Sodium hydroxide known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations Na+ and hydroxide anions OH−. Sodium hydroxide is a caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns, it is soluble in water, absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·nH2O; the monohydrate NaOH·H2O crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is this monohydrate, published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound; as one of the simplest hydroxides, it is utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, drinking water and detergents, as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Pure sodium hydroxide is a colorless crystalline solid that melts at 318 °C without decomposition, with a boiling point of 1,388 °C. It is soluble in water, with a lower solubility in polar solvents such as ethanol and methanol. NaOH is insoluble in ether and other non-polar solvents. Similar to the hydration of sulfuric acid, dissolution of solid sodium hydroxide in water is a exothermic reaction where a large amount of heat is liberated, posing a threat to safety through the possibility of splashing; the resulting solution is colorless and odorless. As with other alkaline solutions, it feels slippery with skin contact due to the process of saponification that occurs between NaOH and natural skin oils. Sodium hydroxide, NaOH, as a fluid solution, demonstrates a characteristic viscosity, 78 mPa·s, much greater than water and near that of olive oil at room temperature; the viscosity of NaOH, as with any chemical, is inversely related to its service temperature. The viscosity of sodium hydroxide plays a direct role in its application as well as its storage.
Sodium hydroxide can form several hydrates NaOH·nH2O, which result in a complex solubility diagram, described in detail by S. U. Pickering in 1893; the known hydrates and the approximate ranges of temperature and concentration of their saturated water solutions are: Heptahydrate, NaOH·7H2O: from −28 °C to −24 °C. Pentahydrate, NaOH·5H2O: from −24 °C to −17.7. Tetrahydrate, NaOH·4H2O, α form: from −17.7 to +5.4 °C. Tetrahydrate, NaOH·4H2O, β form: metastable. Trihemihydrate, NaOH·3.5H2O: from +5.4 °C to +15.38 °C and to +5.0 °C. Trihydrate, NaOH·3H2O: metastable. Dihydrate, NaOH·2H2O: from +5.0 °C to +12.3 °C. Monohydrate, NaOH·H2O: from +12.3 °C to 65.10 °C to 62.63 °C. Early reports refer to hydrates with n = 0.5 or n = 2/3, but careful investigations failed to confirm their existence. The only hydrates with stable melting points are NaOH·H2O and NaOH·3.5H2O. The other hydrates, except the metastable ones NaOH·3H2O and NaOH·4H2O can be crystallized from solutions of the proper composition, as listed above.
However, solutions of NaOH can be supercooled by many degrees, which allows the formation of hydrates from solutions with different concentrations. For example, when a solution of NaOH and water with 1:2 mole ratio is cooled, the monohydrate starts to crystallize before the dihydrate. However, the solution can be supercooled down to −15 °C, at which point it may crystallize as the dihydrate; when heated, the solid dihydrate might melt directly into a solution at 13.35 °C. The n = 3.5 hydrate is difficult to crystallize, because the solution supercools so much that other hydrates become more stable. A hot water solution containing 73.1% of NaOH is an eutectic that solidifies at about 62.63 °C as an intimate mix of anhydrous and monohydrate crystals. A second stable eutectic composition is 45.4% of NaOH, that solidifies at about 4.9 °C into a mixture of crystals of the dihydrate and of the 3.5-hydrate. The third stable eutectic has 18.4% of NaOH. It solidifies at about −28.7 °C as a mixture of water ice and the heptahydrate NaOH·7H2O.
When solutions with less than 18.4% NaOH are cooled, water ice crystallizes first, leaving the NaOH in solution. The α form of the tetrahydrate has density 1.33 g/cm3. It melts congruously at 7.55 °C into a liquid with 35.7% NaOH and density 1.392 g/cm3, therefore floats on it like ice on water. However, at about 4.9 °C it may instead melt incongruously into a mixture of solid NaOH·3.5H2O and a liquid solution. The β form of the tetrahydrate is metastable, transforms spontaneously to the α form when cooled below −20 °C. Once initiated, the exothermic transformation is complete in a few minutes, with a 6.5% increase in volume of the solid. The β form can be crystallized from supercooled solutions at −26 °C, melts at −1.83 °C. The "sodium hydroxide" of commerce is the monohydrate. Physical data in technical literature may refer to this form, rather than the anhydrous compound. NaOH and its monohydrate form orthorhombic crystals with the space groups Cmcm and Pbca, respectively; the monohydrate cell dimensions are a = 1.1825, b = 0.6213, c = 0.6069 nm.
