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Solomon Schechter

Solomon Schechter was a Moldavian-born American rabbi, academic scholar and educator, most famous for his roles as founder and President of the United Synagogue of America, President of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, architect of American Conservative Judaism. He was born in Moldavia to Rabbi Yitzchok Hakohen, a shochet and member of Chabad hasidim, he was named after Shneur Zalman of Liadi. Schechter received his early education from his father, a shochet, he learned to read Hebrew by age 3, by 5 mastered Chumash. He went to a yeshiva in Piatra Neamţ at age 10 and at age thirteen studied with one of the major Talmudic scholars, Rabbi Joseph Saul Nathanson of Lemberg. In his 20s, he went to the Rabbinical College in Vienna, where he studied under the more modern Talmudic scholar Meir Friedmann, before moving on in 1879 to undertake further studies at the Berlin Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums and at the University of Berlin. In 1882, he was invited to Britain. In 1890, after the death of Solomon Marcus Schiller-Szinessy, he was appointed to the faculty at Cambridge University, serving as a lecturer in Talmudics and reader in Rabbinics.

To this day, the students of the Cambridge University Jewish Society hold an annual Solomon Schechter Memorial Lecture. His greatest academic fame came from his excavation in 1896 of the papers of the Cairo Geniza, an extraordinary collection of over 100,000 pages of rare Hebrew religious manuscripts and medieval Jewish texts that were preserved at an Egyptian synagogue; the find. Jacob Saphir was the first Jewish researcher to recognize the significance of the Cairo Geniza, as well as the first to publicize the existence of the Midrash ha-Gadol. Schechter was alerted to the existence of the Geniza's papers in May 1896 by two Scottish sisters, Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson, who showed him some leaves from the Geniza that contained the Hebrew text of Sirach, which had for centuries only been known in Greek and Latin translation. Letters, written at Schechter's prompting, by Agnes Smith to The Athenaeum and The Academy revealed the existence of another nine leaves of the same manuscript in the possession of Archibald Sayce at Oxford University.

Schechter found support for another expedition to the Cairo Geniza, arrived there in December 1896 with an introduction from the Chief Rabbi, Hermann Adler, to the Chief Rabbi of Cairo, Aaron Raphael Ben Shim'on. He selected for the Cambridge University Library a trove three times the size of any other collection: this is now part of the Taylor-Schechter Collection; the find was instrumental in Schechter resolving a dispute with David Margoliouth as to the Hebrew language origins of Sirach. Charles Taylor took a great interest in Solomon Schechter's work in Cairo, the genizah fragments presented to the University of Cambridge are known as the Taylor-Schechter Collection, he was joint editor with Schechter of The Wisdom of Ben Sira, 1899. He published separately Cairo Genizah Palimpsests, 1900, he became a Professor of Hebrew at University College London in 1899 and remained until 1902 when he moved to the United States and was replaced by Israel Abrahams. In 1902, traditional Jews reacting against the progress of the American Reform Judaism movement, trying to establish an authoritative "synod" of American rabbis, recruited Schechter to become President of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.

Schechter served as the second President of the JTSA, from 1902 to 1915, during which time he founded the United Synagogue of America renamed as the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism. Schechter emphasized the centrality of Jewish law in Jewish life in a speech in his inaugural address as President of the JTSA in 1902: "Judaism is not a religion which does not oppose itself to anything in particular. Judaism is opposed to any number of things and says distinctly "thou shalt not." It permeates the whole of your life. It demands control over all of your actions, interferes with your menu, it sanctifies the seasons, regulates your history, both in the past and in the future. Above all, it teaches, it insists of the letter. In a word, Judaism is incompatible with the abandonment of the Torah."Schechter, on the other hand, believed in what he termed "Catholic Israel." The basic idea being that Jewish law, Halacha, is formed and evolves based on the behavior of the people. This concept of modifying the law based on national consensus is an untraditional viewpoint.

