click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sodium cyanide

Sodium cyanide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaCN. It is a water-soluble solid. Cyanide has a high affinity for metals, its main application, in gold mining exploits its high reactivity toward metals. It is a moderately strong base; when treated with acid, it forms the toxic gas hydrogen cyanide: NaCN + H2SO4 → HCN + NaHSO4 Sodium cyanide is produced by treating hydrogen cyanide with sodium hydroxide: HCN + NaOH → NaCN + H2OWorldwide production was estimated at 500,000 tons in the year 2006. It was prepared by the Castner process involving the reaction of sodium amide with carbon at elevated temperatures. NaNH2 + C → NaCN + H2The structure of solid NaCN is related to that of sodium chloride; the anions and cations are each six-coordinate. Potassium cyanide adopts a similar structure; each Na+ forms pi-bonds to two CN− groups as well as two "bent" Na---CN and two "bent" Na---NC links. Because the salt is derived from a weak acid, sodium cyanide reverts to HCN by hydrolysis. Sodium cyanide reacts with strong acids to release hydrogen cyanide.

This dangerous process represents a significant risk associated with cyanide salts. It is detoxified most efficiently with hydrogen peroxide to produce sodium cyanate and water: NaCN + H2O2 → NaOCN + H2O Sodium cyanide is used to extract gold and other precious metals in mining industry; this application exploits the high affinity of gold for cyanide, which induces gold metal to oxidize and dissolve in the presence of air and water, producing the salt sodium gold cyanide and sodium hydroxide: 4 Au + 8 NaCN + O2 + 2 H2O → 4 Na + 4 NaOHA similar process uses potassium cyanide to produce potassium gold cyanide. Few other methods exist for this extraction process. Several commercially significant chemical compounds are derived from cyanide, including cyanuric chloride, cyanogen chloride, many nitriles. In organic synthesis, classified as a strong nucleophile, is used to prepare nitriles, which occur in many chemicals, including pharmaceuticals. Illustrative is the synthesis of benzyl cyanide by the reaction of benzyl chloride and sodium cyanide.

Being toxic, sodium cyanide is used to kill or stun such as in illegal cyanide fishing and in collecting jars used by entomologists. In 1986, Stella Nickell murdered her husband Bruce Nickell with sodium cyanide. In order to disguise her being responsible for the murder, she placed several bottles of Excedrin tainted with sodium cyanide on store shelves near her home in Tacoma, WA. Susan Snow, a bank manager living nearby in the same town, died several days from taking some of the tainted Excedrin. In 1991, Joseph Meling, a resident of Tumwater, WA, copied Nickell's idea, this time tainting capsules of Sudafed on store shelves near his home to murder his wife and disguise the incident as a mass murder. Meling had forged life insurance in his wife's name totaling $700,000. Meling's wife Jennifer Meling survived the poisoning attempt but two other residents of Tumwater died after taking the tainted Sudafed. Sodium cyanide, like other soluble cyanide salts, is among the most acting of all known poisons.

NaCN is a potent inhibitor of respiration, acting on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase and hence blocking electron transport. This results in decreased oxidative oxygen utilization. Lactic acidosis occurs as a consequence of anaerobic metabolism. An oral dosage as small as 200–300 mg can be fatal. Cyanide Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, "Cyanure de sodium. Cyanure de potassium", Fiche toxicologique n° 111, Paris, 2006, 6 pp. International Chemical Safety Card 1118 Hydrogen cyanide and cyanides National Pollutant Inventory - Cyanide compounds fact sheet NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards EINECS number 205-599-4 CID from PubChem CSST Sodium cyanide hazards to fish and other wildlife from gold

Phoenix Lodge

Phoenix Lodge No. 94 is a Craft Lodge in Freemasonry under the jurisdiction of the United Grand Lodge of England. Members of Phoenix Lodge built the Freemasons' Hall in Queen Street East, Sunderland, in 1785; the Hall is a Grade I listed building. Phoenix is the oldest Lodge in the city of Sunderland and the second oldest in the Province of Durham; the Lodge was constituted on 7 October 1755 and is one of the 50 oldest craft lodges in the UK. Phoenix met in local inns and taverns before moving to the Masonic Hall in Vine Street, dedicated on 16 July 1778 but was destroyed by fire on 20 November 1783, it has met at its present Masonic Hall in Queen Street East since 1785. In April 1785, noting the celebrations for the dedication of this new hall, a local newspaper announced that Handel’s Messiah would be: "Performed by the whole Choir of Durham Cathedral, assisted by all the principal Musical Gentlemen of Durham and Sunderland, under the Direction of Brother Ebdon, who will perform the full accompanyments on the Organ."

