Dalmatia (Roman province)
Dalmatia was a Roman province. Its name is derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae, which lived in the central area of the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, it encompassed the northern part of present-day Albania, much of Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia, thus covering an area larger than the current Croatian region of Dalmatia. This region was called Illyria or Illyricum; the province of Illyricum was dissolved and replaced by two separate provinces: Dalmatia and Pannonia. The region which run along the coast of the Adriatic Sea and extended inland on the Dinaric Alps was called Illyria by the Greeks; the Romans called it Illyria. They called it Illyricum; the Romans fought three Illyrian Wars against the kingdom of the Ardiaei in the south of the region. In 168 BC they abolished this kingdom, divided it into three republics; the area became a Roman protectorate. The central and northern area of the region raided north-eastern Italy. In response to this, Octavian conducted a series of campaigns in Illyricum.
The area became the Roman province of Illyricum in 27 BC. It was a senatorial provinces. Due to troubles in the northern part of the region in 16-10 BC, it became an imperial province; the administrative organisation of Illyricum was carried out late in the reign of Augustus and early in the reign of Tiberius. Due to Octavian having subdued the more inland region of Pannonia, the Romans changed the name of the coastal area to Dalmatia. Illyricum was composed of Pannonia; the earliest writing which indicates that the province of Illyricum comprised Dalmatia and Pannonia is the mention by Velleius Paterculus of Gaius Vibius Postumus as the military commander of Dalmatia under Germanicus in 9 AD, towards the end of the Batonian War. In 6-9 AD there was a large scale rebellion in the province of the Bellum Batonianum; the province of Illyricum was dissolved and replaced by two smaller provinces: Dalmatia and Pannonia. It is unclear. Kovác noted that an inscription on the base of a statue of Nero erected between 54 and 68 AD attests that it was erected by the veteran of a legion stationed in Pannonia and argues that this is the first epigraphic evidence that a separate Pannonia existed at least since the reign of Nero.
However, Šašel-Kos notes that an inscription attests a governor of Illyricum under the reign of Claudius and in a military diploma published in the late 1990s, dated July 61 AD, units of auxiliaries from the Pannonian part of the province were mentioned as being stationed in Illyricum. Some other diplomas attest the same; this was during the reign of Nero. Therefore, Šašel-Kos supports the notion that the province was dissolved during the reign of Vespasian. In 337, when Constantine the Great died, the Roman Empire was partitioned among his sons; the empire was divided into three praetorian prefectures: the Galliae, Africa et Illyricum and Oriens. The size of the provinces had been decreased and their number doubled by Diocletian; the provinces were grouped in dioceses. Dalmatia became one of the seven provinces of the diocese of Pannonia, it was under the praetorian preacture of Italy and Illyricum. It seems that the three dioceses of Macedonia and Pannonia were first grouped together in a separate praetorian prefecture in 347 by Constans by removing them from the praetorian prefecture of Italy and Illyricum or that this praetorian prefecture was formed in 343 when Constans appointed a prefect for Italy.
Sirmium, the future capital of the praetorian prefecture of Illyricum, was the birthplace of the Roman Emperor Diocletian. After he abdicated, he built Diocletian's Palace in Salona. German historian Theodore Mommsen wrote that coastal Dalmatia and its islands were romanized and Latin-speaking by the 4th century; the Croatian historian Aleksandar Stipčević writes that analysis of archaeological material from that period has shown that the process of romanization was rather selective. While urban centers, both coastal and inland, were completely romanized, the situation in the countryside was different. Despite the Illyrians being subject to a strong process of acculturation, they continued to speak their native language, worship their own gods and traditions, follow their own social-political tribal organization, adapted to Roman administration and political structure only in some necessities. In 454 Marcellinus, a military commander in Dalmatia, rebelled against Valentinian III, the emperor of the west.