Schechter was an early advocate of Zionism. He was the chairman of the committee that edited the Jewish Publication Society of America Version of the Hebrew Bible. Schechter's name is synonymous with the findings of the Cairo Geniza, he placed the JTSA on an institutional footing strong enough to endure for over a century. He became identified as the foremost personality of Conservative Judaism and is regarded as its founder. A network of Conservative Jewish day schools is named in his honor, as well as a summer camp in Olympia, Washington. There are several dozen Solomon Schechter Day Schools across the United States and Canada. Schechter, Solomon Studies in Judaism. 3 vols. London: A. & C. Black, 1896-1924 Schec

Mícheál Ó hAodha

Mícheál Ó hAodha is an Irish poet and nonfiction writer. He works in the departments of history and comparative literature at the University of Limerick, where he is a part-time lecturer. Ó hAodha's poems have been collected in the books Dúchas Dóchasach Slán le hÉireann Leabhar Dubh an tSneachta Leabhar na nAistear Leabhar na nAistear II He is the author of: Canting with Cauley: a Glossary of Travellers' Cant/Gammon Parley with me: a Compendium of Fairground Speech Irish Travellers: Representations and Realities Postcolonial Artist: Johnny Doran and Irish Traveller Tradition "Insubordinate Irish": Travellers in the Text He has a particular interest in minority groups including Irish Travellers and the Irish-speaking minority of the west of Ireland and has written many books in collaboration with Travellers, fairground/circus people and others. He has written on the experiences of Irish emigrants, the Irish experience in Britain. Home page


Macarthuria is a genus of dicotyledonous plants belonging to the family Macarthuriaceae, consists of about 9 species which are endemic to Australia. Plants in the genus, are rigid or wiry herbs or subshrubs; the leaves are basal, with short petioles, with leaves on the stems being alternate and reduced to scales. The flowers have stems; the outer perianth whorl is 5-partite and persists persistent, the inner perianth is 5-lobed and petaloid, or absent. The flowers have 8 stamens; the ovary is superior, with each locule having 1-3 ovules. There are three styles and the placentation is basal; the fruit is a capsule and dehisces in 3 valves. The seeds have arils. Macarthuria apetala Harv. Macarthuria australis Hügel ex Endl. Macarthuria complanata E. M. RossMacarthuria ephedroides C. T. WhiteMacarthuria georgeana KeigheryMacarthuria intricata KeigheryMacarthuria keigheryi LepschiMacarthuria neocambrica F. Muell. Macarthuria vertex Lepschi Macarthuria is named to honour Sir William Macarthur, son of Captain John Macarthur


Kullorsuaq is a settlement in the Avannaata municipality in northwestern Greenland. It is the northernmost settlement in the Upernavik Archipelago, located on Kullorsuaq Island at the southern end of Melville Bay, itself part of the larger Baffin Bay; the settlement was founded in 1928 and became a trading station, growing in size after World War II when hunters from several small villages around Inussulik Bay, Sugar Loaf Bay, Tasiusaq Bay moved into the larger settlements such as Nuussuaq and Kullorsuaq. Today, Kullorsuaq remains one of the most traditional hunting and fishing villages in Greenland, but maintains a stable population; the name of the settlement means "Big Thumb" in Kalaallisut, after the Devil's Thumb, a prominent pinnacle-shaped mountain in the center of the island about 3 km north of the settlement. Kullorsuaq is located on an island of the same name at the southern end of Melville Bay; the island is the northernmost part of Upernavik Archipelago. The Upernavik Archipelago was among the earliest-settled areas of Greenland, the first migrants arriving 4,000 years ago.

All southbound migrations of the Inuit passed through the area, leaving behind a trail of archeological sites. These first settlers belong to the Saqqaq culture but were followed around 3,000 years ago by the Dorset culture, which spread along the coast of Baffin Bay. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Dorset were themselves displaced by the Thule people; the archipelago has been continuously – but sparsely – inhabited over this period. Migrants in the 19th and early 20th centuries found many ruins of Inuit settlement on Kullorsuaq and other smaller islands around Melville Bay, although Danish settlers during the colonial era were unaware of Kullorsuaq until the end of 19th century; the modern settlement was populated by hunters from now-abandoned villages to Kiatassuaq's south: Inussulik Bay, Sugar Loaf Bay, Tasiusaq Bay. The initial wave of settlers originated in villages of fewer than 10 people: Ikermiut and Kuuk. Several families of hunters from Nuussuaq moved north to Kullorsuaq, founded in 1928.