The original Institution Warrant was lost, believed to be destroyed by the fire that destroyed the Masonic Temple in Vine Street. The Lodge still has the Confirmation Warrant, dated 29 September 1821, it received the Bi-Centenary Warrant on 5 October 1955 and celebrated its 250th Anniversary on 7 October 2005. The lodge building contains a pipe organ by the north-east organ builder John Donaldson, the only extant example of Donaldson's work in its original position. Although Phoenix Lodge has the longest continuous usage of a Masonic meeting place in the world today, the Lodge has in fact met at various locations throughout its history. Phoenix is numbered 94 on the register of the United Grand Lodge of England, a roll that totals nearly 10,000 lodges. Although there are 93 lodges with a lower number than Phoenix, some of them are of date; this is because at the Union of the Grand Lodges in 1813, some were allocated new numbers by criteria other than that of "ancient rights". At the foundation of the Lodge, the number was 207, which changed at various points to 94 in the year 1863.

Before the unification of the Grand Lodges to form the United Grand Lodge of England in 1813, Phoenix Lodge was a member of the Premier Grand Lodge which pre-dated the Antient Grand Lodge by 34 years. In keeping with these traditional roots, the Lodge works Old Working of the Craft ritual, as opposed to the more modern Emulation Working, which has become common in Craft lodges throughout the English-speaking world. A unique feature of the Lodge's ritual is that the ceremonial contains singing and music accompaniment throughout; the records extant detail the Masters of the Lodge from 1775 to the present day - records from 1755 to 1774 have been lost. The first recorded Master of Phoenix Lodge was a local merchant in Sunderland. Phoenix Lodge has produced one Provincial Grand Master of Durham, George Thompson in 1778

I'm a Celebrity...Get Me Out of Here! (British series 18)

I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here! returned for its eighteenth series on 18 November 2018 on ITV, as confirmed by Ant & Dec at the end of the Coming Out show in December 2017. On 9 August 2018, Anthony McPartlin confirmed that he would not be presenting the upcoming eighteenth series. On 29 August, it was confirmed that Holly Willoughby would host the eighteenth series with Declan Donnelly whilst McPartlin took a year long break from television; the series opener was watched by just over 14 million people, giving the show its highest rating since the third series in 2004. The show finished on 9 December 2018 and was won by Harry Redknapp, being crowned the shows next'King of the Jungle', becoming the show’s first male winner since Carl Fogarty in 2014; the first teaser trailer was released on 27 October 2018. The line-up was confirmed on 12 November 2018. Indicates that the celebrity was immune from the vote Indicates that the celebrity received the most votes from the public Indicates that the celebrity received the fewest votes and was eliminated Indicates that the celebrity was named as being in the bottom two Indicates that the celebrity received the second fewest votes and were not named in the bottom two ^Note 1: The celebrities split into four teams for a set of challenges to earn immunity.

The Galahs won. Fleur and John won immunity after winning an immunity "playoff" round. ^Note 2: John was excluded from the vote on medical grounds. ^Note 3: The public voted for who they wanted to win, rather than save. The contestants take part in daily trials to earn food; these trials aim to test both mental abilities. The winner is determined by the number of stars collected during the trial, with each star representing a meal earned by the winning contestant for their camp mates; the public voted for who they wanted to face the trial The contestants decided who would face the trial The trial was compulsory and neither the public nor celebrities decided who took part ^Note 4: Anne was excluded from the trial on medical grounds. ^Note 5: Only campmates from Snake Rock were eligible for this trial, as a result of losing the entry challenge. ^Note 6: As part of the "inner circle", Fleur and Sair were immune from the trial, as was "Emperor of the Jungle", Noel. ^Note 7: This was not a star trial, the celebrities were competing to win time for James and Rita, who were competing in a quest to win a feast for the camp.

