Provinces of Indonesia
The Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the country and the highest tier of the local government. Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities, which are in turn subdivided into subdistricts; each province has its own local government, headed by a governor, has its own legislative body. The governor and members of local representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms. Indonesia has 34 provinces, eight of which have been created since 1999, namely: North Maluku, West Papua, Bangka Belitung Islands, Riau Islands, West Sulawesi and North Kalimantan. Five provinces have special status: Aceh, for the use of the sharia law as the regional law of the province. Special Capital Region of Jakarta as the capital city. Special Region of Yogyakarta, has sultan Hamengkubuwono as hereditary Governor and Paku Alam as hereditary vice-governor. Papua and West Papua, for granting implementation of sustainable development; the provinces are grouped into seven geographical units.
This clickable map shows provinces of Indonesia as of 25 October 2012. Click on a province name to go to its main article. Upon the independence of Indonesia, eight provinces were established: West Java, Central Java, East Java, Maluku still exist as of today despite divisions, while Sumatra, Kalimantan and Lesser Sunda were liquidated; the province of Central Sumatra existed from 1948 to 1957, while East Timor was annexed as a province from 1976 until its independence as a country in 1999. List of Indonesian provinces by Human Development Index List of Indonesian provinces by GRP per capita List of Indonesian floral emblems List of Indonesian animal emblems Armorial of IndonesiaGeneral: Subdivisions of Indonesia List of regencies and cities of Indonesia Daftar 34 Provinsi Di Indonesia Map at Indonesian Wikipedia
Taliabu Island Regency
Taliabu Island Regency is a regency in the North Maluku province of Indonesia. It was part of the Sula Islands Regency, but in 2013 it was administratively separated to form a separate regency, it is located to the west of Mangole Island and Sanana Island, the two islands which remain part of the Sula Islands Regency. In 2013 the seven districts on Taliabu Island were split off from the Sula Islands Regency to create a separate Taliabu Island Regency. Official website
Sula Islands Regency
The Sula Islands Regency is one of the regencies in North Maluku province of Indonesia. It consists of two of the three large islands comprising the Sula Archipelago, together with minor adjacent islands; the third island, was split off from the Sula Islands Regency in 2013 to form a separate regency. Pre-Indonesian Independence saw the Sula Islands known as the Xulla Islands, with Taliabo as Xulla Taliabo, Sanana as Xulla Bessi, Mangola as Xulla Mangola. Sula Islands Regency comprises twelve districts, tabulated below with their areas and populations at the 2010 Census: The Dutch built a fort on Sanana in 1652. Wallace visited the islands during an ornithological expedition in 1862. According to government data, Sula Islands Regency's food crops include vegetables, cassava, sweet potatoes, durian and mango; as of 2005 the area of agriculturally active land was 24743.56 hectares with production amounting to 33,608.62 tons per year. Taliabu-Sanana District is the main producer of cloves, cocoa and other coconut products.
Fishery production is diverse with and estimated sustainable potential of 40,273.91 tonnes per year of which only 22.8 percent is exploited. Forestry is considered a potential industry with the natural forest-based Classification Map TGHK RTRWP suggesting a forest area of 471,951.53 hectares, but much of this is protected or hard to access, due to steep slopes and transportation logistics, the islands' main plywood company, PT Barito Pacific Timber Group has closed. Industrial activity is limited. There is a gold mine in East Mangoli District and coal mines are located in the peninsula of West Sula Besi District, East Taliabu and Sub Sanana. Reserves of coal are estimated around 10.4 million tonnes. The Indonesian Ministry of Tourism is ready to support the promotion of tourism destination potential on Sula Islands. Demographically located between the crossroads of Wakatobi and Raja Ampat tourist areas, it is ideally developed as marine tourism and special interest tourism for diving enthusiasts.