He seized control of Dalmatia and governed it independently until his death in 468. Julius Nepos became the governor of Dalmatia though he was a relative of the emperor of the east, Leo I the Thracian, Dalmatia was under the western part of the Roman empire. Dalmatia remained an autonomous area. In 474 Leo I elevated Nepos as emperor of the western part of the empire in order to depose Glycerius, a usurper emperor. Nepos deposed the usurper, but was in turn deposed in 475 by Orestes, who made his son Romulus Augustus emperor in the west. Leo I still held Julius Nepos as the emperor of the west. Romulus Augustus was deposed in 476 by Odoacer. Nepos remained in Dalmatia and continued to govern it until he was assassinate
Flag of Serbia
The flag of Serbia is a tricolor consisting of three equal horizontal bands, red on the top, blue in the middle, white on the bottom. The same tricolour, in altering variations, has been used since the 19th century as the flag of the state of Serbia and the Serbian nation; the current form of the flag was adopted on 11 November 2010. The state flag bears the lesser coat of arms, centred vertically and shifted to the hoist side by one-seventh of the flag's length; the flag ratio is 2 to 3, with three equal horizontal bands of red and white, each taking one third of the height. Recommended colors are: ^α Only used on the greater arms' ermine mantling, as seen on the presidential standards; the son of King Stefan Vladislav, župan Desa, sent delegates from Kotor to Ragusa to bring back part of the king's treasury held at Ragusa, which they did on 3 July 1281. It is described as vexillum unum de zendato rubeo et blavo—"a flag of fabric red and blue"; this is the oldest known attestation of colours of a Serbian flag.
Hungarian King Bela IV mentioned in his charter dated 8 April 1268, that his army had defeated King Stefan Uroš I, that when he hosted some foreign rulers, his magnates brought captured Serbs and "in the sign of triumph, the flag of King Uroš before the court of Bela IV, erected it there". In 1326, Dečanski sent a delegate to the Mamluk Sultanate in Alexandria and sought a flag in yellow colour, to be used as a war flag; the Byzantines mention that there were several war flags hoisted by the Serbs at the Battle of Velbazhd, the yellow one was one of those. The oldest known drawing of a Serbian flag is from the 1339 map made by Angelino Dulcert. Stefan Dušan was crowned Emperor in 1346. A flag in Hilandar, seen by Dimitrije Avramović, was alleged by the brotherhood to have been a flag of Emperor Dušan. Emperor Dušan adopted the Imperial divelion, purple and had a golden cross in the centre. Another of Dušan's flags was the Imperial cavalry flag, kept at the Hilandar monastery on Mount Athos. During the First Serbian Uprising, various flags were used.
Among the early flags, the one described by Mateja Nenadović could be connected with today's flag and the first Serbian flag: it was red-blue-red with a Serbian cross. Regular armies of the uprising had light yellow flags with various symbols, while voivode flags were red-white, with a superimposed black two-headed eagle. There were flags of other colors, including red-yellow, red-white-blue and red-blue; this variety of colors was followed by variety of symbols on the flags, most taken from Hristofor Zhefarovich's book Stemmatographia of 1741. The most common symbol on the flags were the Serbian cross, followed by coat of arms of Tribalia and various other crosses. Most of the flags were made in Sremski Karlovci, designed by Serbian painters Stefan Gavrilović, Ilija Gavrilović and Nikola Apostolović; the 1835 Sretenje Constitution described the colors of the Serbian flag as bright red, white and čelikasto-ugasita. The constitution was criticized by Russia, the flag was singled out as being similar to the revolutionary flag of France.
Soon afterwards, Miloš Obrenović was requesting to the Porte that the new constitution should contain an article about the flag and coat of arms, subsequent ferman allowed Serbs to use their own maritime flag, which will have "upper part of red, middle of blue, lower of white", the first appearance of the colors that are used today. The colors are the reverse of those on the flag of Russia, various popular stories exist in Serbia which seek to explain why. An example: Serbia used the red and white tricolor continuously from 1835 until 1918 when Serbia joined the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes known as Yugoslavia. After World War II, Yugoslavia was reformed into a socialist federal republic, composed of six republics, one of, Serbia; each republic was entitled to its own flag on the condition that it contained the socialist red star. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia continued using the same flag; the 1992 Serbian constitutional referendum asked the voters to choose between the flag with and without the star, with red star gaining the majority of votes, however not the absolute majority of voters.
