Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the software product or service under test. Software testing can provide an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software implementation. Test techniques include the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs, verifying that the software product is fit for use. Software testing involves the execution of a software component or system component to evaluate one or more properties of interest. In general, these properties indicate the extent to which the component or system under test: meets the requirements that guided its design and development, responds to all kinds of inputs, performs its functions within an acceptable time, it is sufficiently usable, can be installed and run in its intended environments, achieves the general result its stakeholders desire; as the number of possible tests for simple software components is infinite, all software testing uses some strategy to select tests that are feasible for the available time and resources.
As a result, software testing attempts to execute a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs. The job of testing is an iterative process as when one bug is fixed, it can illuminate other, deeper bugs, or can create new ones. Software testing can provide objective, independent information about the quality of software and risk of its failure to users or sponsors. Software testing can be conducted as soon; the overall approach to software development determines when and how testing is conducted. For example, in a phased process, most testing occurs after system requirements have been defined and implemented in testable programs. In contrast, under an agile approach, requirements and testing are done concurrently. Although software testing can determine the correctness of software under the assumption of some specific hypotheses, testing cannot identify all the defects within the software. Instead, it furnishes a criticism or comparison that compares the state and behavior of the product against test oracles—principles or mechanisms by which someone might recognize a problem.
These oracles may include specifications, comparable products, past versions of the same product, inferences about intended or expected purpose, user or customer expectations, relevant standards, applicable laws, or other criteria. A primary purpose of testing is to detect software failures so that defects may be discovered and corrected. Testing cannot establish that a product functions properly under all conditions, but only that it does not function properly under specific conditions; the scope of software testing includes the examination of code as well as the execution of that code in various environments and conditions as well as examining the aspects of code: does it do what it is supposed to do and do what it needs to do. In the current culture of software development, a testing organization may be separate from the development team. There are various roles for testing team members. Information derived from software testing may be used to correct the process by which software is developed.
Every software product has a target audience. For example, the audience for video game software is different from banking software. Therefore, when an organization develops or otherwise invests in a software product, it can assess whether the software product will be acceptable to its end users, its target audience, its purchasers and other stakeholders. Software testing assists in making this assessment. Not all software defects are caused by coding errors. One common source of expensive defects is requirement gaps, i.e. unrecognized requirements that result in errors of omission by the program designer. Requirement gaps can be non-functional requirements such as testability, maintainability and security. Software faults occur through the following processes. A programmer makes an error. If this defect is executed, in certain situations the system will produce wrong results, causing a failure. Not all defects will result in failures. For example, defects in the dead code will never result in failures.
A defect can turn into a failure. Examples of these changes in environment include the software being run on a new computer hardware platform, alterations in source data, or interacting with different software. A single defect may result in a wide range of failure symptoms. A fundamental problem with software testing is that testing under all combinations of inputs and preconditions is not feasible with a simple product; this means that the number of defects in a software product can be large and defects that occur infrequently are difficult to find in testing. More non-functional dimensions of quality —usability, performance, reliability—can be subjective. Software developers can't test everything, but they can use combinatorial test design to identify the minimum number of tests needed to get the coverage they want. Combinatorial test design enables users to get greater test coverage with fewer tests. Whether they are looking for speed or test depth, they can u
Richard “Dick” Glyn Kimber AM is an Australian historian and author who has written extensively on the history, art and wildlife of Central Australia. He has published several books, the best known of, Man From Arltunga: Walter Smith, Australian Bushman as well as more than 100 articles and essays. Kimber was born at Freeling in South Australia in 1939, he went to school in the Riverland area and Brighton and attended Adelaide University and Adelaide Teacher’s College. Throughout Kimber’s adult life, his focus has been on historical research, Aboriginal art and culture, wildlife, he has published several books, the best known of, Man From Arltunga: Walter Smith, Australian Bushman. He has published over 100 articles and essays, he has given public lectures and made regular media appearances. Kimber moved to Alice Springs in 1970 and taught English, social science and Aboriginal Studies at Alice Springs High School. In 1974 he became the first Sacred Sites Officer in the Northern Territory for the Sacred Sites Authority, before returning to teaching.