One of the support is Maksaira Festival at Wai Ipa Beach to Bajo Village Beach. On 2018 the festival as a cultural and marine tourism attraction event has entered the third year and will be listed as MURI record breaking for the largest grouper fishing participant targeted by 3000 participants in 2018, where year 2017 followed by 1700 participants; the following species are native to the Sula Islands: Buru babirusa Babyrousa babyrussa Banggai cuscus Strigocuscus pelengensis Sula rat Rattus elaphinus Sulawesi flying fox Acerodon celebensis Lesser short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus brachyotis Greenish naked-backed fruit bat Dobsonia viridis Long-tongued nectar bat Macroglossus minimus Pallas's tube-nosed bat Nyctimene cephalotes Ashy-headed flying fox Pteropus caniceps Sulawesi rousette Rousettus celebensis Swift fruit bat Thoopterus nigrescens Small Asian sheath-tailed bat Emballonura alecto Fawn leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros cervinus Small bent-winged bat Miniopterus pusillus Sula megapode Megapodius bernsteinii, status vulnerableIntroduced species include: Asian house shrew Wild boar Polynesian rat Tourist guide to the Sula Islands Investment Coordinating Board Profile of the Sula Islands Investment Prospects in Sula
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago in eastern Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, north and east of Timor; the islands were known as the Spice Islands due to the nutmeg and cloves that were exclusively found there, the presence of which sparked colonial interest from Europe in the sixteenth century. The Maluku Islands formed a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999, when it was split into two provinces. A new province, North Maluku, incorporates the area between Morotai and Sula, with the arc of islands from Buru and Seram to Wetar remaining within the existing Maluku Province. North Maluku is predominantly Muslim, its capital is Sofifi on Halmahera island. Maluku province has a larger Christian population, its capital is Ambon. Though Melanesian, many island populations in the Banda Islands, were massacred in the seventeenth century during the spice wars.
A second influx of immigrants from Java began in the early twentieth century under the Dutch and continues in the Indonesian era. Between 1999 and 2002, conflict between Muslims and Christians killed thousands and displaced half a million people; the name Maluku is thought to have been derived from the term used by Arab traders for the region, Jazirat al-Moluk, from the word malik. However, since the name itself has been mentioned in a fourteenth-century Majapahit eulogy, that predates the arrival of Islam in Maluku at the late fifteenth century, other sources claim that the name comes from a local language with the meaning "the head of a bull" or "the head of something large"; the Maluku Islands were a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999 when they were split into North Maluku and Maluku. North Maluku province includes Ternate, Tidore and Halmahera. Arab merchants began bringing Islam. Peaceful conversion to Islam occurred in many islands in the centres of trade, while aboriginal animism persisted in the hinterlands and more isolated islands.
Archaeological evidence here relies on the occurrence of pigs' teeth, as evidence of pork eating or abstinence therefrom. The most significant lasting effects of the Portuguese presence was the disruption and reorganization of the Southeast Asian trade, in eastern Indonesia—including Maluku—the introduction of Christianity; the Portuguese had conquered the city-state of Malacca in the early sixteenth century and their influence was most felt in Maluku and other parts of eastern Indonesia. After the Portuguese annexed Malacca in August 1511, one Portuguese diary noted'it is thirty years since they became Moors'. Afonso de Albuquerque learned of the route to the Banda Islands and other'Spice Islands', sent an exploratory expedition of three vessels under the command of António de Abreu, Simão Afonso Bisigudo and Francisco Serrão. On the return trip, Francisco Serrão was shipwrecked at Hitu island in 1512. There he established ties with the local ruler, impressed with his martial skills; the rulers of the competing island states of Ternate and Tidore sought Portuguese assistance and the newcomers were welcomed in the area as buyers of supplies and spices during a lull in the regional trade due to the temporary disruption of Javanese and Malay sailings to the area following the 1511 conflict in Malacca.
The spice trade soon revived but the Portuguese would not be able to monopolize nor disrupt this trade. Allying himself with Ternate's ruler, Serrão constructed a fortress on that tiny island and served as the head of a mercenary band of Portuguese seamen under the service of one of the two local feuding sultans who controlled most of the spice trade. Both Serrão and Ferdinand Magellan, perished before they could meet one another; the Portuguese first landed in Ambon in 1513, but it only became the new centre for their activities in Maluku following the expulsion from Ternate. European power in the region was weak and Ternate became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-European state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah and his son Sultan Said. Following Portuguese missionary work, there have been large Christian communities in eastern Indonesia through to contemporary times, which has contributed to a sense of shared interest with Europeans among the Ambonese; the Dutch competed with the Portuguese in the area for trade.