The red star was nonetheless removed from the flag in 1992 by a recommendation by the Serbian parliament. In 2003, the government of Serbia issued a recommendation on flag and coat of arms use, that preferred using different symbols from the ones in the constitution; the 2006 Constitution of Serbia stated. On 11 November 2010, a visual redesign of the coat of arms was
End of World War II in Europe
The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945. Allied forces begin to take large numbers of Axis prisoners: The total number of prisoners taken on the Western Front in April 1945 by the Western Allies was 1,500,000. April witnessed the capture of at least 120,000 German troops by the Western Allies in the last campaign of the war in Italy. In the three to four months up to the end of April, over 800,000 German soldiers surrendered on the Eastern Front. In early April, the first Allied-governed Rheinwiesenlagers were established in western Germany to hold hundreds of thousands of captured or surrendered Axis Forces personnel. Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force reclassified all prisoners as Disarmed Enemy Forces, not POWs; the legal fiction circumvented provisions under the Geneva Convention of 1929 on the treatment of former combatants. By October, thousands had died in the camps from starvation and disease.
Liberation of Nazi Concentration Camps and refugees: Allied forces began to discover the scale of the Holocaust. The advance into Germany forced labor facilities. Up to 60,000 prisoners were at Bergen-Belsen when it was liberated on 15 April 1945, by the British 11th Armoured Division. Four days troops from the American 42nd Infantry Division found Dachau. Allied troops forced the remaining SS guards to place them in mass graves. Due to the prisoners' poor physical condition, thousands continued to die after liberation. Captured SS guards were subsequently tried at Allied war crimes tribunals where many were sentenced to death. However, up to 10,000 Nazi war criminals fled Europe using ratlines such as ODESSA. German forces leave Finland: On 25 April 1945, the last German troops withdrew from Finnish Lapland and made their way into occupied Norway. On 27 April 1945, the Raising the Flag on the Three-Country Cairn photograph was taken. Mussolini's death: On 25 April 1945, Italian partisans liberated Milan and Turin.
On 27 April 1945, as Allied forces closed in on Milan, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini was captured by Italian partisans. It is disputed whether he was trying to flee from Italy to Switzerland, was traveling with a German anti-aircraft battalion. On 28 April, Mussolini was executed in Giulino; the bodies were taken to Milan and hung up on the Piazzale Loreto of the city. On 29 April, Rodolfo Graziani surrendered all Fascist Italian armed forces at Caserta; this included Army Group Liguria. Graziani was the Minister of Defence for Mussolini's Italian Social Republic. Hitler's death: On 30 April, as the Battle of Nuremberg and the Battle of Hamburg ended with American and British occupation, in addition to the Battle of Berlin raging above him with the Soviets surrounding the city, along with his escape route cut off by the Americans, realizing that all was lost and not wishing to suffer Mussolini's fate, German dictator Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his Führerbunker along with Eva Braun, his long-term partner whom he had married less than 40 hours before their joint suicide.
In his will, Hitler dismissed Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, his second-in-command and Interior minister Heinrich Himmler after each of them separately tried to seize control of the crumbling Third Reich. Hitler appointed his successors. However, Goebbels committed suicide the following day. German forces in Italy surrender: On 29 April, the day before Hitler died, Oberstleutnant Schweinitz and Sturmbannführer Wenner, plenipotentiaries for Generaloberst Heinrich von Vietinghoff and SS Obergruppenführer Karl Wolff, signed a surrender document at Caserta after prolonged unauthorised secret negotiations with the Western Allies, which were viewed with great suspicion by the Soviet Union as trying to reach a separate peace. In the document, the Germans agreed to a ceasefire and surrender of all the forces under the command of Vietinghoff at 2pm on 2 May. Accordingly, after some bitter wrangling between Wolff and Albert Kesselring in the early hours of 2 May, nearly 1,000,000 men in Italy and Austria surrendered unconditionally to British Field Marshal Sir Harold Alexander at 2pm on 2 May.