^Note 8: John did not attend the trial, so his star was taken by Fleur. Members from camp will take part in the challenge to win'Dingo Dollars'. If they win them, they can take the dollars to the'Outback Shack', where they can exchange them, for camp luxuries. Kiosk Kev will ask them a question. Two options are given, the celebrities can choose which they would like to win. However, to win their luxury, a question is asked to the celebrities still in camp via the telephone box. If the question is answered the celebrities can take the items back to camp. If wrong, they receive nothing and Kiosk Kev will close the shack, the celebrities will leave empty handed; the celebrities got the question correct The celebrities got the question wrong^Note 1: Luxury items included Emily's hairbrush, Harry's chair, Noel's beard dye and Rita's eye mask. Official ratings are taken from BARB, utilising the four-screen dashboard which includes viewers who watched the programme on laptops and tablets within 7 days of the original broadcast

William V. Wheeler

William Vincent Wheeler was the founder of Wheeler Mission Ministries of Indianapolis, Indiana. William V. Wheeler was born in 1845 to Walter Raleigh and Elizabeth Stubbs Wheeler in West Elkton, Ohio. Walter and Elizabeth had one daughter, Rebecca Esther. An accident caused Elizabeth Wheeler’s death in 1851 and Walter remarried Mary P. Stanley in 1853. William Wheeler gained two new siblings from Charles Pinkney and Albert Sheridan. William Wheeler and his new family moved from West Elkton, Ohio to Richmond, Indiana in 1853, ended up in Dublin, Indiana. Wheeler remained close with family from his mother's side. Shortly after the beginning of the War, Wheeler moved to Indiana. In 1863, William Wheeler enlisted in the Ninth Indiana Cavalry at the age of 18 years, he took part in the campaign against the Confederate general, Hood, as well as the battles of Spring Hill and Nashville. Wheeler saw a large amount of action throughout his time in the Civil War and contracted a near fatal fever during his time spent in the swamps of Mississippi.

This fever left Wheeler with chronic rheumatism for the rest of his life. In 1865, Wheeler left the army with an honorable discharge and moved to Indianapolis in 1866. There he became a wagon delivery driver for the Layman-Carey Hardware Company, the head of sales. Wheeler experienced a religious conversion in 1868. A letter to his cousin, Rachel Pray, explains his conversion from his "unworthy life", confessing a drinking problem and feelings of despair and misery. After his conversion, Wheeler became a charter member of the Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church where he grew to be a licensed evangelical lay preacher for the church in 1868, filling in for the church while it was between pastors. Wheeler gave his sermons under a large beech tree near the entrance of the Greenlawn Cemetery. William Wheeler married Mary Jane Howard in 1872. Howard was involved in evangelical work. William and Mary had four children: Walter Howard, Sybil May, Hetta Ada, William Raleigh. Mr. and Mrs. Wheeler raised an accomplished family.

Their daughter, did medical research and aided in isolating the typhus bacterium, their other daughter Ada studied Piano in Germany. In 1893 Wheeler helped the Meridian Union of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union open a ministry for unwed mothers in Indianapolis, calling it The Door of Hope. Most of the women in this union were from Wheeler’s home church. William’s wife, became the treasurer for the new home. Not long after the opening of the home, Wheeler proposed that the services available in the home be extended to men and children, forming a wider ministry; the WCTU approved, Wheeler became part-time superintendent, starting a rescue mission. The mission was one of the first charitable operations of its kind in Indianapolis. In 1895, Wheeler resigned from his job with the hardware company to become the full-time superintendent of the rescue mission. With Wheeler as superintendent, the mission’s programs expanded to include a Sunday school, a sewing school, a mothers’ club, home visits to the families of those belonging to the home, Marion County Workhouse visits, Sunday afternoon visits to what is now Wishard Hospital.

