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Somali Americans

Somali Americans are Americans of Somali ancestry. The first ethnic Somalis to arrive in the U. S. were sailors. They were followed by students pursuing higher studies in the 1960s and 1970s, by the late 1970s through the late 1980s and early 1990s more Somalis arrived. However, it was not until the mid and late 1990s when the civil war in Somalia broke out that the majority of Somalis arrived in the United States; the Somali community in the U. S is now among the largest in the Somali diaspora; the earliest ethnic Somali immigrants to the United States were sailors who arrived in the 1920s from British Somaliland. Acquiring American citizenship, they participated in the Somali independence movement and served as key liaisons whenever Somali political figures visited the UN headquarters. For their substantial contributions to Somali society, these early Somali expatriates were rewarded with medals by the Somali government and some were issued land back home. Following independence in 1960, Somali students began arriving in the US to pursue higher studies while living with relatives or on scholarships.

Many of the youngsters returned to Somalia after graduation and went on to play an important role in the development of their nation. During the 1980s, a small number of Somalis settled in the United States, they were joined by many other ethnic Somalis from different backgrounds, who sought asylum in the US after the outbreak of the civil war in Somalia or emigrated from other parts of Greater Somalia. A large number of the Somali immigrants settled in Minnesota, which in 2002 harbored the largest population of Somalis in North America. Many of the newer arrivals came through voluntary agencies contracted with the State Department, who helped them settle in. By 2006, Somalis in the state accounted for $164–$394 million in purchasing power and owned 600 businesses; the city of Minneapolis in particular hosts hundreds of Somali-owned and operated commercial ventures. Colorful stalls inside several shopping malls offer everything from halal meat, to stylish leather shoes, to the latest fashion for men and women, as well as gold jewelry, money transfer or hawala offices, banners advertising the latest Somali films, video rental stores stocked with nostalgic love songs not found in the mainstream supermarkets and boutiques.

As of the 2015 American Community Survey, there are 57,000 residents in the state who are of Somali ancestry, among whom 31,400 were born in Somalia. Somalis in the United States send resources to their extended families abroad, remittances that were facilitated by the signing of the Money Remittances Improvement Act. Following a improved security situation in Somalia in 2012, many Somali U. S. residents have begun returning to Mogadishu and other parts of the country. A few of the homeward-bound immigrants along with some American-born associates have been sought and/or prosecuted for providing material support to the Al-Shabaab and Islamic State political militant groups. However, according to intelligence officials, fewer expatriates were joining the groups' ranks by late 2013. Most of the returnees have instead repatriated for investment opportunities and to take part in the ongoing post-conflict reconstruction process in Somalia. Participating in the renovation of schools, hospitals and other infrastructure, they have played a leading role in the capital's recovery and have helped propel the local real estate market.

Current estimates of the number of Somali immigrants living in the United States vary ranging from 35,760 to 150,000 persons. 2010 American Community Survey data indicates that there are 85,700 people with Somali ancestry in the US. Of those, around 25,000 or one third live in Minnesota. Nationwide, 76,205 were Somalia-born. Somali's are the largest Cushitic groups in the United States; the largest concentration of Somalia-born people in the United States is in the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington area of Minnesota; the next largest concentrations of Somalis are in Columbus, Seattle, San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos in California, Washington, D. C.-Arlington-Alexandria in the Virginia-D. C. area, Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta in Georgia, Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale in Arizona, Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro in Oregon, Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Franklin in Tennessee, Boston-Cambridge-Quincy in Massachusetts, other areas. In 2014, the Minneapolis City Council passed a resolution marking July 1 as Somali American Day.

The event commemorates the Independence Day of Somalia, annually celebrated on the same day. The council approved a resolution making Minneapolis and Bosaso in northeastern Somalia sister cities. Additionally, the Federal Government of Somalia announced that it would start keeping count of Somalis abroad; the Somali community in the United States is represented by various Somali-run organizations. Somali Community Services in San Jose and the Somali American Council of Oregon on the west coast offer guidance to new Somali families and works with the municipal authorities to strengthen civic relations; the Somali Community Access Network is one of several groups serving Columbus' Somali community. In Minnesota, the Confederation of Somali Community in Minnesota, Somali American Parent Association, Somali Action Alliance offer various social services to the state's resident Somalis. Politically, a Somali American Caucus in the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party was formed to represent the Somali community.

A Somali American chairs the Rep

Fund for the Republic

The Fund for the Republic was an autonomous organization by the Ford Foundation and dedicated to protecting freedom of speech and other civil liberties in the United States. In 1959, the Fund moved from New York City to Santa Barbara and changed its name to the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions. With the growth of McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare, the subject of communism in America began to loom large in the public consciousness. In 1951, Robert M. Hutchins became the president of the Fund for the Republic, a non-profit organization whose basic objectives were to research and analyze civil liberties and civil rights. In 1954, Wilbur Hugh Ferry became Fund vice president, responsible for administration and public relations, moved with the Fund to Santa Barbara 1959. In August 1953, Clifford P. Case resigned from the House to become president of the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic, he served in that position until March 1954. Walter Millis, former editorial and staff writer for the New York Herald Tribune, became a staff member of the Fund for the Republic.