German forces in Berlin surrender: The Battle of Berlin ended on 2 May. On that date, General der Artillerie Helmuth Weidling, the commander of the Berlin Defense Area, unconditionally surrendered the city to General Vasily Chuikov of the Soviet army. On the same day the officers commanding the two armies of Army Group Vistula north of Berlin, surrendered to the Western Allies. 2 May is believed to have been the day when Hitler's deputy Martin Bormann died, from the account of Artur Axmann who saw Bormann's corpse in Berlin near the Lehrter Bahnhof railway station after encountering a Soviet Red Army patrol. Lehrter Bahnhof is close to where the remains of Bormann, confirmed as his by a DNA test in 1998, were unearthed on 7 December 1972. German forces in North West Germany and the Netherlands surrender: On 4 May 1945, the British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery took the unconditional military surrender at Lüneburg from Generaladmiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg, General Eberhard Kinzel, of all German forces "in Holland, in northwest Germany including the Frisian Islands and Heligoland
The Illyrians were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans. The territory the Illyrians inhabited came to be known as Illyria to Greek and Roman authors, who identified a territory that corresponds to Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, part of Serbia and most of central and northern Albania, between the Adriatic Sea in the west, the Drava river in the north, the Morava river in the east and the mouth of the Aoos river in the south; the first account of Illyrian peoples comes from the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, an ancient Greek text of the middle of the 4th century BC that describes coastal passages in the Mediterranean. The name "Illyrians", as applied by the ancient Greeks to their northern neighbors, may have referred to a broad, ill-defined group of peoples; the Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as'Illyrians', it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves. In fact, Illyrians seems to be the name of a specific Illyrian tribe, among the first to come in contact with the ancient Greeks during the Bronze Age, with the Greeks applying pars pro toto the name Illyrians to all people with similar language and customs.
At present it is unclear to what extent the Illyrians were linguistically and culturally homogeneous. In fact, Illyric origin was and still is attributed to a few ancient peoples residing in Italy: the Iapyges and Messapi, who are thought to have most followed Adriatic shorelines to the Italian peninsula from the geographic "Illyria"; the term "Illyrians" last appears in the historical record in the 7th century, referring to a Byzantine garrison operating within the former Roman province of Illyricum. In Greek mythology, Illyrius was the son of Cadmus and Harmonia who ruled Illyria and became the eponymous ancestor of the whole Illyrian people. Illyrius had multiple daughters. From these, sprang the Taulantii, Dardani, Autariates and the Daors. Autareius had a son Pannonius or Paeon and these had sons Scordiscus and Triballus. A version of this mythic genealogy gives as parents Polyphemus and Galatea, who gave birth to Celtus and Illyrius, three brothers, progenitors of Celts and Illyrians expresses perceived similarities to Celts and Gauls on the part of the mythographe.
Scholars have long recognized a "difficulty in producing a single theory on the ethnogenesis of the Illyrians" given their heterogeneous nature. Modern scholarship is unable to refer to the Illyrians as a unique and compact people and agrees that they were a sum of ill-defined communities without common origins that never merged to a single ethnic entity. Older Pan-Illyrian theories are now dismissed by scholars, based as they were on racialistic notions of Nordicism and Aryanism; the specific theories have found little archaeological corroboration, as no convincing evidence for significant migratory movements from the Luzatian culture into the west Balkans have been found. Rather, archaeologists from the former Yugoslavia highlighted the continuity between the Bronze and succeeding Iron Age developing the so-called "autochthonous theory" of Illyrian genesis; the "autochthonous" model was most elaborated upon by Alojz Benac and B. Čović. They argued that the'proto-Illyrians' had arrived much earlier, during the Bronze Age as nomadic Indo-Europeans from the steppe.
From that point, there was a gradual Illyrianization of the western Balkans leading to historic Illyrians, with no early Iron Age migration from northern Europe. He did not deny a minor cultural impact from the northern Urnfield cultures, however "these movements had neither a profound influence on the stability.. of the Balkans, nor did they affect the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian ethnos". Aleksandar Stipčević raised concerns regarding Benac's all-encompassing scenario of autochthonous ethnogenesis, he points out "can one negate the participation of the bearers of the field-urn culture in the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian tribes who lived in present-day Slovenia and Croatia" or "Hellenistic and Mediterranean influences on southern Illyrians and Liburnians?". He concludes that Benac's model is only applicable to the Illyrian groups in Bosnia, western Serbia and a part of Dalmatia, where there had indeed been a settlement continuity and'native' progression of pottery sequences since the Bronze Age.
