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Soft-paste porcelain

Soft-paste porcelain is a type of ceramic material in pottery accepted as a type of porcelain. It is weaker than "true" hard-paste porcelain, does not require either the high firing temperatures or the special mineral ingredients needed for that. There are many types; the material originated in the attempts by many European potters to replicate hard-paste Chinese export porcelain in the 18th century, the best versions match hard-paste in whiteness and translucency, but not in strength. But the look and feel of the material can be attractive, it can take painted decoration well; the ingredients varied but always included clay ball clay, ground glass, bone ash, soapstone and quartz. They included the key ingredients necessary for hard-paste, china clay including kaolin, or the English china stone, although some manufacturers included one or other of these, but failed to get their kilns up to a hard-paste firing temperature, they were called "soft paste" either because the material is softer in the kiln, prone to "slump", or their firing temperatures are lower compared with hard-paste porcelain, or, more because the finished products are far softer than hard-paste, early versions were much easier to scratch or break, as well as being prone to shatter when hot liquid was poured into them.

The German Meissen porcelain had developed hard-paste porcelain by 1708, German factories managed to find the secret out from former Meissen employees, beginning with Vienna porcelain in 1718. The other European countries had much longer to wait, but most factories switched from soft to hard-paste, having discovered both the secret and a source of kaolin. In France kaolin was only found in Limousin in 1768, Sèvres produced both types from 1769, before dropping soft-paste in 1804. In England there was a movement in a different direction, as Spode's formula for bone china, developed in the 1790s, was adopted by most other factories by about 1820. By that point little soft-paste porcelain was being made anywhere, little hard-paste in England, with Nantgarw and Swansea in Wales among the last factories making soft-paste. There were early attempts by European potters to replicate Chinese porcelain when its composition was little understood and its constituents were not available in the West; the earliest formulations were mixtures of ground-up glass.

Soapstone and lime are known to have been included in some compositions. The first successful attempt was Medici porcelain, produced between 1575 and 1587, it was composed of white clay containing powdered feldspar, calcium phosphate and wollastonite, with quartz. Other early European soft-paste porcelain a frit porcelain, was produced at the Rouen manufactory in 1673, known for this reason as "Porcelaine française". Again, these were developed in an effort to imitate high-valued Chinese hard-paste porcelain; as these early formulations slumped in the kiln at high temperatures, they were difficult and uneconomic to use. Formulations used kaolin, feldspars, nepheline syenite and other feldspathic rocks. Soft-paste porcelain with these ingredients was technically superior to the traditional soft-paste and these formulations remain in production. Soft-paste formulations containing little clay are not plastic and shaping it on the potter's wheel is difficult. Pastes with more clay, such as electrical porcelain, are plastic and can be shaped by methods such as jolleying and turning.

The feldspathic formulations are, more resilient and suffer less pyroplastic deformation. Soft-paste is fired at lower temperatures than hard-paste porcelain around 1100 °C for the frit based compositions and 1200 to 1250 °C for those using feldspars or nepheline syenites as the primary flux; the lower firing temperature gives artists and manufacturers some benefits, including a wider palette of colours for decoration and reduced fuel consumption. The body of soft-paste is more granular than hard-paste porcelain, less glass being formed in the firing process. According to one expert, with a background in chemistry, "The definition of porcelain and its soft-paste and hard-paste varieties is fraught with misconceptions", various categories based on the analysis of the ingredients have been proposed instead; some writers have proposed a "catch-all" category of "hybrid" porcelain, to include bone china and various "variant" bodies made at various times. This includes describing as "hybrid soft-paste porcelain" pieces made using kaolin but not fired at a sufficiently high temperature to become true hard-paste, as with some 18th-century English and Italian pieces.