The atoms are arranged in a hydrargill
"Set U Free" is a song by Canadian recording artist Keshia Chanté. It was released as Night & Day. "Set U Free" was written by Taio Cruz. After a demo version of the song performed by Taio Cruz was leaked, the finished version premiered on February 17, 2011 via Chante's official YouTube account. "Set U Free" features an 80's pop/R&B production which Chante describes as Janet Jackson inspired and lyrics that depict someone being teased by their muse while trying to seduce them. "Set U Free" was written by Taio Cruz, M. Wallo and Alex James, while being produced by Justin Forsley; the song was first released on Swedish singer Danny Saucedo's album Set Your Body Free in 2008. Taio Cruz's version of the song leaked, under the title'Set Your Body Free', February 16, 2011 followed by the releases of Chanté's the next day; the single unexpectedly was released digitally via iTunes on March 1, 2011. The song jumped into the Top 200 Songs chart proving to become more successful than her previous single Table Dancer.
The song was filed under Pop. It entered the Canadian Hits Chart at #81 and climbed into the Canadian Top 40 within 2 weeks after charting; the song debuted on the Canadian Hot 100 at #92 and peaking at #84. On February 17, 2011, the single became available for streaming on Keshia Chanté's official YouTube account. Before the release, Chanté tweeted "Good Morning tweethearts! Getting ready to hit the studio & finish another song for the album! New single "Set U Free" premieres today!!:)". She praised the track prior its release, describing it as a dance track. Three days prior to the track's release, Chanté showcased the official cover art of the single via her Twitter. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Barbie Doll is a narrative poem written by American writer and social activist Marge Piercy. It was published during the time of second-wave feminism, it is noted for its message of how a patriarchal society puts expectations and pressures on women through gender role stereotyping. It tells a story about a girl who dies trying to meet the unrealistic expectations that society holds for her, it starts off talking about a little girl, continues chronologically through the girl’s life. Using strong diction, purposeful syntax, various rhetorical devices, the poem hits on prominent feminist issues such as gender stereotypes and the effect of a patriarchal society. Marge Piercy wrote this poem during an era of second wave feminism, a time in which women were concerned about sexuality and the workplace; this ties in with Barbie Doll because the poem is expressing the stereotypes and patriarchal influences that women were submitted to during the 1960s. Not only were women subjected to poor treatment because of their gender, women experienced discrimination and unequal treatment because of their race.
While this poem discusses the topic of gender and gender stereotypes, it is important to recognize that the development of the Barbie Doll has brought up the racial discrepancies woman faced during this time. According to Elizabeth Chin, “These toys were designed and marketed to reshape a territory dominated by an assumption of whiteness, but paradoxically, they have integrated the toy world while at the same time fixing racial boundaries more firmly. Although not addressed in this poem, the racial discrepancies that arose after the creation of the Barbie Doll, such as "hair type, facial features, skin color” have been addressed throughout the years. Therefore, the purpose of the poem was to display the struggle women faced because of these societal issues in hopes of changing them; the poem shows the idealist view, created by the appearance of the Barbie Doll that causes people to question social norms and expectations that seem to exist in society. The title of the poem came from the Barbie doll.
Barbie was a prominent cultural icon during this time period, expressing what the perfect American woman should be like. It instead represented a life filled with stereotyped gender roles; this representation led to women looking up to something that did not exist in reality, as the story goes in the poem, the girl ended up dying trying to be what her Barbie represented. The first stanza begins with a girl being born; the stanza goes on listing toys that the little girl played with, such as dolls and miniature GE stoves and irons. She was given lipstick, compared to cherry candy using a metaphor. In a patriarchal society, women hold the positions of cleaning in the household. This, along with the makeup she was given, shows that from a young age this girl was taught to conform to a specific gender stereotype, without realizing it; the doll is an important part of this stanza, as well as the entire poem. The Barbie Doll has been a cultural icon since it was created in 1959, a little over 10 years before this poem was published.
It is somewhat controversial whether it is viewed as a “role model for young girls, an icon of American culture, a model of aesthetic perfection” or on the other hand “a tool of racism and sexism, disparaged as a contemporary epitomization of the cult of thinness.” In the context of this poem, the Barbie Doll ends up being a negative aspect of the girl’s life, creating a poor self-body image among other problems. At the end of this stanza, the girl goes through puberty. Someone in the girl’s class commented negative things about her body, saying she had a large nose and fat thighs; this is the point in the poem. Throughout the rest of the poem, she grows up striving to meet unattainable societal standards that her Barbie doll had represented; the next stanza talks about the girl in terms of what attributes she held, but how she and society did not see them. She was described as healthy, strong, sexually able, fast, yet she did not see any of these things. According to Robert Perrin, Barbie is described using "robust terms" throughout this stanza.