Following prevailing trends in discourse on identity in Iron Age Europe, current anthropological perspectives reject older theories of a longue duree ethnogenesis of Illyrians where'archaeological continuity' can be demonstrated to Bronze Age times. They rather see the emergence of historic Illyrians tribes as a more recent phenomenon - just prior to their first attestation; the impetus behind the emergence of larger regional groups, such as "Iapodes", "Liburnians", "Pannonians" etc. is traced to increased contacts with the Mediterranean and La Tène'global worlds'. This catalyzed "the development of more complex political institutions and the increase in differences between individual communities". Emerging local elites selectively adopted either La Tène or Hellenistic and Roman cultural templates "in order to legitimise and strengthen domination within their communities, they were competing fiercely through either conflict and resistance to Roman expansion. Thus, they established more complex political alliances, which convinced
Titoism is described as the post-World War II policies and practices associated with Josip Broz Tito during the Cold War, characterized by an opposition to the Soviet Union. It represents Tito's Yugoslav doctrine in Cold War international politics, it emerged with the Yugoslav Partisans' liberation of Yugoslavia independently of, or without much help from, the Red Army, resulting in Yugoslavia being the only Eastern European country to remain "socialist, but independent" after World War II as well as resisting Soviet Union pressure to become a member of the Warsaw Pact. Today, Titoism is used to refer to Yugo-nostalgia, a longing for reestablishment or revival of Yugoslavism or Yugoslavia by the citizens of Yugoslavia's successor states; when the rest of Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia refused to accept the 1948 Resolution of the Cominform and the period from 1948 to 1955, known as the Informbiro, was marked by severe repression of opponents and many others accused of pro-Stalin attitudes to the penal camp on Goli Otok.
Elements of Titoism are characterized by policies and practices based on the principle that in each country the means of attaining ultimate communist goals must be dictated by the conditions of that particular country, rather than by a pattern set in another country. It is distinct from Joseph Stalin's socialism in one country theory as Tito advocated cooperation between nations through the Non-Aligned Movement while at the same time pursuing socialism in whatever ways best suited particular nations. On the other hand, socialism in one country focused on fast industrialisation and modernisation in order to compete with what Stalin perceived as the more advanced nations of the West. During Tito's era, his ideas meant that the communist goal should be pursued independently of what he referred to as the Stalinist and imperialist policies of the Soviet Union. Throughout his time in office, Tito prided himself on Yugoslavia's independence from the Soviet Union, with Yugoslavia never accepting full membership in Comecon and Tito's open rejection of many aspects of Stalinism as the most obvious manifestations of this.
The Soviets and their satellite states accused Yugoslavia of Trotskyism and social democracy, charges loosely based on Tito's samoupravljanje and the theory of associated labor. It was in these things that the Soviet leadership accused of harboring the seeds of council communism or corporatism; the propaganda attacks centered on the caricature of "Tito the Butcher" of the working class, aimed to pinpoint him as a covert agent of Western imperialism. Tito was in fact welcomed by Western powers as an ally. A personal favourite of Stalin, Tito led the left-wing national liberation war to the Nazi occupation during the war met with the Soviet leadership several times after the war to negotiate the future of Yugoslavia. Over time, these negotiations became less cordial because Tito had the intention neither of handing over executive power nor of accepting foreign intervention or influence. Tito angered Stalin by agreeing with the projects of Bulgarian leader Georgi Dimitrov, which meant to merge the two Balkan countries into a Balkan Federative Republic according to the projects of Balkan Communist Federation.
This led to the 1947 cooperation agreement signed in Bled. The Bled agreement referred to as the "Tito-Dimitrov treaty", was signed 1 August 1947 in Bled, Slovenia, it foresaw unification between Vardar Macedonia and Pirin Macedonia and return of Western Outlands to Bulgaria. The policies resulting from the agreement were reversed after the Tito-Stalin split in June 1948, when Bulgaria was being subordinated to the interests of the Soviet Union and took a stance against Yugoslavia; the policy of regional blocs had been the norm in Comintern policies, displaying Soviet resentment of the nation-state in Eastern Europe and of the consequences of Paris Peace Conference. With the 1943 dissolution of Comintern and the subsequent advent of the Cominform came Stalin's dismissal of the previous ideology, adaptation to the conditions created for Soviet hegemony during the Cold War; the League of Communists of Yugoslavia retained solid power. The secret police, the State Security Administration, while operating with more restraint than its counterparts in the rest of Eastern Europe, was nonetheless a feared tool of government control.
