The Socialist International is a worldwide organisation of political parties which seek to establish democratic socialism. It consists of democratic socialist, social-democratic and labour political parties and other organisations. Although formed in 1951 as a successor to the Labour and Socialist International, it has antecedents to the late 19th century; the organisation includes 147 member parties and organisations from over 100 countries. Its members have governed in many countries including most of Europe; the current secretary general of the SI is Luis Ayala and the current president of the SI is the former Prime Minister of Greece, George Papandreou, both of whom were re-elected at the last SI Congress held in Cartagena, Colombia in March 2017. The International Workingmen's Association known as the First International, was the first international body to bring together organisations representing the working class, it was formed in London on 28 September 1864 by socialist and anarchist political groups and trade unions.
Tensions between moderates and revolutionaries led to its dissolution in 1876 in Philadelphia. The Second International was formed in Paris on 14 July 1889 as an association of the socialist parties. Differences over World War I led to the Second International being dissolved in 1916; the International Socialist Commission known as the Berne International, was formed in February 1919 at a meeting in Berne by parties that wanted to resurrect the Second International. In March 1919 communist parties formed Comintern at a meeting in Moscow. Parties which did not want to be a part of the resurrected Second International or Comintern formed the International Working Union of Socialist Parties on 27 February 1921 at a conference in Vienna; the ISC and the IWUSP joined to form the Labour and Socialist International in May 1923 at a meeting in Hamburg. The rise of Nazism and the start of World War II led to the dissolution of the LSI in 1940; the Socialist International was formed in Frankfurt in July 1951 as a successor to the LSI.
During the post-World War II period, the SI aided social democratic parties in re-establishing themselves when dictatorship gave way to democracy in Portugal and Spain. Until its 1976 Geneva Congress, the SI had few members outside Europe and no formal involvement with Latin America. In the 1980s, most SI parties gave their backing to the Nicaraguan Sandinistas, whose democratically-elected left-wing government was subject to a campaign to overthrow it backed by the United States, which culminated in the Iran–Contra affair after the Reagan administration covertly continued US support for the Contras after such support was banned by Congress. In the late 1970s and in the 1980s the SI had extensive contacts and discussion with the two leading powers of the Cold War period, the United States and the Soviet Union, on issues concerning East–West relations and arms control; the SI supported détente and disarmament agreements, such as SALTII, START and INF. They had several meetings and discussion in Washington, D.
C. with President Jimmy Carter and Vice-President George Bush and in Moscow with Secretaries General Leonid Brezhnev and Mikhail Gorbachev. The SI's delegations to these discussions were led by the Finnish Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa. Since the SI has admitted as members an increasing number of parties and organisations from Africa, Asia and Latin America. Following the Tunisian revolution, the Constitutional Democratic Rally was expelled from the SI in January 2011; these decisions were approved at the subsequent SI Congress in Cape Town in 2012 in line with section 5.1.3 of the statutes. Despite the carrying out of open, transparent democratic elections overseen by an electoral committee headed by the Social Democratic Party of Germany at the 2012 SI Congress, on 22 May 2013 the SPD along with some other current and former member parties of the SI founded a rival international network of social-democratic parties known as the Progressive Alliance, citing their perceived undemocratic and outmoded nature of the SI, as well as the Socialist International's admittance and continuing inclusion of undemocratic political movements into the organization.
For a long time, the Socialist International remained distant from Latin America, considering the region as a zone of influence of the United States. For example, it does not denounce the coup d'état against Socialist President Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala in 1954 or the invasion of the Dominican Republic by the United States in 1964, it was not until the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that we discovered "a world we did not know", explains Antoine Blanca, a diplomat for the French PS. According to him, solidarity with the Chilean left was "the first challenge worthy of the name, against Washington, of an International which, until had done everything to appear subject to American strategy and NATO". Subsequently, notably under the leadership of François Mitterrand, the SI supported the sandinistas in Nicaragua and other movements in El Salvador and Honduras in their struggle against US-supported dictatorships. In the 1990s, it was joined by non-socialist parties that took note of the economic power of the European countries governed or to be governed by their partners across the Atlantic and calculated the benefits they could derive from it.