She had learned from the time when she was a just a child that she had imperfections and was not good enough. She compared herself to her doll, therefore apologized to society for her imperfections, she did not see the good in herself, only the comparison between what she was and what society says she should be. In this stanza, her qualities are listed one after another, followed by her disapproval; this syntax helps the reader see all of the good aspects of the girl all at once, which makes the reader question why the girl does not see them. The stanza finishes with saying everyone, meaning society, only sees her for her fat nose and thick legs, the same thing she was told by her classmate when she was a child; the third stanza talks about the sexist expectations. As a girl, “she was advised to play coy, exhorted to come on hearty, diet and wheedle.” This list shows the expectations. The patriarchal power within the society is what is responsible for the belief of certain “standards” of women.
Women are expected to play nice, come across as good girls, be skinny, eat little, be happy all of the time. Because of external pressures, they try to do all of it. The
Duoyi Network is a Chinese video game company headquartered in Guangzhou, Guangdong. Founded in 2006 by Xu Youzhen, the company is known for developing some of China’s most acclaimed game franchises including the Shenwu series and the Dream World series.. Their most recent projects include the third generation of the Shenwu series Shenwu 3, the cross-platform game for the Dream World franchise Dream World 3D, the 3D MMORPG Eternal Magic, the mobile turn-based RPG Legion of Knights, the multiplayer sandplay SLG Circle of War, the sandbox RPG Portal Knights. In 2015, Duoyi reached a net profit of USD 150 million with a 50% growth rate and ranked the 4th among Chinese game companies in iOS revenue. In 2016, the company kept the same level of performance and started IPO. Duoyi ranked 25th among the MIIT’s 2017 Top 100 Chinese Internet Enterprises, 4th among all game companies in China. Duoyi Network was founded by Xu Youzhen, one of China's most well-known game designers since the early 2000s. Before founding Duoyi Network, Xu was the main designer of Fantasy Westward Journey and responsible for the architecture of the core gameplay.
He led the development of Dream Shenwu as the founder and president of Duoyi Network. On September 24, 2007, Duoyi released its first PC title Dream World, a 2D turn-based MMORPG. In 2008, Duoyi received the Gold Finger Award from the China Cultural Industry Association for the creation of Dream World. In 2010, Duoyi released Dream Emperor, a strategy mini-client game, Shenwu, a turn-based MMORPG based on the story line of Journey to the West. In 2011, Duoyi launched Tank Force!, an action mobile game that hit no.1 on the App Store Download Chart. In 2012, Duoyi ranked the 40th of “China’s Top 100 Internet Companies” jointly released by Internet Society of China and MIITIn 2015, Duoyi released Shenwu Mobile, which hit the first on App Store Grossing Chart in China and 9th globally. Shenwu Mobile remained a top 10 grossing app for over 80 consecutive weeks. Shenwu 2, a major expansion set for both Shenwu PC and Shenwu Mobile, was released on July 3, 2015. On March 19, 2016, Shenwu 2 received two Gold Finger Awards for Excellent Online Game and Excellent Mobile Game at the Chinese Game Industry Annual Conference.
Shenwu 3, the second major expansion set for the Shenwu franchise, was released on December 24, 2017. Dream World Mobile and Dream World 3D were released in June 2015 and July 2017. In December 2017, the Dream World franchise announced its 10th Anniversary Event. Duoyi established partnership with 505 Games for the exclusive right to operate Portal Knights, a survival action role-playing game, in China. Duoyi released Portal Knights in China on November 21, 2017. In 2017, Duoyi Network ranked the 25th of “China’s Top 100 Internet Companies”, released by Internet Society of China and MIIT, the 4th among game companies in China
Bolgheri is a central Italian village and hamlet of Castagneto Carducci, a municipality in the province of Livorno, Tuscany. in 2011 it had a population of 131. First mentioned in 1075, in a papal bull by Pope Gregory VII, its name derives from Bulgari, due to the presence of a military camp of Bulgarians, allies of the Lombards. Bolgheri lies in the foothills of the Colline Metallifere, south of Bibbona, it is 10 km far from Casale Marittimo, 11 from Donoratico, 12 from Castagneto Carducci, 15 from Cecina, 42 from Piombino and 50 from Livorno. San Sebastiano Santi Jacopo e Cristoforo Sant'Antonio Castle of Bolgheri Bolgheri became an internationally known region following an event in 1974 arranged by Decanter where a 6-year-old Sassicaia won over an assortment of Bordeaux wines. Prior to this, Bolgheri had been anonymous producers of ordinary white wines and rosés. Due to the particular characteristics of the soil and micro climate sunny and moderately windy, the grape varieties of Bordeaux origin tend to thrive, such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot.