Between 1930 and 1960, northwestern Greenland underwent a consolidation phase driven by the Danish colonial authorities via Royal Greenland part of KNI, which possessed an island-wide monopoly on trade. The mutual agreement between the hunting families and the trade company limited the pre-war northward expansion until the 1950s, when the populations of the smaller settlements reinforced larger communities in Nuussuaq and Kullorsuaq. In 1952, Kullorsuaq became the northernmost trading post in the archipelago with the establishment of its first year-round shop. In the 1960s, Kullorsuaq was a staging point for further expansion into Savissivik 274 km to the northwest, although this was unsuccessful and most migrants returned south in the 1980s and 1990s. Today, the settlement remains one of the most traditional fishing villages in Greenland. Fishing – including narwhals and whales – and hunting – including fur seals and walruses – are the primary occupations in the area; the fish processing plant for Upernavik Seafood and the Pilersuisoq general store are the only organized employers in the settlement.

Kullorsuaq is among the 10 poorest communities in Greenland, as are three other settlements in the archipelago – Naajaat and Upernavik Kujalleq. Air Greenland serves the village as part of a government contract, with twice-weekly helicopter flights to Nuussuaq and Upernavik. With 448 inhabitants, Kullorsuaq is the largest settlement in the Upernavik Archipelago outside of Upernavik, it is one of the few settlements in the Avannaata municipality exhibiting significant growth patterns over the course of the last two decades, increasing by over 63% relative to its 1990 level and by 16% relative to its 2000 level


Exhorder is an American heavy metal band from New Orleans, Louisiana. They are considered progenitors of the groove-oriented thrash sound made famous by bands such as Pantera, Lamb of God, White Zombie, Machine Head, their music has been regarded as a large influence on the New Orleans metal scene. Active from 1985 to 1994, reformed from 2008 to 2011, they have since reformed in 2017. To date, Exhorder has released three studio albums: Slaughter in the Vatican, The Law and Mourn the Southern Skies. Exhorder was formed in 1985 in Louisiana. After releasing several demos in the vein of pure thrash metal, they continued this sound with their debut studio album, Slaughter in the Vatican, released in 1990, they adapted more of a groove metal-oriented sound by their second album, The Law, released in 1992. The band split in 1994. On May 9, 2008, the band had begun writing new material; as of that day, the band's official Myspace page contains the reunited group's lineup as well as the headline "writing new material for the return of Exhorder".

They played their first reunion show on November 14, 2009 at Southport Hall in Jefferson, LA followed by another less than a month on December 12 at City Club in Houma, Louisiana. A reunion show with Crowbar at the Hangar in New Orleans on February 12, 2010 was their most recent performance to date; the lineup for all of these shows was the same as that of The Law album. Drummer Seth Davis was on a clinic tour in 2010. Davis filled in for original drummer Chris Nail, toured with Exhorder from early 2010 to late 2011, performing classic songs from the band's two albums. On March 22, 2011 bassist Frankie Sparcello died of unknown causes. In the interim and in order to fulfill 3 show dates booked, the band recruited local bass virtuoso Jorge Caicedo to fill in at the last minute; the band played Maryland Deathfest on May 28. They had gone under hiatus. In November 2017, Exhorder ended their six-year hiatus with a newly formed line-up and had signed a worldwide deal with All Independent Service Alliance.

They announced a two-night event in Brooklyn, New York for February 9 and February 10, 2018 by performing the entire Slaughter in the Vatican and The Law albums respectively. The band performed a homecoming show on February 12 in New Orleans, they were planning summer festival appearances, would consider working on new material if the reunion shows went well. On November 20, 2018, the band started work on a new album. In May 2019, Exhorder were announced as part of a tour for Kataklysm's "Meditations Over North America" tour in September, along with Krisiun and Hatchet. In July 2019, the band announced their third album titled Mourn the Southern Skies, released on September 20, 2019; the first single "My Time" was made available for streaming. Exhorder will support the album by supporting Overkill on their Wings of War tour in North America. On February 23, 2020, founding guitarist Vinnie LaBella parted ways with the band, leaving vocalist Kyle Thomas as the remaining founder member. There has been controversy amongst Pantera's and Exhorder's fans over similarities between both bands' sound, fueled by the success of Pantera and the obscurity of Exhorder.