UDBA was notorious for assassinating suspected "enemies of the state" who lived in exile overseas. The media remained under restrictions that were onerous by Western standards, but still had more latitude than their counterparts in other Communist countries. Nationalist groups were a particular target of the authorities, with numerous arrests and prison sentences handed down over the years for separatist activities. Although the Soviets revised their attitudes under Nikita Khrushchev during the process of de-Stalinization and sought to normalize relations with the Yugoslavs while obtaining influence in the Non-Aligned Movement, the answer they got was never enthusiastic and the Soviet Union never gained a proper outlet to the Mediterranean Sea. At the same time, the Non-Aligned states failed to form a third Bloc after the split at the outcome of the 1973 oil crisis. Le
Constitution of Serbia
The current Constitution of the Republic of Serbia known as Mitrovdan Constitution was adopted in 2006, replacing the previous constitution dating from 1990. The adoption of new constitution became necessary in 2006 when Serbia became independent after Montenegro's secession and the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro; this constitution does not apply to the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo which attained independence in 2008. The proposed text of the constitution was adopted by the National Assembly on 30 September 2006 and put on referendum, held on 28–29 October 2006. After 53.04% of the electorate supported the proposed constitution, it was adopted on 8 November 2006. The Constitution contains a preamble, 206 articles, 11 parts, no amendments. Among the constitution's two hundred other articles are guarantees of human and minority rights, abolishment of capital punishment, banning of human cloning, it assigns the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet as the official script, while making provisions for the use of minority languages at local levels.
Among the differences between the current and previous constitution are: Only private and public property is acknowledged. Foreign citizens are permitted to own property. Full independence is granted to the National Bank of Serbia; as part of a process of decentralization, the granting of municipal properties' ownership rights to local municipalities. The province of Vojvodina is granted limited financial autonomy; the constitution mentions "European standards" for the first time. The constitution assigns the Serbian language and the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet as the official language and alphabet in use, respectively; the adoption of the national anthem, Bože pravde. Special protection for the rights of consumers, mothers and minorities. Greater freedom of information. Marriage is defined as the "union between a man and a woman" The current constitution defines the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija as an integral part of Serbia, but with "substantial autonomy". Under the opinion of the Venice Commission in respect to substantial autonomy of Kosovo, an examination of The Constitution makes it clear that this fundamental autonomy is not at all guaranteed at the constitutional level, as the constitution delegates every important aspect of this autonomy to the legislature.
According to writer Noel Malcolm, the 1903 constitution was still in force at the time that Serbia annexed Kosovo during the First Balkan War. He elaborates that this constitution required a Grand National Assembly before Serbia's borders could be expanded to include Kosovo. Constitutionally, he argues, Kosovo should not have become part of the Kingdom of Serbia, it was ruled by decree. The Constitution of Serbia contains a preamble: "Considering the state tradition of the Serbian people and equality of all citizens and ethnic communities in Serbia,Considering that the Province of Kosovo and Metohija is an integral part of the territory of Serbia, that it has the status of a substantial autonomy within the sovereign state of Serbia and that from such status of the Province of Kosovo and Metohija follow constitutional obligations of all state bodies to uphold and protect the state interests of Serbia in Kosovo and Metohija in all internal and foreign political relations,the citizens of Serbia adopt" The Constitution of Serbia is divided into 10 chapters: Constitution Principles Human and Minority Rights and Freedoms Economic System and Public Finances Competencies of the Republic of Serbia Organisation of Government The Constitutional Court Territorial Organization Constitutionality and Legality Amending the Constitution Final Provision Serbia has adopted 11 constitutions throughout its history.
Listed below in order of year adopted: Constitution of the Principality of Serbia, adopted 1835, so-called "Candlemas constitution" Constitution of 1838 called "Turkish constitution", issued in the form of Turkish firman Constitution of 1869 Constitution of the Kingdom of Serbia, adopted 1888 Constitution of 1901, called "April constitution" and "Octroic constitution", promulgated by Alexander I of Serbia Constitution of 1903, modified version of the Constitution of 1888Between 1918 and 1945 Serbia was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, had no constitution of its own. Constitution of the People's Republic of Serbia, adopted 1947 Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Serbia, adopted 1963 Constitution of 1974 Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, adopted 1990 Constitution of 2006, called "Mitrovdan constitution", current constitution, first constitution of the independent Republic of Serbia Serbian constitutional referendum, 2006 Constitutional status of Kosovo Vidovdan Constitution Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro Constitution of the Republic of Serbia in HTML format Constitution of the Republic of Serbia in PDF format Previous Constitution of Serbia
Illyricum (Roman province)
Illyricum was a Roman province that existed from 27 BC to sometime during the reign of Vespasian. The province comprised Pannonia. Illyria included the area along the east coast of its inland mountains. With the creation of this province it came to be called Dalmatia, it was in the south. Illyria/Dalmatia stretched from the River Drin to the River Sava in the north; the area corresponded to modern northern Albania, Montenegro and Herzegovina and coastal Croatia. Pannonia was the plain which lies to its north, from the mountains of Illyria/Dalmatia to the westward bend of the River Danube, included modern Vojvodina, northern Croatia and western Hungary; as the province developed, Salona became its capital. Illyricum is a Latin term derived from Greek Illyris. A distinction was made between Illyris Barbara or Romana, which comprised the Adriatic coast down to today's northern Albania, Illyris Greaca, the rest of Albania called Epirus Nova; this latter area derived its name from the fact that, being close to Greece, it was influenced by the Greeks.