From 1976 to 1978 he was the Papunya Tula Artists Coordinator and devised Aboriginal Studies materials for schools, after which he again returned to teaching. Beginning in 1976 Kimber undertook research and prepared submissions for land rights and native title claims for over twenty years, in a private capacity and for the Central Land Council and Ngaanyatjarra Council. During this time he undertook research for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Studies, the Department of Aboriginal Affairs, the Australian Heritage Commission and the Strehlow Research Centre, regarding locations of Aboriginal homelands and their needs, settlement history, ownership of sacred objects, he researched the historical records of extinct and rare native fauna for the Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory and provided advice regarding the development of the Alice Springs Desert Park and issues relating to Aboriginal land ownership of various parks and reserves. From the mid-1990s, Kimber advised the National Museum of Australia, Museum Victoria and the Northern Territory Museum regarding Aboriginal artefacts and cultural practices, access to Papunya Tula paintings that incorporated sacred elements, the return of sacred objects to traditional custodians in central Australia.
He continues to consult. Since arriving in central Australia Kimber has undertaken travels and other shared experiences with many Aboriginal people in the south-western Simpson Desert, western deserts of central Australia and the deserts of Western Australia through to the Canning Stock-Route, in Alice Springs, he has researched significant historical figures in inland Australia, Australian language usage, native fauna of the inland including birds, made important contributions to the Australian Language Dictionary, the Australian Dictionary of Biography and the Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography. The National Library of Australia has established the RG Kimber Collection for his correspondence and records. Kimber was awarded an Australia Media in 2001 for "services to the community through research projects and the recording of information of national interest in the areas of history, Aboriginal art and land management practices in Central Australia". Kimber was awarded a Doctor of Letters, Honoris Causa from the Charles Darwin University in 2006.
Kimber married to scientist Margret Friedel in 1980. He has two children Barbara. In 1980, Kimber resigned from the Education Department “becoming Alice Springs’ first publicly acknowledged ‘house-husband’" while continuing his active writing life, he is passionate about Australia Rules Football, lifesaving as well as history. He was the foundation coach of the Melanka AFL Football Club. 1988 - Wildbird dreaming: aboriginal art from the central deserts of Australia Nadine Amadio and Richard Kimber 1986 - Man from Arltunga: Walter Smith, Australian bushman republished 1990 1990 - Ancestor spirits: aspects of Australian Aboriginal life and spirituality by Max Charlesworth, Richard Kimber and Noel Wallace 1900 - Friendly country - friendly people: an exhibition of Aboriginal artworks from the peoples of the Tanami and Great Sandy Deserts: desert lands, desert peoples, desert art 1990 - Hunter-gatherer demography: the recent past in Central Australia 1991 - The end of the bad old days: European settlement in Central Australia, 1871-1894 2000 - M. N. Tjapaltjarri 2006 - Colliding worlds: first contact in the Western Desert 1932-1984, edited by Philip Batty with essays by Dick Kimber, Jeremy Long and John Kean Dick Kimber's Oral History interview
Undertow began in 1996 in St Louis as a collective of independent artists, filmmakers and creative managers sharing resources, a love of music. Undertow Music is located in Champaign, IL. Undertow Records was started in 1996 by Mark Ray when he released albums by his band, Waterloo and a band they shared a studio space with, Nadine. Undertow serves as a conduit for artists to release their albums to a wider audience through digital and direct sales outlets; the artists retain control of their music at all times. No formal contracts are drawn up between Undertow. Undertow has released records for artists such as Jay Bennett, Will Johnson, The Amazing Pilots, Artificial Hearts, The Redwalls, The Cush, Magnolia Summer, Dreadful Yawns, Anna Fermin, Steve Dawson, Dolly Varden, J. Tillman, South San Gabriel, Centro-matic, Via Audio. Undertow Artist Management was started by Bob Andrews in 1996 after he joined forces with Mark Ray's record label for the release of Nadine's debut album; the original roster was Nadine, Centro-matic, Dolly Varden.