In disagreement with the opinion that Exhorder is "Pantera minus the good songs," AMG's review of Slaughter in the Vatican expresses that "perhaps a more accurate billing would be to call them Pantera without the major label backing." They point to the fact that the title of Exhorder's debut, along with the unsubtle album cover, "certainly didn't help cause any."Exhorder lead vocalist Kyle Thomas has stated that he does not care about any of the criticism and is sick of seeing Exhorder's name tied to Pantera's. He stated that he and some members of Pantera were friends, that he mourns the loss of Dimebag Darrell. Thomas suggested that while it is possible Pantera may have been influenced by his band, the members of Pantera "work a... lot harder than did." Timeline Slaughter in the Vatican The Law Mourn the Southern Skies Live Death Get Rude Slaughter in the Vatican Exhorder at MySpace New Orleans Metal Underground Black With Sin: A Tribute To Kyle Thomas

Battle of Obuchowo

The Battle of Obuchowo took place on September 26, 1920, during the Polish–Soviet War. Polish 4th Podhale Rifles Regiment, commanded by Colonel Mieczysław Boruta-Spiechowicz, clashed with subunits of Red Army's 5th, 6th and 56th Rifle Divisions; the battle, which took place in the village of Obuchowo, located near Grodno, is regarded as part of the much larger Battle of the Niemen River. During the Battle of the Niemen, Polish 21st Mountain Infantry Division, which at that time was commanded by General Andrzej Galica, was part of Second Army, was ordered to capture Indura, together with the Niemen river bridge at Komatowo. 2nd Mountain Brigade was tasked with this, but its advance was slow due to the stubbornness of the enemy. By evening of September 23, Poles captured Dubow, on the next day, at 4 a.m. two Polish battalions, supported by artillery, began their attack. The hills near Indura were defended by Soviet 5th Rifle Division, which several times counterattacked trying to halt the advancing Poles.

After a whole day of fighting, Polish battalions captured Indura at app. 10 p.m. On September 25, Boruta-Spiechowicz was ordered to continue march towards Komatów. At 5 p.m. on that day, 2nd Battalion of Major Kostecki reached the Niemen river, but the bridge was burning, as Soviet soldiers had set it on fire. Since Polish units did not have the pontoons, they had to wait; the pontoons arrived at midnight, the river was crossed before 3 a.m. without any problems, as the enemy most failed to notice Polish movements. By 3 a.m. the Battalion of Major Kostecki reached Obuchowo. The village was defended by Soviet 48th Rifle Regiment, accompanied by a company of sappers; the Poles took the enemy by surprise, after a short fight, captured Obuchowo. While chasing the retreating Soviets, the Poles encountered military transports of 6th and 56th Rifle Divisions, which had fled from Grodno, captured 50 wagons, together with 300 soldiers. After finding out from Soviet prisoners that 6th and 56th Rifle Divisions had divided into two columns, headed towards Skidel, Boruta-Spiechowicz decided to cut their roads of retreat.

Polish 2nd Battalion was sent to Hill 134 near Zydomla, 1st Battalion manned Hill 154 near Obuchowo, 3rd Battalion remained in reserve at Obuchowo. While marching to their positions, 1st and 3rd Battalions were attacked by 56th Rifle Brigade. 2nd Battalion was forced to retreat after a fierce attack of 6th Rifle Division, supported by cavalry. Polish soldiers defended their positions with bayonets and hand grenades, their losses were heavy, including Major Kostecki himself, twice wounded and captured by the enemy. Under the circumstances, Boruta-Spiechowicz rallied a number of soldiers and led a counterattack, which temporarily halted the Soviets; the enemy concentrated its main forces north and east of Obuchowo, planning to capture the Niemen crossing at Komatow, to cut off Polish regiment. At 2 p.m. on September 26, 3rd Podhale Rifle Regiment appeared with support. Under its pressure, the Soviets retreated. Exhausted Polish soldiers failed to destroy Soviet units, but the enemy suffered substantial losses, delayed its retreat by several hours.

Altogether, the Poles lost 300 KIA, 175 WIA / MIA. Soviet losses are unknown, but during the battle, the Poles took 700 prisoners, 3 heavy machine guns and 50 wagons with goods; the Battle of Obuchowo is commemorated on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, with the inscription "GRODNO - OBUCHOWO 20 - 25 IX 1920". J. Odziemkowski, Leksykon wojny polsko-rosyjskiej 1919 - 1920, wyd. RYTM Warszawa 2004