During this period, "the socialist internatio
The 2010 AFC U-19 Championship was the 36th edition of the tournament organized by the Asian Football Confederation. Qualification for the tournament started in October 2009 with the finals tournament being hosted in October 2010; the AFC recommended China as the host for the 2010 AFC U-19 Championship Finals, subject to approval on 9 February 2010 and confirmed the hosting right's and finals venue of Zibo on 18 February 2010. The top four teams qualified for the 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup; the draw for the AFC U-19 Championship 2010 was held on 9 May 2010 in China. All times are China Standard Time - UTC+08:00. All times are China Standard Time - UTC+08:00. 7 goals Kerem Bulut6 goals Ahmed Khalil5 goals Jong Il-gwan4 goals Hiroshi Ibusuki3 goals 2 goals 1 goal 1 own goal Top-4 team qualified for 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup. Australia North Korea South Korea Saudi Arabia "AFC U-19 Championship schedule". The-AFC.com. 15 July 2010
Dock Mennonite Academy known as Christopher Dock Mennonite High School and Penn View Christian School is a private school in Montgomery County, affiliated with the Franconia Mennonite Conference and the Eastern District Conference of the Mennonite Church USA. The school was named after schoolmaster Christopher Dock of Pennsylvania. Dock's mission is to inspire and equip each student to serve with a global perspective by integrating faith, academic excellence, life-enriching opportunities in a Christ-centered community; the school serves students in early childhood to grade twelve. October 2, 1952 - Constitution of the proposed school approved and a Board of Trustees selected. Paul R. Clemens appointed as Board President. December 8, 1952 - Richard Detweiler chosen as administrator for the proposed school. January 1, 1953 - 40 acres of the Johnston farm on Forty Foot Road approved as school site and purchased for $57,570. December 14, 1953 - H. M. Minniger given contract to make the "two barns" into classrooms and gymnasium.
January 11, 1954 - Edgar Clemens appointed as the first member of the faculty. June 12, 1954 - $315 appropriated for starting a library. August 2, 1954 - Reconstructed building named Grebel Hall. September 15, 1954 - 115 students attend first day of classes. December 19, 1954 - Dedication service for new school. November 16, 1955 - School recognized by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. September/October 1958 - Construction of pond and landscaping front of campus. March 12, 1962 - "Knowledge With Reverence" made official school motto. June 1963 - Harvey Bauman assumes responsibilities of principal as Richard Detweiler begins part-time role of superintendent. December 8, 1963 - Dedication of the new multi-purpose building June 1965 - T. Carroll Moyer assumes responsibilities of principal as Richard Detweiler continues in a part-time role of superintendent. June 11, 1966 - Lee M. Yoder inaugurated as superintendent. January 8, 1971 - Accreditation by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools.
October 9–17, 1971 - Bicentennial Celebrations commemorating the man, Christopher Dock. February 28, 1974 - Franconia Conference Assembly approves purchase of 108 acres of land adjoining the school at a cost of $1,000,000. February 11, 1975 - Paul J. Miller named principal after serving as Acting Principal for one year. October 29, 1978 - Dedication of new classroom building named Dielman Hall and music annex in Clemens Center. April 19–22, 1979 - Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Celebration June 1, 1979 - Elam J. Peachey named Principal. 1980-1981 - Student enrollment reaches all-time high of 421. October 18, 1986 - Dedication of new kitchen facilities in Clemens Center. June 10, 1990 - Food services director Emma Landis retires after 35 years of service. July 1, 1990 - Elaine A. Moyer named principal after serving as acting principal for one year. October 17, 1992 - Administration building named Detweiler House in honor of Richard Detweiler. October 15, 1994 - Fortieth Anniversary Celebration, "Festival on Forty Foot".
February 2, 1997 - Dedication of Longacre Center, a multi-purpose activity center with double gymnasium, fitness center, classrooms. September 12, 2000 - CD Board adopts a Long Range Plan for the next eight years. October 12, 2002 - Dedication of Dock Stadium and three new classrooms in Clemens Center. Men's soccer wins their first State Title. June 2003 - Mr Kauffman retires from teaching after 45 years at Dock. July 9–11, 2004 - 50th Anniversary Celebration. June 2005 - Baseball team wins its first state championship. July 2005 - Grebel Hall Demolished to make way for $12,000,000 Capital Improvement Campaign August 2005 - New Art Center and Caretaker Cottage Opens June 2006 - Baseball team wins second consecutive state title. August 2006 - New Academic Center opens - named "Rosenberger Academic Center" December 2006 - Refurbished Dielman Hall opens. March 2007 - Beloved FACS teacher Jeanine Musselman passes away from brain cancer. January 2009 - Principal Elaine Moyer announces she has accepted the position of Associate Director of Mennonite Education Agency, will be concluding her service at the end of the school year.