It was part of the Roman province of Macedonia. Illyria stretched from the River Drilon in modern northern Albania to Istria and the River Savus in the north, it comprised the coastal plain, the mountains of the Dinaric Alps which stretch along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea for 645 kilometres with a width of about 150 kilometres) and, in the north-west, the Istrian Peninsula. There were numerous islands off the coast; the mountains were cultivated towards the coast. Lack of water and poor or arid soil made much of Illyria poor agricultural area and this gave rise to piracy; the interior of the southern part of Illyricum was more fertile. Illyria was inhabited by dozens of tribal groupings. Most of them were labelled as Illyrians. In the north there were Celtic tribes; the Pannonian plain in the north was more fertile. Its tribes were labelled as Pannonian. Archaeological finds and toponyms show that the Pannonians differed culturally from the Illyrians and the eastern Celts who lived to their west, in what is now Austria.
They were Celticised following a Celtic invasion of the northern part of the region at the beginning of the 4th century BC. Some tribes in the area were Celtic; the Pannonians had cultural similarities with the Illyrians. Iron mining and production was an important part of their economy in the pre-Roman days; the Romans fought three Illyrian wars between 229 BC and 168 BC. The First Illyrian War broke out due to concerns about attacks on the ships of Rome's Italian allies in the Adriatic Sea by Illyrian pirates and the increased power of the Ardiaei. With a powerful fleet The Ardiaei had invaded the Greek cities of Epidamnos Pharos, the island of Corfu and attacked Elis and Messenia in the Peloponnese and Phoenice in Epirus, whose trade with Italy was thriving. Numerous attacks on Italian ships prompted Rome to intervene; the Roman attacked the Ardiaei. Peace terms were agreed. In 220 BC the Ardiaei carried out attacks on the Greek coast in the west and southeast, they attacked Roman allies in southern Illyria.
This led to the Second Illyrian War. In 168 BC, during the Third Macedonian War between Rome and the Kingdom of Macedon, the Ardiaei joined the fight against the Romans, but they were defeated; the Romans imposed a tribute, half the amount they had been paying in taxes to their king on the cities which had fought them and five neighbouring tribes which had fought them. The cities and a tribe which had sided with the Romans were exempted from this tribute; the territory of the Ardaei and the neighbouring tribes was declared free and was divided into three cantons. Each was headed by its own council. We only have limited and scattered information about the subsequent Roman involvement in Illyria for the next 120 years, it seems. Most of what we know is through the work of Appian. In 156 BC the Dalmatae made an attack of the Illyrian subjects of Rome and refused to see Roman ambassadors; the consul Gaius Marcius Figulus undertook a campaign against them. While he was preparing his camp the Dalmatae drove him out of the camp.
He fled through the plain as far as the river Naro. He hoped to catch the Dalmatae unawares as they went back home for the winter, but they had assembled because they had heard of his arrival. Still, he drove them into the city of Delminium, he could not attack this fortified town. Thus he attacked other towns which were deserted because of the Dalmatae concentrating their forces at Delminium, he returned to Delminium and catapulted flaming projectiles. The greater part of the town was burned. Livy's Periochae recorded the campaign of Gaius Marcius Figulus and noted that in the next year, 155 BC, the consul Cornelius Nasica subdued the Dalmatae. In 135 BC two Illyrian tribes, the Ardiaei and the Palarii, made a raid on Roman Illyria while the Romans were busy with the Numantine War in Hispania