At least in the past, some sources dealing with modern industrial chemistry and pottery production have made a different distinction between "hard porcelain" and "soft porcelain", by which all forms of pottery porcelain, including East Asian wares, are "soft porcelain". Chinese porcelain, which arrived in Europe before the 14th century, was much admired and expensive to purchase. Attempts were made to imitate it from the 15th century onwards but its composition was little understood, its translucency suggested that glass might be an ingredient, so many experiments combined clay with powdered glass, including the porcelain made in Florence in the late 16th century under the patronage of the Medicis. In Venice there were experiments using opaque glass alone. German factories either made hard-paste from their foundation, like M

History of the Edmonton Oilers

The history of the Edmonton Oilers dates back to 1972, when the team was established as a professional ice hockey team based in Edmonton, Alberta. The team played in the World Hockey Association, before joining the National Hockey League in 1979; the team played its first season in 1972–73 as one of 12 founding franchises of the major professional World Hockey Association. They were supposed to be one of two WHA teams in Alberta. However, when the Broncos folded before the WHA's first season began, the Edmonton Oilers were renamed the Alberta Oilers, they returned to using the Edmonton Oilers name for the 1973–74 season, have been called that since. The Oilers subsequently joined the NHL in 1979. After joining the NHL, the Oilers went on to win the Stanley Cup on five occasions: 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988 and 1990. For their success in the 1980s, the Oilers team of this era has been honoured with "dynasty" status by the Hockey Hall of Fame. On November 1, 1971, the Edmonton Oilers became one of 12 founding World Hockey Association franchises.

The original team founders were "Wild" Bill Hunter and partner, Dr. Charles A. "Chuck" Allard. Hunter owned the Edmonton Oil Kings, a junior hockey franchise, founded the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League. However, Hunter's efforts to bring major professional hockey to Edmonton via an expansion NHL franchise had been rebuffed by the NHL. Therefore, Hunter looked to the upstart WHA instead, it was Hunter. This was a name, used as a nickname for the Edmonton Oil Kings in the 1950s and 1960s. After the newly founded Calgary Broncos folded prior to commencement of the inaugural WHA season, the Oilers were renamed the Alberta Oilers as it was planned to split their home games between Edmonton and Calgary. For financial reasons or to allow for a less complicated return of the WHA to Calgary, the team played all of its home games in the Edmonton Gardens and subsequently changed its name back to the Edmonton Oilers the following year, they won the first game in WHA history 7–4 over the Ottawa Nationals.

The Oilers drew fans with players such as defenceman and team captain Al Hamilton, goaltender Dave Dryden and forwards Blair MacDonald and Bill Flett. However, a little-noticed move in 1976 would have an important impact on the history of the franchise; that year, journeyman forward Glen Sather was acquired by the Oilers. It turned out to be his final season as a player. However, he was named player-coach late in the season, moving to the bench full-time after the season. Sather would be the face of the franchise for the next 23 years as head coach and/or general manager. In 1976, Hunter and Allard sold the franchise to Vancouver real estate tycoon Nelson Skalbania– soon to become notorious for flipping both real and franchised properties –who made local businessman Peter Pocklington a full partner sold his shares to him the following year; the team's fortunes improved in 1978 when, with new coach Sather playing a key role, Pocklington's Oilers acquired underage player Wayne Gretzky, as well as goaltender Eddie Mio and forward Peter Driscoll, for cash, from Skalbania's folded Indianapolis Racers.

Gretzky's first and only WHA season, prevented him from being an official 1979–80 NHL rookie) and, in 1978–79, the Oilers finished first in WHA standings, posting a league-best 48–30–2 record. However, Edmonton failed to win the championship, as they fell to the Winnipeg Jets in the Avco World Trophy Final. Dave Semenko of the Oilers scored the last goal in WHA history late in the third period of the final game, which the Oilers lost 7–3; the Oilers joined the National Hockey League for 1979–80, along with fellow WHA teams Hartford Whalers, Quebec Nordiques and the Jets following a merger agreement between the two leagues. Of these four teams, only Edmonton has avoided renaming; the Oilers lost most of the players from 1978–79 when the NHL held a reclamation draft of players who had bolted to the upstart league. They were allowed to protect two skill players. Gretzky was not eligible to be protected. However, Pocklington had signed him to a 21-year contract in 1979. Pocklington used the contract to force the NHL to admit the Oilers: he promised the league Gretzky would fill every arena, but that since he was under a personal services contract to Pocklington, the only way Gretzky would enter the NHL was as an Oiler.