May 2009 - soccer team wins their 4th state championship August 2009 - Dr. Swartzentruber is named the new school Principal and begins his new post June 2010 - Baseball team wins its third state championship in six seasons. Official website Belleville Mennonite School at Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online
Daniel Patrick Boyd is an American who in July 2009 was convicted for his participation in a jihadist terrorist cell in North Carolina. Boyd graduated from T. C. Williams High School in Alexandria, where he was a defensive lineman on the football team, he married his girlfriend, who converted to Islam hours before their wedding. Boyd worked in construction before moving to Peshawar, Pakistan, in October 1989, he was sponsored by a Muslim relief group to help refugees from the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan by working as a mechanic. He fought against the Soviet-backed forces in Afghanistan, he took the Muslim name Saifullah. In June 1991, Boyd and his brother Charles were accused of robbing a branch of United Bank in Hayatabad, a Peshawar suburb, it was alleged that they carried Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin membership cards. In September 1991, a special Islamic court convicted the brothers, who were sentenced to fines, prison terms, amputation of their right hands and left feet; as the sentence was handed down, Daniel Boyd shouted, "This isn't an Islamic court.
It's a court of infidels!" After their convictions, they worked in a prison factory, making chairs. In October 1991, an appeals court overturned the conviction; the case made international headlines. Boyd maintained his innocence at the time and asserted that it was all a malicious set-up by a bank employee who had made inappropriate advances toward his wife and had tried to pilfer money from the family. Returning to the US, Boyd raised his family of five children: sons Dylan, Zakariya and Noah, daughter Maryam. In July 2004, the Boyds formed Saxum Walls & Ceilings Inc. Late in 2007, Boyd opened Blackstone Market in Garner with business partner Abdenasser Zouhri of Morrisville. A Mediterranean grocery, it offered halal meat and snacks, copies of the Qur'an in English and Arabic, a place to worship in the back; the store closed in 2008 due to the recession. Boyd was arrested by Federal agents along with seven men in North Carolina on July 27, 2009, they were charged with plotting to wage "violent jihad" outside the United States.
Boyd was accused of recruiting six men, including two of his sons, to take part in a conspiracy "to advance violent jihad, including supporting and participating in terrorist activities abroad and committing acts of murder, kidnapping, or maiming persons abroad." According to the indictment, members of the group practiced military tactics and the use of weapons in rural North Carolina, traveled to Gaza, Israel and Kosovo hoping "to engage in violent jihad."Muslim community members and supporters in North Carolina have been active for him and his co-defendants, some non-Muslim neighbors and acquaintances in particular have spoken in his defense. A July 30, 2009 CBS news headline about Daniel Boyd is entitled "The Nicest Terrorist I Ever Met," with the subtitle: "Friends and Pakistani Jailers Describe N. Carolina Terror Suspect as Kind, Devoted Muslim." Boyd's older brother Robert Boyd, a practicing Muslim, said the charges sound "like another attempt to associate Islam with terrorism" and the accusations "they're trying to pin on him is pure poppycock as far as I am concerned."
Boyd's wife, Sabrina Boyd, has given interviews and written statements professing the Boyds' innocence. Khalilah Sabra, of the Muslim American Society, spoke at a press conference calling on the public not "to rush to judgment", addressing allegations of terrorist training in Afghanistan, writing that "He was there fighting against the Soviets with the full backing of the United States government, I think he thought it was part of his patriotic duty as a Muslim and an American to go there and fight." At Boyd's August 5 detention hearing, at least 100 supporters were in attendance at the federal courthouse in Raleigh. On February 9, 2011 at the United States District Court in New Bern, North Carolina, Daniel Patrick Boyd pleaded guilty to two counts of the Second Superseding Indictment: conspiracy to provide material support to terrorists, conspiracy to commit murder and kidnapping overseas; the second count carries a potential life sentence. The government agreed to dismiss nine counts against him in exchange for his plea and cooperation against the remaining defendants.