Bethuel M. Webster served as legal counsel to the Fund and represented the Fund in hearings before the notorious Un-American Activities Committee of the House of Representatives. During this period he defended William Remington, an economist and alleged Communist accused of espionage. Political scientist Clinton Rossiter of Cornell University directed the Fund for the Republic, which aimed to publish a full-scale history of American communism, it engaged David A. Shannon of the University of Wisconsin to write the history of the Communist Party USA during the post-war period. In 1952, it engaged Theodore Draper to write a monograph on the party's early years. Draper had been thinking of writing a "traditional" history of the Party, based upon documentary sources and meeting scholarly standards. In 1954, Millis became the director of the Fund's study of demilitarization. Robert W. Iversen wrote a book for the fund called Communism and the Schools, published in 1959. Other fellows and grant recipients include Rev. Glenn E. Smiley et al. for Martin Luther King and the Montgomery Story, David Fellman, Norman St John-Stevas.

Edward Lamb Frederick M. Nicholas In 1956, the Fund may have set up the Robert E. Sherwood Award, given to Jerome Coopersmith for writing the episode "I Was Accused" (based on the true story of actor George Voskovec, interned at Ellis Island during days of McCarthyism. Report on Blacklisting: Radio-Television by John Cogley The Roots of American Communism by Theodore Draper Economic Power and the Free Society by Adolf A. Berle American Civil Liberties in the Foreign Press: A Study Conducted Under the Auspices of the Association for Education in Journalism, with Financial Support from the Fund for the Republic by Douglas Waples Communism and the Schools by Robert W. Iversen The Art of Government: Reform and Organization Politics in Philadelphia by James Reichly A New Philosophy for Labor by Gus Tyler Taste and the Censor in Television by Charles Winick The Corporation and the Economy by Wilbur Hugh Ferry American Communism and Soviet Russia by Theodore Draper Medicine: An Interview by Donald McDonald with Herbert Ratner, M.

D. The Economy Under Law by Wilbur Hugh Ferry Caught in the Horn of Plenty by Wilbur Hugh Ferry What Price Peace by Wilbur Hugh Ferry Masscom as Educator by Wilbur Hugh Ferry Farewell to Integration by Wilbur Hugh Ferry Tonic and Toxic Technology by Wilbur Hugh Ferry The Police State is Here by Wilbur Hugh Ferry Reeves, Thomas C.. Freedom and the Foundation: The Fund for the Republic in the Era of McCarthyism. Knopf. ISBN 9780307828897. Retrieved 8 September 2018.</ref> Kelly, Frank K.. Court of Reason – Robert Hutchins and the Fund for the Republic. Free Press. ISBN 9780029180303. Retrieved 8 September 2018

Wanda Beach

Wanda Beach or Wanda is the northernmost patrolled beach on Bate Bay in Cronulla, New South Wales, Australia. Green Hills or Green Hills Ridge is the name given to the Cronulla sand dunes, just north of Wanda; the original inhabitants of the land were the Gweagal Aborigines who were a clan of the Tharawal tribe of Indigenous Australians. They are the traditional custodians of the southern geographic areas of Sydney. Wanda is an Aboriginal word for sand hills; the Wanda Surf Lifesaving Club was established in 1946 after World War II by a group of men who banded together, as they did in warfare, to patrol the beaches. The colours of Army red, Air Force blue, Navy blue were adopted as the club colours; the club, located on Marine Esplanade, has grown in size to its current membership of over 900 male and female members, ranging in age from five-year-old Nippers to the original Founding Members. The primary objective of the club is to patrol the beach in an effort to ensure the safety of the surfing public but it is actively involved in the competition arena, with excellent performances at State and National Competitions.

A number of social activities are organised throughout the year to bring together members from all sections of the club. In 1965 the beach became notorious after the Wanda Beach Murders


A benefice or living is a reward received in exchange for services rendered and as a retainer for future services. The Roman Empire used the Latin term beneficium as a benefit to an individual from the Empire for services rendered, its use was adopted by the Western Church in the Carolingian Era as a benefit bestowed by the crown or church officials. A benefice from a church is called a precaria such as a stipend and one from a monarch or nobleman is called a fief. A benefice is distinct from an allod, in that an allod is property owned outright, not bestowed by a higher authority. In ancient Rome a benefice was a gift of land for life as a reward for services rendered to the state; the word comes from the Latin noun beneficium, meaning "benefit". In the 8th century, using their position as Mayor of the Palace, Charles Martel, Carloman I and Pepin II usurped a large number of church benefices for distribution to vassals, Carolingians continued this practice as emperors; these estates were held in return for oaths of military assistance, which aided the Carolingians in consolidating and strengthening their power.