The need for an adequate building grew, however. A building campaign began in 1901 and by 1905, the Rescue Mission raised nearly $17,000 to begin construction on a new building. 443 East South Street was the address of the new building, which included a 400-seat chapel and provided the much needed space to shelter the men and children who came to the mission in their times of need. Wheeler tried to serve the poor by serving entire families, going each day to court proceedings, seeking out men who were looking for a way to improve their lot. Wheeler said that if he could help these men straighten out their lives, their families were sure to receive the benefits. Wheeler stated that the motto of the mission was “To be all the help we can, in all the ways we can, to all the people we can.” Shortly after the death of his wife, Mary Wheeler, in 1907, William Wheeler experienced some reoccurring heart trouble. Though bedridden, Wheeler managed the mission, with the help of his assistants, until the time of his death in 1908 on Christmas Day.

On the Sunday morning of December 27, the poor gathered at the mission to say their goodbye's to “Brother Wheeler.” A second funeral was held that afternoon at the Central Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church and a third, family funeral was held on the morning of December 28. A week after Wheeler’s death, the mission’s name was changed; the mission William Vincent Wheeler began in 1893 continues today as Wheeler Mission Ministries. Today, Wheeler Mission Ministries is a non-denominational, Christian organization that provides critically needed goods and services to the homeless and needy of central Indiana without regard to race, creed, national origin, or religion. Breakfast, dinner, clothing, chapel services and long term housing, Bible studies, case management, many other services and programs are provided through Wheeler Mission. Medical, dental and vision services are offered as well. Though operated in several locations, Wheeler Mission is most well known for working with homeless men at the Mission on Delaware Street in Indianapolis.

There is an addiction recovery program housed at the Lighthouse Center and Hebro

Missionary bishop

A missionary bishop is one assigned in the Anglican Communion to an area, not organized under a bishop of a church. The term was used in the Methodist churches at one time, but this was discontinued in 1964. In the Episcopal Church, the House of Bishops may, according to canon law, establish a mission in a geographic area, not governed by a diocesan bishop or by a church in communion with the Episcopal Church and appoint a missionary bishop to give oversight to that area; the mission may be a joint one with another church. The title of missionary bishop was associated with Episcopal Church mission activities in new geographic regions, both domestically and overseas such as in the work of the Protestant Episcopal Church Mission in China in the 19th Century. While missionary bishops are assigned to areas within the jurisdiction of the national church, more some Anglican provinces have assigned non-geographic missionary bishops within other province's borders to minister to like-minded Anglicans those who are theologically opposed to the bishops under whose geographic jurisdiction they fall.

The Church of the Province of Rwanda and the Church of Nigeria have assigned missionary bishops to the Episcopal Church over the issues of homosexuality, which the African churches oppose. A missionary bishop was a category of bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, The Methodist Church, the Free Methodist Church, in use from the late 1800s until 1964. In the Methodist Episcopal Church a missionary bishop was elected for a specified foreign mission field of the church, with full episcopal powers, but with jurisdiction limited to the field for which he was elected. A missionary bishop was not a general superintendent of the church in the same way as a bishop, but neither was he subordinate to the general superintendents. Rather, missionary bishops collaborated with the bishops in authority in the field to which each was appointed. A missionary bishop was responsible for his conduct to the General Conference. Missionary bishops received their support from the Board of Foreign Missions, rather than from the Annual Conferences.

Missionary bishops were ex officio members of the General Missionary Committee of the church. This use was carried over into The Methodist Church; the Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1908. New York, Easton & Mains, 1908. Leete, Frederick DeLand, Methodist Bishops. Nashville, The Methodist Publishing House, 1948. Constitution & Canons of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America, 2006, New York: Church Publishing Company, 2006

WDAF-FM

WDAF-FM is a commercial radio station licensed to Liberty and serving the Kansas City metropolitan area. Owned by Entercom Communications, the station airs a country music radio format, branded as "106.5 The Wolf." Studios and offices are located on Squibb Road in Kansas. WDAF-FM has an effective radiated power of 100,000 watts; the transmitter is located on Wallace Avenue in east Kansas City, near Interstate 435. WDAF-FM broadcasts in the HD Radio format. One of its subchannels carries co-owned sports the other offers Smooth Jazz. 106.5 FM signed on the air on May 8, 1978, as KFIX-FM. It was the FM counterpart to AM 1140 KFIX, was owned by Investments, Inc. KFIX-FM aired an Adult Top 40 format, with news updates from the NBC Radio Network. Prior to the official sign-on, test transmissions carried the call sign KSAB. SW Radio Enterprises took over in 1979, flipping the format on November 19th, changing call letters to KSAS, branded as "SAS ​106 1⁄2". KSAS was a progressive rock station, in contrast to the more mainstream album oriented rock format of top rock station KYYS.