With the declaration of a single republic of Indonesia in 1950 to replace the federal state, a Republic of South Maluku was declared and attempted to secede. And led by Chris Soumokil and supported by the Moluccan members of the Netherlands special troops; this movement was defeated by the Indonesian army and by special agreement with the Netherlands the troops were transferred to the Netherlands. Maluku is one of the first provinces of Indonesia, proclaimed in 1945 until 1999, when the Maluku Utara and Halmahera Tengah Regencies were split off as a separate province of North Maluku, its capital used to be Ternate, on a small island to the west of the large island of Halmahera, but has been moved to Sofifi on Halmahera itself. The capital of the remaining part of Maluku province remains at Ambon. Religious conflict erupted across the islands in January 1999; the subsequent 18 months were characterized by fighting between local groups of Muslims and Christians, the destruction of thousands of houses, the displacement of approximately
North Maluku is a province of Indonesia. It covers the northern part of the Maluku Islands; the provincial capital is Sofifi, on Halmahera, the largest population center is the island city of Ternate. The population of North Maluku was 1,038,087 at the 2010 Census making it one of the least-populous provinces in Indonesia; the movement of the regional economy in North Maluku is derived from the people's economy which relies on the agricultural sector and other types of marine products. The main commodities that support economic pulse in North Maluku include copra, cloves, fisheries and nickel. North Maluku's natural products include rice, roasted sweet potatoes, coconut, nutmeg and eucalyptus; the regional economy comes from the people's economy which relies on the agricultural sector and other types of marine products. This area was the former region of the four largest Islamic kingdoms in the eastern part of the archipelago known as the Moloku Kie Raha, they are the Bacan Sultanate, Jailolo Sultanate, Tidore Sultanate and the Ternate Sultanate respectively.
Europeans began arriving in the region at the beginning of the 16th century. North Maluku became the site of competition between the Portuguese and the Dutch to control the trade in the region. In the end, the Dutch emerged victorious; the Japanese invaded the region during World War II. In the era of Japanese occupation, Ternate became the center of the Japanese ruler's position for the Pacific region; the Japanese surrendered in 1945 returning the area to Dutch control, before being handed over to the Republic of Indonesia after a war between the Dutch and the Indonesians. The North Maluku province was created by the division of Maluku Province which separated on October 12, 1999; as one of the youngest provinces in 34 provinces in Indonesia, North Maluku was formed on October 4, 1999, through Republic of Indonesia Law Number 46 of 1999 and Republic of Indonesia Law Number 6 of 2003. Before becoming a province, North Maluku was part of Maluku Province, namely North Maluku Regency. At the beginning of its establishment, North Maluku, whose capital was Ternate, was located at the foot of Mount Gamalama, for 11 years.
Until August 4, 2010, after 11 years of transition and infrastructure preparation, the capital of North Maluku Province was moved to Sofifi, located on Halmahera Island, the largest island. The term Maluku referred to the four sultanate centers in North Maluku, namely Ternate, Tidore and Jailolo. A certain form of confederation of the four kingdoms which most emerged in the 14th century, was called Moloku Kie Raha or "Four Mountain Sultanates in Maluku". Although the four kingdoms expanded and covered the entire North Maluku region and parts of Sulawesi and New Guinea, the expansion area was not included in the term Maluku which only referred to the four sultanate centers of North Maluku; the etymology of the word Maluku is not clear, it has been a matter of debate for many experts. A common theory says that the term Maluku originates from the Arabic phrase Jaziratul Muluk, which means "Country of the Kings", thus the Ambon archipelago and parts of the Banda archipelago at that time were not included in the original sense of the term.
The island of Ternate began to bustle in the early 13th century. Early Ternate residents were residents of the exodus from Halmahera. In Ternate there were 4 villages, each headed by a momole, it was they. The population of Ternate became heterogeneous with settlements of Arab, Javanese and Chinese traders; because of the busy trading activities were added with threats that came from pirates, the Momole Guna Tobona leaders held a conference to form a stronger organization and appoint a single leader as king. In 1257, Momole Ciko, Sampalu's leader was elected and appointed as the first kolano with the title Baab Mashur Malamo; the Kingdom of Gapi is centered in the village of Ternate, which in developments is getting bigger and more crowded so that the population is referred to as Gam Lamo or the big village. The greater and more popular Ternate, so that people would rather say Ternate kingdom than the kingdom of Gapi. Under the leadership of several generations of the next ruler, Ternate developed from a kingdom which only served a small island to become the most influential and largest empire in eastern Indonesia the Moluccas.