Among the most known "Super Tuscan" producers are Tenuta San Guido who produce Sassicaia, Tenuta Dell'Ornellaia who produce Ornellaia, Ca'Marcanda of Gaja, Guado al Tasso of Antinori. In 2017, in Bolgheri opened The World Wine Town of Castagneto Carducci – a wine center, created by entrepreneur Franco Malenotti and designed by the Oscar-winning art director Dante Ferretti; the Sensory and Multimedia Museum in Bolgheri is housed in a two-story building, exploring the history of wine and food from the region and featuring a wine tasting area. The current set of DOC regulations for Bolgheri red wines became approved in 1994. Before the creation of this DOC, the "Super Tuscans" from the area were sold under the simpler designations Vino da tavola or IGT Toscana; the appellation rules determine that in Bolgheri Rosso and Bolgheri Rosé, Sangiovese may be utilised only to a degree of 70%, in excess of this a wine must be classified IGT. Cabernet Sauvignon from 10 to 80%, Merlot, up to 80% and other local red varieties, up to 30%.
Rosso must be aged for 24 months. For Bolgheri Bianco, Tuscan Trebbiano from 10 to 70%, Vermentino from 10 to 70%, Sauvignon blanc from 10 to 70% and other local white varieties, up to 30%. Two varietal wines are permitted, Sauvignon blanc and Vermentino, of which there must be at least 85% of either grape variety. For the appellation's pink Vin Santo, Occhio di Pernice, 50 to 70% Sangiovese, Malvasia from 50 to 70%, up to 30% of other local red varieties, it must be aged for 36 months. The sub-zone Sassicaia has its own appellation declaration, with up to 85% of Cabernet Sauvignon and 15% Cabernet Franc. Bolgheri Sassicaia must be aged for 26 months, it is expected to be upgraded to DOCG status. Bolgheri counts a minor train station on the Genoa–Pisa–Rome line, located 7 km far and next to Marina di Bibbona, it is 10 km north of the exit "Donoratico-Castagneto", of the state highway SS1 "Aurelia". Giosuè Carducci and writer Tuscan wine Tenuta San Guido Footnotes Bolgheri DOC Consortium official site Bolgheri and Bolgheri Sassicaia The Italian Trade Commission
The Ambazonia Defence Forces are a military organization that fights for the independence of Ambazonia, a self-declared independent state in the Anglophone region of Southern Cameroons, Cameroon. It was formally established by the Ambazonia Governing Council on 9 September 2017, the same day as the organization declared a war of independence; the ADF has been fighting a guerrilla war against the Cameroonian Armed Forces in the Anglophone part of the country since September 2017. In June 2018, it claimed to have 1,500 soldiers under its command, spread across 20 bases across Southern Cameroons. Numerically and materially the inferior of their adversary, they rely on hit-and-run attacks and raids, taking advantage of their familiarity with the terrain; the ADF aims to raise the cost of Cameroon's military presence in the region higher than the profits the country gets from there. Cameroonian authorities have acknowledged that they have little control outside the cities in Southern Cameroons; the ADF is loyal to the Ambazonia Governing Council, not part of the Interim Government of Ambazonia.
This has led to a complicated relationship with the Interim Government, which did not endorse an armed struggle. On November 9, 2017, the Interim Government condemned ADF attacks; the Interim Government's nonviolent stance changed in early 2018, opening the possibility of cooperation between it and the ADF. The ADF has declined offers to be integrated into the Ambazonia Self-Defence Council, an umbrella organization established by the Interim Government to unite all separatist militias under one banner. Following the death of General Ivo Mbah in December 2018, President Samuel Ikome Sako praised the deceased general and urged all separatist militias to "ignore our minor differences" and unite. In March 2019, an ADF leader announced that they would take the war into the French-speaking parts of Cameroon. A week separatists - the ADF - raided Penda Mboko, Littoral Region, injured three gendarmes; this was in defiance of the policy of the Interim Government, which has stressed that the war should take place within the borders of Southern Cameroons.
In late-August 2019, the ADF announced. This was in response to the life sentences that had just been handed to Sisiku Julius Ayuk Tabe and nine other detained separatist leaders by the Yaoundé Military Tribunal. After at least five instances in January 2020 where angry villagers attacked separatist camps, the ADF condemned war crimes committed by fellow separatists. ADF fighters were given orders to arrest anyone caught terrorizing civilians, including fellow separatists. In the month, the Southern Cameroon Restoration Forces, led by General Chacha, abducted 40 ADF fighters, six of whom were executed, in a serious case of separatist infighting