Andrews split his time between the label and management until 2002 when he started focusing on artist management while expanding the roster to include Pedro the Lion, Grammy Award winner Jesse Harris and American Music Club. The management roster expanded and new managers joined the collective in 2004, 2006 and 2008. Undertow's current management roster includes: The Bottle Rockets Clap Your Hands Say Yeah David Bazan Headphones Overseas Pedro the Lion Will Johnson Undertow was one of the first independent labels to have an e-commerce store selling CDs and shirts with all profits going back to the artists; the Undertow Store started as a single webpage store front in 1998 selling a small selection of CDs and shirts. Over the years, the store has grown into a featured and robust online store with items from a curated roster of artists. Undertow expanded again in 2009 to offer direct-to-fan ticketing when David Bazan ventured out on a nationwide tour playing in fans' living rooms, they have since handled ticketing for similar tours by Rocky Votolato, Will Johnson, Rosie Thomas, Joan of Arc, Eric Bachmann, Clap Your Hands Say Yeah, Mike Doughty, Julia Nunes, Lady Lamb, Eef Barzelay, Chris Staples, Damien Jurado, Sarah Jaffe, The Bottle Rockets.
In 2006, a group of Undertow artists toured the Europe, billed as The Undertow Orchestra. Members of the touring group included David Bazan, Mark Eitzel, Will Johnson and Scott Danbom, Vic Chesnutt. Undertow Music Official Site
Carl Ferdinand Allen was a Danish historian. He studied at the University of Copenhagen, he spent three years researching at the archives of England, the Netherlands and Germany. In 1851 he became a lecturer at the University of Copenhagen and, in 1862, a professor of history and northern archaeology, his principal work is his De Tre Nordiske Rigers Historie, 1497-1536. He wrote the work following years of examinations of the archives of European nations. Allen's Haandbog i Fædrelandets Historie, from 1855, dealt with Danish history spanning from the Viking Ages until his lifetime. In that work he argued that the Vikings had a fatherland feelings and that democracy existed in Denmark during the Viking Ages. In Om Sprog og Folke-Eiendommelighed i Hertugdømmet Slesvig eller Sønderjylland, Allen depicted the Germans in a negative way and accused them of having intrinsic urge to expand and to dominate other peoples, he did so because the Danes and Germans both wanted the Duchy of Schleswig to belong in their respective nations, so Allen used his work in a purpose to mobilize the mass
Big Disco is Escanaba Firing Line's first full-length studio album, released in 2006. The album was recorded at Woodshed Studios in Oak Park, Michigan with Tim Pak and features artwork and design by Jesse Younce. All songs performed by Escanaba Firing Line. "Broken Beat" – 3:36 "Terra Incognito" – 3:33 "Moderate Rock Tempo" – 2:47 "a little island" – 5:03 "Dakota" – 5:15 "pinot noir" – 5:52 "Awkward Child" – 2:33 "Instrumental" – 4:47 "False Start" – 11:19'Intellectual' "In a Valley, On a River" Big Disco at MusicBrainz Big Disco at Last.fm
Sarah Anne Curzon née Vincent was a British-born Canadian poet, journalist and playwright, one of "the first women's rights activists and supporters of liberal feminism" in Canada. During her lifetime, she was best known for her closet drama, Laura Secord: The Heroine of 1812, "one of the works that made Laura Secord a household name." She was born Sarah Anne Vincent in Birmingham, the daughter of George Philips Vincent, a wealthy glass manufacturer, his wife. As a girl she was educated by tutors and at private girls' schools, contributed prose and verse to English magazines, notably London's Leisure Hour, she married Robert Curzon in 1858, the couple came to Canada between 1862 and 1864. Sarah Anne Curzon was a lifelong feminist, she was a founding member in November 1876 of the Toronto Women's Literary Club, based on the model of the American Society for the Advancement of Women. The club, whose founders included Emily Stowe, "focused on advancing women’s rights, as well as literacy." In 1876 Curzon wrote what she called "Canada's first feminist play," the historical drama Laura Secord, but she could not get it published until 1887.
