an estranged relationship with her husband Jerry. While in Knoxville, she was disappointed with her job in a bottling plant, where she worked 16 hours a day.
She travels to Philadelphia to track down her husband and secure a better career, moves in with her more fashionable niece Liz Berlin. She first works for the Crescent Corset Company and Car City, her son attends Benjamin Franklin High School. Katie has a positive first impression with WLBP-FM's general manager Glen Shotz while trying to sell him a car. Characterized through "her perception, Southern wit, strong opinions", Katie is hired to host a phone-in radio program, it is a six-hour overnight show titled The Katie Joplin Show. Thomas approached his character from a sympathetic viewpoint. In an attempt to sabotage the program, he pairs her with the inexperienced producer Tiger French. Glen's teenage daughter Sara Shotz is a recurring character on the show, appearing in three episodes. Storylines revolve around Katie's attempt to balance her career and her relationship with her son. Head said that he shared several characteristics with Greg, explaining that they both come from small towns and enjoy "the music and baggy pants".
Tom Seeley and Norm Gunzenhauser executively produced Katie Joplin. It was produced by Warner Bros. Television; the WB Television Network had optioned Katie Joplin as a mid-season replacement for the 1998–1999 television season. Overall had pitched Katie Joplin to the WB in 1998 as part of a presentation. While promoting the series, she described said that it "brings the mountain spirit and mountain wisdom to the city of brotherly love". Developed under the working titles Untitled Park Overall Project,You're With Kate, Citizen Kate, the show was delayed to the following year due to unspecified production issues. Broadcast on Monday nights at 9:30 pm EST, each episode lasts 30 minutes with commercials; the series carried a TV-PG rating for coarse or crude language. It premiered on August 9, 1999, the final episode aired on September 6, 1999. Katie Joplin received the lowest ratings for any original programming that the WB aired in the time slot. Prior to the show's debut, Rob Owen, writing for the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, referenced the show as scheduled for a "short run".
Seven episodes were filmed. Overall learned about the show's cancelation while doing a press tour for the sitcom Ladies Man. Honey, didn't call me to tell me they were canceling it!" The WB said. Katie Joplin received a mixed response from television critics. Prior to its debut, a TV Guide contributor selected Katie Joplin as "the Critic's Choice for Monday evening viewing", Rob Owen recommended it for fans of Overall. A writer for the Dayton Daily News was confused about why Katie Joplin was not part of the WB's fall programming, was interested in "what might have gone wrong here". A contributor for The News Journal cited the show as the "best bet" in the newspaper's August 8, 1999 issue. Criticizing Katie Joplin as a failure, Radio World's Stephen Winzenburg felt its premise about a middle-age woman receiving a radio host position without any experience on the format was unrealistic. Katie Joplin on IMDb Katie Joplin at TV.com
The Alexander MacKenzie Heritage Trail is a 420 km long historical overland route between Quesnel and Bella Coola, British Columbia, Canada. Of the many grease trails connecting the Coast with the Interior, it is the most notable and is referred to as the Grease Trail; the trail was used by the Nuxalk and Carrier people for communication and trade, in particular, trade in Eulachon grease from the Pacific coast. During his trek from Montreal to the Pacific Ocean in the late 18th century, Alexander MacKenzie was led by Nuxalk-Carrier guides, when natural obstacles in the Fraser River prevented his continued water route. Mackenzie's group "took the Parsnip River, crossed the continental divide, canoed down the Fraser River to Alexandria just south of Quesnel. On the advice of local First Nations people, who guided Mackenzie and his party to the Pacific Ocean, they gave up the river route for an overland one; the overland journey started just above the mouth of the Blackwater River at the West Road River west of Quesnel, taking them through the Upper Blackwater, along the Eliguk Lake and Gatcho Lake, through parts of what is now Tweedsmuir Provincial Park, over the Rainbow Mountains, into the Bella Coola Valley and "Friendly Village".
The local people took the group down the Bella Coola River, over the salt water into the Dean Channel." He reached the ocean on July 20, 1793, completing the first recorded transcontinental crossing north of Mexico. The route was designated as an official heritage trail by the Heritage Conservation Act in 1987. From east to west, the modern-day trail begins at the West Road River 53.269063 N,123.148917 W between Quesnel and Prince George, passes Kluskus Lake, Eliguk Lake crosses through what is now |Tweedsmuir Provincial Park follows the Bella Coola River to the North Bentinck Arm inlet. Because of its length and difficulty, experienced hikers can expect the route to take about 18 days, whereas intermediate hikers may require at least 24 days. Hikers may choose to hike only sections of the trail, such as the route through Tweedsmuir Provincial Park which passes the extinct Rainbow Range shield volcano. Only a few hiking or horse riding parties, plus a few ATVs or trucks, pass along the trail each year.
The middle section of the trail passes within 5 km of Pan Phillips' Home Ranch, popularized by the books by Rich Hobson, Grass Beyond the Mountains, Nothing Too Good for a Cowboy, The Rancher Takes a Wife, the CBC television series based on the same books. The Home Ranch closed operations in the early 1970s. Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail Wood, Home to the Nechako: The River and the Land, Heritage House Publishing Co. Ltd. p. 176, ISBN 1927527139 "Alexander Mackenzie Heritage Trail British Columbia, Canada", BC Adventure, 1995–2013 Alexander Mackenzie Heritage Trail