Boyd cooperated with the government, as noted by federal prosecutors during the sentencing hearing on August 24, 2012. After pleading guilty to two counts of the superseding indictment in 2011, Boyd testified at trial against several of his co-conspirators who were convicted in October 2011. Boyd was sentenced to 216 months imprisonment, followed by five years supervised release, a $3,000 fine. "We must be vigilant in the pursuit of those who seek to destroy our way of life. This prosecution is evidence of our commitment to do so," stated U. S. Attorney Thomas G. Walker. Full text of the federal indictment against Boyd Homegrown Violent Extremism Dismantling the Triangle Terror Group, FBI
The 1920 Handley Page O/400 crash occurred on 14 December 1920 when a Handley Page Transport Handley Page O/400 on a scheduled passenger flight from London to Paris with two crew and six passengers crashed at Golders Green in North London after take-off from Cricklewood Aerodrome. The crew of 2 and two passengers were killed in the first fatal accident for the airline since the service had started in December 1919, it was reported as the first recorded airliner crash in history, but a larger airliner had crashed the previous year. The aircraft involved was a Handley Page O/400 registered G-EAMA, a large seven-passenger twin-engined biplane airliner, it had been built by the Birmingham Carriage Company and delivered to the Royal Air Force as a bomber during the first world war. As war surplus, it was converted into a passenger configuration in 1919 by Handley Page and used by Handley Page Transport for passenger services; the aircraft departed from Cricklewood Aerodrome around mid-day with six passengers and freight for Paris.
The weather was misty and the aircraft was seen flying low and crashed into a tree, falling into a back garden of a house in Golders Green close to the airfield. Four passengers were thrown clear before the aircraft burst into flames; the two crew and two remaining passengers were killed in the fire. Locals rushed to help but due to the intense heat, the rescue efforts were futile; the Hendon Fire Brigade removed the bodies. An inquest to the four deaths was held at Hendon on 16 December 1920. One of the survivors explained the events to the inquest, although he saw the engines being tested before the flight he did not hear any problems with them but the aircraft was not able to climb above 100 feet and struck a tree. After the aircraft had crashed he climbed over the debris and escaped through a window. Other evidence came from another passenger, the dispatcher and one of the first to arrive on the scene, a ground engineer and the pilot who had flown the aircraft the previous day; the coroner recorded a verdict that the deceased died from consequence of burns due to the crashing of the aeroplane to the ground after striking a tree.
Citations SourcesJackson, A. J.. British Civil Aircraft since 1919 Volume 2. London: Putnam. P. 382. ISBN 0-370-10010-7
Hot Club de Norvège is a string jazz quartet from Norway, established in 1979, by guitarist Jon Larsen with childhood friends Per Frydenlund and Svein Aarbostad.. They are influenced by the music of Hot Club de France, the French gypsy guitarist Django Reinhardt, they formed a quartet with violinist Ivar Brodahl replaced by Finn Hauge, that became part of the international renaissance of the gypsy jazz in the 1980s. Hot Club de Norvege has worked with Stéphane Grappelli, Jimmy Rosenberg, Stochelo Rosenberg, Nigel Kennedy, the Vertavo String Quartet. In 1980 they started the Django Festival in Norway. Larsen retired in 2019 and was replaced with 18-year old Ola Erlien. Current Ola Erlien Gildas Le Pape Finn Hauge Svein Aarbostad Past Jon Larsen Per Frydenlund Ivar Brodahl 1981: String Swing 1982: String SwingOld, Borrowed & Blue 1984: Gloomy 1986: Swing De Paris 1997: Hot Shots 1999: Moreno, with Moreno Winterstein featuring Angelo Debarre 2000: Hot Club De Norvege Featuring Ola Kvernberg & Jimmy Rosenberg 2001: Swinging With Vertavo, Angelo & Jimmy, featuring Ulf Wakenius 2002: White Night Stories 2005: Hot Cats, with Camellia String Quartet 2005: White Night Live, with Ola Kvernberg and the Tromsø Symphony Orchestra 2005: Vertavo, featuring Ulf Wakenius and the Vertavo String Quartet 2008: Django Music 2009: A Portrait of Jon Larsen Official website Hot Club de Norvège on Facebook Hot Club de Norvège on YouTube