In the early days of Ternate people was led by the momole. After forming a kingdom, a leadership position was held by a king called Kolano. Starting in the mid-15th century, Islam was adopted by the kingdom and the application of Islamic law was put in place. Sultan Zainal Abidin replaced it with the title of Sultan; the scholars became important figures in the kingdom. Opposite of Ternate lies the island of the seat of the Kingdom of Tidore. According to the genealogies of the kings of Ternate and Tidore, the first King Tidore was Muhammad Naqil who ascended the throne in 1081, it was only at the end of the 14th century that Islam was made the official religion of the Kingdom of Tidore by 11th King Tidore, Sultan Djamaluddin, willing to enter Islam thanks to the preac
North Halmahera Regency
North Halmahera Regency is a regency of North Maluku Province, Indonesia. It was declared a Regency on 31 May 2003; the capital town of the regency lies at the port of Tobelo. The Regency, reduced by the separation of Tidore and of Morotai Island, now covers an area of 3,896.9 square kilometres and as at the 2010 Census had a population of 161,847 people. The latest official estimate was 177,980; the principal settlements are Tobelo and Galela. The area is noted for coral reefs. Apart from the importance of its 115 islands for spices, North Hamahera was the World War II base camp; the Japanese and the American allies fought for its control. From the island of Morotai, Americans headed by the General of the Army Douglas MacArthur prepared for an attack on the Philippines. Halmahera and its small islands are located in the Coral Triangle. Marine biodiversity data on reef fishes was collected during a rapid survey conducted at 28 locations in 2005 in the south-western part of Halmahera. Explorer Gerry Allen, during his diving surveys in 2005, recorded 803 species of reef fishes.
During the 15th and 16th centuries, the area was within the sphere of influence of the powerful sultanate on the island of Ternate. A larger region, called Moro, included the island of Morotai and parts of the North Halmahera coastline; the Portuguese were a formidable presence in the area and they built a number of fortifications and controlled the island Ternate, off the southwest coast of the North Halmahera Regency. In the mid-16th century, a Portuguese Jesuit mission visited Morotai; this created conflict with Muslims who at the time controlled Ternate and Halmahera and in 1571, they drove the Christians from Morotai. In the early 17th century, the town of Dodinga, strategically located on Halmahera's west coast grew in influence. In 1627 and 1628, Sultan Hamzah of Ternate had much of the Christian population of the island moved to Malaya, on Ternate, it was administered under the Dutch East Indies. North Halmahera Morotai, played a role in World War II. Morotai Island was captured by the Japanese in early 1942.
Morotai's southern plain was taken by American forces in September 1944 during the Battle of Morotai, used as a staging point for the Allied invasion of the Philippines in early 1945, of Borneo in May and June of that year. Japanese soldier Teruo Nakamura was discovered in the Morotai jungle in 1974, as one of the WWII Japanese soldiers who held out subsequent to the Japanese military's surrender. Morotai Island is, since 2009, no longer part of North Halmahera Regency. Since the 1980s, mining development and logging has increased in the area causing conflict with local inhabitants; the communities are dependent on fishing and forests and the financial benefits of these resources have gone to Jakarta and local elites outside Halmahera. These developments have increased religious tension in the region; the Christians of North Halmahera were traditionally said to live a peaceful co-existence with Muslims, but violence broke out between the two religious groups in December 1999 and has since been the primary cause of conflict in the region.
Many of the Christians on the island fled to Tobelo as a haven. Shortly after the official area of the North Halmahera Regency was declared on 31 May 2003, in July 2003, 38 villages in Halmahera staged a protest against the Australian mining company Newcrest, mining gold in the region; when the decision was made to create the regency of North Halmahera, it was promised in the national parliament in Jakarta that a duty-free port similar to Batam would be established on Morotai island. However, this never happened, as internal conflict led to a demand that Morotai should be separated from the regency. Hein Nemotemo, a Christian politician, rejected this move, given that Morotai is overwhelmingly Muslim. In August 2006, five members of the North Halmahera district legislature from Golkar, including Abdul Gafur lobbied in the national capital for the independence of Morotai from the regency; this was approved by the Committee II in Jakarta and by the provincial governor Thaib Armaiyn. From February to April 2007, supporters of the Morotai independence movement sealed off the government headquarters, demanding that Morotai should become independent immediately.
The split was delayed and in 2008, Nemotemo's group were all that stood in the way of the split. Fearing a repeat of the 1999-2000 violence, Nemotemo backed down. During the 2009 elections in Indonesia a governor candidate for Morotai was elected and it became a new regency; the North Halmahera Regency is located in northeastern Indonesia between the islands of Papua and Sulawesi. It occupies half of the northern mainland section of the island and includes smaller islands off the northwest coiast of Halmahera, it included the larger island of Morotai to the northeast of the headland but this was administratively separated to form its own regency in 2009. Natural ecosystems found in the two regions in North Halmahera Regency, among others, include coral reefs, mangrove forests, seagrass beds, sandy beaches, rocky beaches, estuaries and deltas. While artificial ecosystems, among others, include the areas of tourism and fish landing centres, cultivated areas and residential areas of society; the coral reefs of North Halmahera are of particular note, form part of the Coral Triangle, world-renowned for its coastal and marine biodiversity, which includes 70 genera of corals and about 2,500 fish species, about 70 percent of all fish sp
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile