A software bug is an error, flaw or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways. The process of finding and fixing bugs is termed "debugging" and uses formal techniques or tools to pinpoint bugs, since the 1950s, some computer systems have been designed to deter, detect or auto-correct various computer bugs during operations. Most bugs arise from mistakes and errors made in either a program's source code or its design, or in components and operating systems used by such programs. A few are caused by compilers producing incorrect code. A program that contains many bugs, and/or bugs that interfere with its functionality, is said to be buggy. Bugs can trigger errors. Bugs may cause the program to crash or freeze the computer. Other bugs qualify as security bugs and might, for example, enable a malicious user to bypass access controls in order to obtain unauthorized privileges; some software bugs have been linked to disasters.
Bugs in code that controlled the Therac-25 radiation therapy machine were directly responsible for patient deaths in the 1980s. In 1996, the European Space Agency's US$1 billion prototype Ariane 5 rocket had to be destroyed less than a minute after launch due to a bug in the on-board guidance computer program. In June 1994, a Royal Air Force Chinook helicopter crashed into the Mull of Kintyre, killing 29; this was dismissed as pilot error, but an investigation by Computer Weekly convinced a House of Lords inquiry that it may have been caused by a software bug in the aircraft's engine-control computer. In 2002, a study commissioned by the US Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology concluded that "software bugs, or errors, are so prevalent and so detrimental that they cost the US economy an estimated $59 billion annually, or about 0.6 percent of the gross domestic product". The Middle English word bugge is the basis for the terms "bugbear" and "bugaboo" as terms used for a monster.
The term "bug" to describe defects has been a part of engineering jargon since the 1870s and predates electronic computers and computer software. For instance, Thomas Edison wrote the following words in a letter to an associate in 1878: It has been just so in all of my inventions; the first step is an intuition, comes with a burst difficulties arise—this thing gives out and that "Bugs"—as such little faults and difficulties are called—show themselves and months of intense watching and labor are requisite before commercial success or failure is reached. Baffle Ball, the first mechanical pinball game, was advertised as being "free of bugs" in 1931. Problems with military gear during World War II were referred to as bugs. In the 1940 film, Flight Command, a defect in a piece of direction-finding gear is called a "bug". In a book published in 1942, Louise Dickinson Rich, speaking of a powered ice cutting machine, said, "Ice sawing was suspended until the creator could be brought in to take the bugs out of his darling."Isaac Asimov used the term "bug" to relate to issues with a robot in his short story "Catch That Rabbit", published in 1944.
The term "bug" was used in an account by computer pioneer Grace Hopper, who publicized the cause of a malfunction in an early electromechanical computer. A typical version of the story is: In 1946, when Hopper was released from active duty, she joined the Harvard Faculty at the Computation Laboratory where she continued her work on the Mark II and Mark III. Operators traced an error in the Mark II to a moth trapped in a relay; this bug was removed and taped to the log book. Stemming from the first bug, today we call errors or glitches in a program a bug. Hopper did not find the bug, as she acknowledged; the date in the log book was September 9, 1947. The operators who found it, including William "Bill" Burke of the Naval Weapons Laboratory, Virginia, were familiar with the engineering term and amusedly kept the insect with the notation "First actual case of bug being found." Hopper loved to recount the story. This log book, complete with attached moth, is part of the collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of American History.
The related term "debug" appears to predate its usage in computing: the Oxford English Dictionary's etymology of the word contains an attestation from 1945, in the context of aircraft engines. The concept that software might contain errors dates back to Ada Lovelace's 1843 notes on the analytical engine, in which she speaks of the possibility of program "cards" for Charles Babbage's analytical engine being erroneous:... an analysing process must have been performed in order to furnish the Analytical Engine with the necessary operative data. Granted that the actual mechanism is unerring in its processes, the cards may give it wrong orders; the Open Technology Institute, run by the group, New America, released a report "Bugs in the System" in August 2016 stating that U. S. policymakers should make reforms to help researchers address software bugs. The report "highlights the need for reform in the field of software vulnerability discovery and disclosure." One of the report’s authors said that Congress has not done enough to address cyber software vulnerability though Congress has passed a number of bills to combat the larger issue of cyber security.
Government researchers and cyber security experts are the people who discover software flaws. The report calls for reforming computer copyright laws; the Comput
Lamar Towers are a pair of skyscrapers under construction in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Located on Jeddah Corniche, Tower 1 will be 321.6 m tall with 72 floors above ground, Tower 2 will be 300 m tall with 62 floors above ground. The proposal for the project was approved in the same year. Construction began in 2008 and, when completed in 2016, Tower 1 will be the tallest building in Jeddah, till date, surpassing the completed National Commercial Bank; the development is expected to cost about $600 million. The tower was designed by Saudi Diyar Consultants; the Construction Management Service is by MIDRAR. The Lamar company is the main developer of the project and Drake & Scull Construction are the main contractors for this landmark development; the holding company has declared construction on the building has stopped. There are many civil suits against the company for property sold in these buildings. Lamar is Arabic for liquid gold, which describes the reflection of the golden glass in the waters of the Red Sea.
The Lamar Towers will include the following: Underground parking for over 500 cars. Retail center - The Lamar Mall. Offices - Over 10 floors of office space; the Lamar Spa - this membership only spa will provide separate facilities for men and women. Residential - 1, 2, 3, or 4 bedroom apartments and Penthouse/Royal Floors. Drake & Scull International is carrying out the MEP works, with KASKTAS Arabia responsible for the piling, grouting, soil improvement and dewatering works; the architectural and engineering concept and schematic design for Lamar Towers was undertaken by RMJM Dubai. The main contract was awarded to Arabian Construction Company in October 2008, but it was subsequently reawarded to Arabtec in May 2009 by developer Cayan Investment & Development, according to Arab News; the structure part of the project was awarded on 12 October 2010 to the Saudi Lebanese Tarouk Contracting company Ltd who constructed a substantial part of the Project and two towers before being terminated by the Owner on 31 December 2012.
The remaining part of the structure and the Project were transferred in July 2013 to the UAE based general contractor Drake & Scull Construction, part of the Drake & Scull International PJSC group. List of tallest buildings in Saudi Arabia Official Website Emporis Artist Rendering Article From Construction Week Online Ventures Onsite | Projects Database for MENA Region
The Landing at Humlebæk took place on August 4, 1700, in the Swedish invasion of Denmark during the Great Northern War 1700-1721. It was the first offensive during the war by the Swedish army, it was directly led by Charles XII of Sweden commanding the right flank and Arvid Horn together with Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld at the left; the Swedes were victorious and utterly routed the Danish forces led by Jens Rostgaard. The Swedish king Charles XI had died in 1697. Sweden's competitors, Denmark-Norway and Saxony-Poland-Lithuania, tried to exploit this by forming a coalition in order to regain their earlier losses. Denmark wanted to reclaim territory lost in the Second Northern War, Russia to get a port to the Baltic Sea, Saxony-Poland-Lithuania to take back Livonia. This, they supposed, could be achieved against the new and inexperienced Swedish king, Charles XII. However, this new threat Charles had to deal with was averted during the first years of the war due to surprising movements made by the Swedish king's troops, one of them being the landing on Humlebæk, an invasion of Denmark with the aim of capturing Copenhagen undertaken in reaction to the Danish attack on Holstein-Gottorp.
About 16,000 Swedish troops were gathered in Scania to launch against Denmark and another 10,000 just by the Norwegian border. The Swedish fleet went out from Karlskrona to Øresund with their 38 ships of the line; the Danish fleet of 40 ships however blocked their pathway in the West entrance of Drogden and forced the Swedish ships to sail another way across to the East by the name of Flintrännan - which at the time was claimed to have been too shallow - but Charles XII gave order that they should try. At July 13 the Swedish ships went over Flintrännan with only 5 ships that ran aground and got stuck, which had to be pulled up. With the ran-across Flintrännan completed the Swedish ships met up with an English-Dutch combined fleet of 25 ships, commanded by George Rooke. With the Anglo-Dutch fleet laying just outside the island of Ven, the combined fleet pressured the Danish ships and forced them a retreat to Copenhagen where they were utterly under fire and pinned down. Instead of sending troops to help the occupied Holstein, Charles decided to land on Humlebæk, suggested by Carl Magnus Stuart and Hans Wachtmeister.
With some minor stratagem, the Swedish fleet tricked the Danish forces on Zealand to believe a major landing would occur at Rungsted instead of Humlebæk. Out of 4,700 Swedish soldiers who sailed from Karlskrona, 2,500 would participate in the first wave against the Danish defenders at Humlebæk; the Swedish forces consisted of infantry and were commanded by Charles XII, Arvid Horn and Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld. The Danish forces on Zealand consisted of 5,000 men of which 350 cavalry and 350 peasants were defending the entrenched beach, commander of these were Jens Rostgaard who had 7 artillery pieces in his favor. There was a light fog and Swedish soldiers were put in small landing boats ready to storm the Danish entrenchment. Meanwhile, the allied fleet bombarded Copenhagen to pin down the Danish troops and ships to not disturb the operation. At August 4, 1700 six o'clock Sweden launched the attack, a cannon strike was heard as a signal and with supporting fire from nearby ships bombarding the Danish defences, the small landing boats closed in to Humlebæk.