The NHL relented. In the expansion draft and general manager Larry Gordon restocked the roster. Sather said that out of 761 players on the draft list, only 53 interested him, he concentrated on drafting free agents, since the Oilers would get compensation if they signed somewhere else. He estimated. Upon joining the NHL, the Oilers were placed in the Campbell Conference's Smythe Division, they were mediocre during the regular season in their first two seasons, finishing 16th and 14th respectively. However, due to the fact 16 of the 21 NHL teams made the playoffs at the time, the Oilers were still able to get their young players experience in the playo

Athletics at the 2012 Summer Paralympics – Men's 800 metres

The Men's 800m athletics events for the 2012 Summer Paralympics took place at the London Olympic Stadium from August 31 to September 8. A total of 8 events were contested over this distance for 8 different classifications; the T12 category is for athletes with visual impairment. Athletes in this category will have some residual sight, the ability to recognise the shape of a hand at a distance of 2 metres and the ability to perceive will be no more than 2/60. T12 athletes run with guides. Final Competed 5 September 2012 at 19:35; the T13 category is for athletes with a moderate visual impairment. Athletes in this category have a variety of visual impairments, but can recognize contours from a distance of 2 to 6 metres. Athletes in this category do not require a guide. Final Competed 8 September 2012 at 11:55; the T36 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. These athletes do not have the capacity to remain still and they show involuntary movements with all four limbs affected, they walk without assistive devices.

There were no heats in this event. The final was competed on 6 September 2012 at 19:24. Final Competed 6 September 2012 at 19:24; the T37 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. These athletes have coordination problems on one half of their body, they have good ability in their dominant side of their body. There were no heats in this event; the final was competed on 1 September 2012 at 20:58. Final Competed 1 September 2012 at 20:58; the T46 category is for athletes who have a single above or below elbow amputation or similar disability, with normal function in both legs. Final Competed 8 September 2012 at 21:02; the T52 category is for wheelchair athletes with damage to spinal cord in the higher parts of the back impaired or no trunk function, minimal or no leg function. Pushing power comes from elbow extensions, appears close to normal except for use of modified gloves to compensate for grip. There were no heats in this event; the final was competed on 7 September 2012 at 20:39. Final Competed 7 September 2012 at 20:39.

The T53 category is for wheelchair athletes with normal use of arms and hands, no or limited trunk function, no leg function. Final Competed 5 September 2012 at 19:43; the T54 category is for wheelchair athletes with no leg function, but near full arm function and reasonable to normal trunk function. This may be caused by a lower spinal cord injury or spinal cord birth defect. Final Competed 6 September 2012 at 21:16

Toolache wallaby

The toolache wallaby is an extinct species of wallaby from southeastern South Australia and southwestern Victoria. A species described by George Waterhouse in 1846; the type specimen was collected at Coorong in South Australia. The author cites an earlier name, Halmaturus greyii, published by John Edward Gray in 1843 without a valid description, assigning it to a subgenus of the same name—Macropus —and providing the common name of the newly described species as Grey's wallaby; the common name and epithet greyi commemorates the collector and explorer George Grey, who provided the two specimens to researchers at the British Museum of Natural History. A systematic revision has seen the species placed in a subgeneric arrangement as Macropus greyi, recognising an affinity with seven other species of the genus named as Notamacropus Dawson and Flannery, 1985. An arrangement that elevates the subgenera of Macropus is recognised as Notamacropus greyi; the common names have included onetwo. The toolache wallaby was a slim and elegant creature that had a pale ashy-brown pelt with a buff-yellow underbelly.

The tail was pale grey and became white near the tip. The distinct black mark on its face reached from its nose to the eye; the forearms and tips of the ears were black. The different colours of the animal consisted of different textured furs which are believed to have changed seasonally or varied depending on the individual; the body measurements differed between females. In general, male toolache wallabies had a head and body length up to 810 mm while females measured up as 840 mm. Despite the females being taller, males had longer tail lengths at about 730 mm while the female's tail length was 710 mm; the toolache was a nocturnal animal. Their movements were unusual and rapid, able to outpace any terrestrial predator; the toolache wallaby occupied the south-eastern corner of Australia to the western part of Victoria. The preferred habitat ranged from swampy short grassland areas, to taller grassed areas of the open country. Toolache wallabies were known to be sociable creatures. A combination of numerous threats caused the decline and eventual extinction of the toolache wallaby.