Golden East Broadcasting bought the station in March 1982. In March 1983, the station decided to take KYYS head-on, flipping to album rock, changing the call letters to KKCI. Longtime Kansas City DJ Randy Miller made his first market appearance at KKCI. Transcolumbia bought the station in 1985. On January 10, 1986, after failing to compete against KYYS, KKCI went off the air. Three weeks the station signed back on and flipped to a soft adult contemporary format, branded as "K-Lite," and changing the call letters to KLYT. K-Lite tried to compete in a crowded AC field. In November 1987, Olympia Broadcasting bought the station. On July 29, 1988, at 2 p.m. after stunting for three days with a loop of "Kansas City" by The Beatles, KLYT flipped back to AOR, changing call letters to KXXR. Scout Broadcasting, subsidiary of Olympia, owned the station around the time of the flip; the first song under the new rock format was "Roll With It" by Steve Winwood. The format, dubbed "Today's Rock and Roll", was a combination of rock-friendly CHR hits, hard rock and modern rock.

However, like the first time with the format, the second time as a rock station could not topple KYYS. At 4 p.m. on June 15, 1990, after playing "Roll With It," KXXR flipped to a Rhythmic Contemporary format, branded as "X-106." The first song on "X" was "Me So Horny" by 2 Live Crew. Capitol Broadcasting bought the station on March 1991, for $2.6 million. By June 1991, the station moved towards a more mainstream Top 40 direction. Due to low ratings, the station was about to change formats, but Capitol decided to change course: Country-formatted KCFM, owned by Meyer Communications, offered to swap frequencies. On February 16, 1992, at Midnight, after playing "2 Legit 2 Quit" by MC Hammer, the frequency swap between the two stations took place, with KXXR moving to 107.3 FM and KCFM moving to 106.5. After the frequency swap, KCFM stunted with all-Garth Brooks music for 16 days changed its call sign to KKCJ and moniker to "CJ-106". Capitol continued to own the station, while Sconnix, which owned country music rival KFKF-FM, entered into a local marketing agreement to run KCFM as well.

KKCJ was meant to be a younger-audience complement to KFKF, which targeted a more middle-aged audience. However, the station could not compete against WDAF and KBEQ. On March 10, 1995, at Midnight, after Heritage Media bought KCFM, the station began stunting, this time with all-polka and Hootie & The Blowfish music. During the last two hours of the stunting, the station aired modern rock music. On March 30, at 10 a.m. the station flipped to a smooth jazz format, branded as "106.5 The City." The first song on "The City" was "Smooth Operator" by Sade. On April 21st, the station changed call letters to KCIY. Sinclair bought the station in 1997, with Entercom taking over in 2000. KCIY became the top soft music station in the market around this time. However, it came at the expense of co-owned KUDL, which aired a mainstream adult contemporary format. In the summer of 2003, Entercom announced it would start a sports talk format on 610 AM, the former WDAF. After a lengthy decision over which radio station to put the AM's country format, it was announced that KCIY would flip to country.

At Noon on August 10, 2003, after a 6-hour farewell show, WDAF began simulcasting on both 610 AM and 106.5 FM, for a one-month period until the sports talk format on 610 AM debuted on September 10th. The WDAF call letters were moved over on August 22nd. On January 10, 2007, WDAF-FM rebranded as "106.5 the Wolf." WDAF-FM continues in Kansas City's three-way country radio station battle, along with KFKF-FM and KBEQ-FM, both owned by Steel City Media. On December 5, 2019, it was announced that WDAF-FM would become the flagship radio station of the Kansas City Chiefs with the start of the 2020 season, directly off their win in Super Bowl LIV, after the expiration of a thirty-year deal with Cumulus Media's KCFX. Sister station KCSP will additionally carry wrap-around players programming. WDAF Entercom Official Website Query the FCC's FM station database for WDAF Radio-Locator in