Curzon published "verse and fiction the Canadian Monthly, the Dominion Illustrated, The Week, Evangelical Churchman, the Canadian Magazine. She published women's-suffrage articles in British and American newspapers." She was "a pioneer in educating readers... about female suffrage, property rights equal to men and access to higher education for women." She was a founding member of the Toronto Suffrage Association and its successor, the Dominion Women’s Enfranchisement Association, for which she served as the recording secretary. In 1881 she became the associate editor of the Canada Citizen, Canada's first prohibitionist paper, where she wrote a regular column on women's issues; the Canada Citizen boasted the first women's page to cover the issues of women's suffrage and access to postsecondary education. In 1882, Curzon wrote a closet drama in blank verse, The Sweet Girl Graduate, which "mocked the idea that women were not intelligent enough to study at the university level." The one-act vignette was solicited by John Wilson Bengough, editor of the satirical magazine Grip, printed in its first annual The Grip-Sack.
It deals with a woman who poses as a man to get a higher education, graduates with top honors. It may have inspired the attempt by Emma Stanton Mellish six months to enroll in Trinity College under a male name, it helped provoke the provincial Order in Council of October 2, 1884, that admitted women to University College. Curzon supported the efforts of Dr. Emily Stowe to found the Women’s Medical College in Toronto, which opened in 1883. Curzon suffered from Bright's Disease, in 1884 she had to leave her position at The Canada Citizen due to complications related to the disease. Curzon's verse drama, Laura Secord, the heroine of 1812, a tribute to Laura Secord's heroism in the War of 1812, was published in 1887. According to its preface, the play was written to solicit recognition for Laura Secord's contribution to the victory of the Battle of Beaver Dams: "to rescue from oblivion the name of a brave woman, set it in its proper place among the heroes of Canadian history." The preface called for a fundraising campaign to build a monument to Secord.
It was an intervention into the debate over pensioning the veterans of that war. The Week called Laura Secord “a dramatic poem of much strength” and praised "Mrs. Curzon’s conscientious researches, her efforts in providing something for her Canadian public which shall possess a lasting and tangible value.” William Douw Lighthall praised Laura Secord as “a sound true book” and dubbed Curzon “the Loyalist Poetess.” The play sparked tremendous interest in its subject, causing "a deluge of articles and entries on Secord that filled Canadian histories and school textbooks at the turn of the 20th century."In 1895, Curzon co-founded the Women’s Canadian Historical Society in Toronto with feminist Mary Anne Fitzgibbon, Lady Matilda Edgar, others. Curzon was elected the society's first president, she was an honorary member of the Lundy’s Lane Historical Association, the York Pioneer and Historical Society, the Women’s Art Association of Canada. Sarah Anne Curzon's daughter was one of the first females to receive a B.
A. from the University of Toronto. Curzon's correspondence indicates that her husband died in 1894, she died in Toronto, from Bright's Disease. She is buried in Toronto's Mount Pleasant Cemetery; the Sweet Girl Graduate. Grip-Sack 1, 1882.. Laura Secord, the Heroine of 1812: A Drama, Other Poems. Toronto: C. Blackett Robinson, 1887. Welland, ON: Lundy's Lane Historical Society, 1898. Canada in Memoriam 1812-1814. Welland, ON: Telegraph Steam Printing House, 1891. "The Battle of Queenston Heights, Oct. 13, 1812," Women’s Canadian Hist. Soc. of Toronto, Trans. No.2: 5–12. Sarah Anne Curzon in the Canadian Encyclopedia Sarah Anne Curzon in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Works by Sarah Anne Curzon at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sarah Anne Curzon at Internet Archive Curzon in SFU Digitized Collections, Simon Fraser University, Coll. Canada's Early Women Writers