First into the water was a lieutenant named Gustaf Henrik Siegroth who jumped in with his men to secure the left flank of the beach under fire from both Danish muskets and cannons and water reaching up to their waist they kept moving, although slowly. The Danish cavalry saw its opportunity to strike and stop the advancing Swedes before reaching the beach, sent out a squadron of horsemen; the Swedes however, succeeded in keeping their powder dry and with some accurate shots halted their charge when reaching shallower water they went in with their bayonets. This forced the Danish cavalry to retreat and the left flank was secured for a landing; the actions portrayed by Siegroth encouraged the Swedish right flank under the lead of Charles XII who didn't hesitate to jump into the water. With the muskets above their heads the Swedish right reached the beach and forced the remaining Danish soldiers to rout, the landing was secured; the Swedes built up field redoubts and camps the next day for the 4,700 troops, their state was however critical, without having any cavalry on shore they were like rats stuck in a corner for any possible Danish assault.
After the successful landing on Humlebæk the Danish defences started withdrawing to Copenhagen, under fire from the allied fleet. The fleet which had transported the Swedish soldiers were sent back to pick up reinforcements. After some days they arrived with Magnus Stenbock and the force at Humlebæk reached 10,000 soldiers; the strategical plan was to lay siege to Copenhagen and force Denmark to surrender, a storm of the city was out of the question since the morale of the Danish forces seemed rather high. Instead it would get bombarded both from land. However, on August 21, 1700 during his march to siege Copenhagen Charles were told that Denmark and Holstein had made peace, he ordered the march to continue until the peace treaty was confirmed which it did get on the 23rd when Frederick IV Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, messaged the Swedish king that the peace was established according to the terms of the Peace of Travendal, that Denmark would not support
Dr. Jacques Amable Legrand was one of the first collectors of French stamps in the nineteenth century and one of the first organizers and scholars of philately in France as a serious topic of study, he used the pseudonym of Dr. Magnus, he participated in the journal Le Timbrophile and invented the perforation gauge, or odontometer, which has become a basic tool in determining the perforation of stamps. He fought an unsuccessful battle to reject the title of the subject advocated by Georges Herpin and Arthur Maury as "philately" and sought it to be renamed "Timbrology". Jacques Legrand was one of the founders on 14 June 1875 of the Société Française de Timbrologie, one of the most important philatelic institutions in France, served as its first secretary. Arthur de Rothschild became its president. Early members included Arthur Maury, despite his disagreement with Legrand over the word philately, the painter Gustave Caillebotte. Dr. Legrand was the Redactor of review "Le timbre fiscal", published by J. B.
Moens, since January 1874, an honorary member of the Fiscal Philatelic Society. Les écritures et la légende des timbres du Japon, 1878. References SourcesSociété Française de Timbrologie Dr. Jacques Amable Legrand. American Philatelic Society. Retrieved 2019-02-23
Polski Trambesh is a town in central northern Bulgaria, part of Veliko Tarnovo Province. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Polski Trambesh Municipality, which lies in the northeastern part of the Province; the town is located 36 kilometres from the provincial capital of Veliko Tarnovo, 45 km from Svishtov, 35 km from Pavlikeni, 33 km from Gorna Oryahovitsa, 22 km from Byala, Rousse Province and 40 km from Strazhitsa. As of December 2009, Polski Trambesh has a population of 4,546 inhabitants; the town is situated in the central Danubian Plain. Polski Trambesh's name means "Trambesh of the fields", to distinguish it from Gorski Goren Trambesh and Gorski Dolen Trambesh in Gorna Oryahovitsa municipality, it is not known when Polski Trambesh was established, but in 1865 it was a village of 40-50 houses populated by Bulgarians and Turks. The construction of the Rousse-Gorna Oryahovitsa railway boosted its development in 1917, the village turned into an important merchant centre and some industry was established after World War I.
Polski Trambesh was proclaimed a town in 1964. Polski Trambesh Municipality has an area of 463.6 square kilometres and includes the following 15 places: Trambesh Peak on Brabant Island, Antarctica is named after the town. Polski Trambesh municipality website
The Islamic Games was a multi-sport event for athletes from Muslim countries, held from 26 September to 6 October 1980 in İzmir, Turkey. Although 42 nations were invited to compete at the competition only ten nations took part, with around 700 athletes present. Among the nations competing at the tournament, only Algeria and Libya had sent delegations to the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow; the idea for the games was initiated in 1979, following an agreement between foreign ministers at a regional meeting in Islamabad. Izmir was chosen as the host and was well equipped for the task given pre-existing facilities stemming from its hosting of the 1971 Mediterranean Games, with İzmir Atatürk Stadium as the main venue. Anwar Chowdhry, a Pakistani sports official, praised the coming together of Muslim-majority nations, stating that "all the countries competing have the same level of performance provides our athletes with encouragement to put on an better performance". Libya won the five-team association football tournament.
The games was proposed to be held on a quadrennial basis, being scheduled one year before the Summer Olympics to allow Muslim nations to prepare for the larger competition. Saudi Arabia was chosen to host the second Islamic Games in 1983, but the event was not held. A Women's Islamic Games was started in 1993 and the Islamic Solidarity Games was inaugurated in 2005 in Saudi Arabia, continuing the legacy of an international games between Muslim-majority countries. * Host nation