One of the largest factors was the destruction of its habitat. Since swamps were an important part of its habitat, once they were cleared out, much of the vegetation went with it. Besides the destruction of its habitat, the introduction of predators such as the European Fox began to kill off the species as well. On top of all this, the animal was hunted for sport and for its beautiful pelt; the toolache wallaby only survived 85 years after European occupation. In the 1920s, a conservation effort was made to try and bring the animal back from the brink of extinction; the plan was to breed the last known surviving members of the species in captivity. This effort ended in disaster after 10 of the 14 of them were accidentally killed in the attempt to capture them; the remaining four survived in captivity. The last wild sightings were recorded in 1924, the last known toolache wallaby survived in captivity until 1939; the species is presumed to be extinct although extensive research is still being conducted in the region after reports of suspected sightings through the 1970s.

However, no members of the species have been sighted since. Flannery, T and P Schouten, "A Gap in Nature," Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001, pg. 152. ISBN 0-87113-797-6

Snejana Onopka

Snejana Onopka is a Ukrainian Supermodel. Born 15 December 1986 in Severodonetsk, Onopka moved to the Ukrainian capital, Kiev, in 2001. While there, she was spotted by a foreign scout at the age of 15 and thus began her career as a model. In 2005, Steven Meisel photographed Onopka for the Prada and Dolce & Gabbana fall ad campaigns, sparking a booking frenzy thereafter and he photographed her for two covers of Italian Vogue. In September 2005 she debuted by closing Marc by Marc Jacobs show in New York and opened the Dolce & Gabbana and Karl Lagerfeld shows. In 2006 Steven Meisel photographed her for Calvin Klein and Dolce & Gabbana campaigns, Mert Alas and Marcus Piggot photographed her for a Louis Vuitton campaign and Juergen Teller photographed her for Yves Saint Laurent; the same year Onopka became the face of Lanvin. Onopka has appeared on the cover of i-D, Numéro, Harper's Bazaar, L'Officiel, Allure Russia, Elle Ukraine, Glamour Russia and the Italian, Portuguese and French editions of Vogue.

On the runway, Onopka has walked for designers including Chanel, Anna Sui, Dolce & Gabbana, Marc Jacobs and Isabel Marant. During the New York's Fall/Winter 2007 fashion shows Onopka was noticeably absent, because she was shooting the Shiseido Spring/Summer 2007 campaign. However, at the start of Milan Fashion Week she was back in full force walking for shows including Burberry, Jil Sander and Dolce & Gabbana. Throughout her career Onopka has appeared in advertising campaigns for Prada, Lanvin, ck Calvin Klein, Yves Saint Laurent, Louis Vuitton eyewear, Gucci, Gucci Eau de Parfum II, Max Mara, Hugo by Hugo Boss, Hugo by Hugo Boss eyewear and Emilio Pucci eyewear. In September 2017, Onopka returned to the runway and opened the Natasha Zinko show at London Fashion Week. Onopka was quoted in Teen Vogue saying this about her family: "My mother collects tear sheets of everything she sees me in." And about her father: "My father was in a rock band when I was growing up, so he's used to the spotlight.

I like to sing, too." According to Ukrainian media she was engaged in 2009 to Ukrainian businessman Oleksandr Onyshchenko. On November 15, 2011, Onopka married 29-year-old businessman Mykola Shchur. Snejana Onopka at Fashion Model Directory

John J. Hollister Jr.

John James Hollister Jr. was an agriculturalist and California state senator. John James Hollister Jr. was born in 1901 in California. He was the son of J. James Hollister and Dorothy Hollister of Hollister Ranch, the grandson of William Welles Hollister, his mother was Lottie Steffens Hollister the sister of journalist Lincoln Steffens. John J. Hollister Jr. married Cynthia Boyd in the year of 1928. In San Benito County, the city of Hollister was named after John J. Hollsiter Jr.'s grandfather, William Welles Hollister, had possession of the land during the years 1861-1875. His grandfather had "Hollister Ranch" named after him; this area is in Santa Barbara, California and is known among seasoned surfers to be a good spot for surfing. John James Hollister Jr. died in office in Santa Barbara in the year of 1961. University of California Davis: Biography of John J. Hollister, Jr. Ladies in the Laboratory v. 2