Charlemagne continued the late Roman concept of granting benefices in return for military and administrative service to his empire. Thus, the imperial structure was bound together through a series of oaths between the monarch and the recipient of land, he ordered and administered his kingdom and his empire through a series of published statutes called capitularies. The Capitulary of Herstal distinguished between his vassals who were styled casati and non-casati, those subjects who had received a benefice from the hand of the king and those who had not, towards the end of Charlemagne's reign it appears that a royal vassal who had satisfactorily fulfilled his duties could always look forward to the grant of a benefice in some part of the Empire. Once he had received a benefice, he would take up his residence on it. In the year 800 Pope Leo III placed the crown of Holy Roman Emperor on the head of Charlemagne; this act caused great turmoil for future generations, who would afterward argue that the emperor thereby received his position as a benefice from the papacy.

In his March 1075 Dictatus Papae, Pope Gregory VII declared that only the pope could depose an emperor, which implied that he could do so just as a lord might take a benefice away from a vassal. This declaration inflamed Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and furthered the friction caused in the Investiture Conflict; the expanded practice continued through the Middle Ages within the European feudal system. This same customary method became adopted by the Catholic Church; the church's revenue streams came from, amongst other things and profits arising from assets gifted to the church, its endowment, given by believers, be they monarch, lord of the manor or vassal, also upon tithes calculated on the sale of the product of the people's personal labour in the entire parish such as cloth or shoes and the people's profits from specific forms of God-given, natural increase such as crops and in livestock. The Catholic Church granted buildings, grants of land and greater and/or lesser tithes for life but the land was not alienated from the dioceses.

However the Council of Lyons of 566 annexed these grants to the churches. By the time of the Council of Mainz of 813 these grants were known as beneficia. Holding a benefice did not imply a cure of souls although each benefice had a number of spiritual duties attached to it. For providing these duties, a priest would receive "temporalities". Benefices were used for the worldly support of much of its pastoral clergy – clergy gaining rewards for carrying out their duties with rights to certain revenues, the "fruits of their office"; the original donor of the temporalities or his nominee, the patron and his successors in title, held the advowson. Parish priests were charged with the temporal care of their congregation; the community provided for the priest as necessary as organisation improved, by tithe. Some individual institutions within the church accumulated enormous endowments and, with that, temporal power; these endowments sometimes concentrated great wealth in the "dead hand" of the church, so called because it endured beyond any individual's life.

The church was exempt from all taxes. This was in contrast to feudal practice where the nobility would hold land on grant from the king in return for service service in war; this meant that the church over time gained a large share of land in many feudal states and so was a cause of increasing tension between the church and the Crown. The holder of more than one benefice known as a pluralist, could keep the revenue to which he was entitled and pay lesser sums to deputies to carry out the corresponding duties. By a Decree of the Lateran Council of 1215 no clerk could hold two benefices with cure of souls, if a beneficed clerk took a second benefice with cure of souls, he vacated ipso facto his first benefice. Dispensations, could be obtained from Rome; the benefice system was open to abuse. Acquisitive prelates held multiple major benefices; the holding of more than one benefice is termed pluralism. An Engli

Ted Hendricks

Theodore Paul Hendricks is a Guatemalan-American former American football player, a linebacker for 15 seasons with the Baltimore Colts, Green Bay Packers, the Oakland and Los Angeles Raiders in the National Football League. He was a member of four Super Bowl-winning teams, was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1990 after being elected to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1987, he is distinguished as being the first Guatemalan-born player in the NFL. Hendricks was born to a Guatemalan-born woman of Italian descent named Angela Bonatti Lazzari in Guatemala City where his American father was employed, was raised in Miami Springs, Florida, he attended Hialeah High School. Ted speaks fluent Spanish. Hendricks played college football at the University of Miami, he played stand-up defensive end for the University of Miami during the 1966 through 1968 seasons. He finished fifth in the 1968 Heisman Trophy voting, he was a second-team All-America selection in 1966. While in college, Hendricks became a member of Kappa Sigma fraternity.

While playing for Miami, Hendricks made. He led the team in solo tackles by a defensive lineman with 139. Hendricks recovered 12 fumbles during his playing career, he recorded a career-high of 4 quarterback sacks against the University of Florida in 1968. In his junior year of 1967 he caused nine turnovers, it was at Miami that the tall, thin Hendricks gained the nickname "The Mad Stork." It was a nickname that would follow him until his NFL days when he was called "The Stork". Hendricks' Miami jersey was retired in 1997, he was elected to the College Football Hall of Fame. Hendricks was inducted into the University of Miami Sports Hall of Fame in 1980. Hendricks began his pro football career as a second-round pick of the Baltimore Colts in the 1969 AFL-NFL Draft, he was listed as a defensive end, why he had the unusual number of 83. After coach Don Shula converted him to linebacker, he entered the starting lineup halfway through his rookie 1969 season, he made 32 tackles and 2 sacks on the quarterback and knocked down 2 passes and blocked a field goal.

He played a key role in the Colts' 1970 Super Bowl V-winning season. He was the starting strong-side linebacker and recorded 67 tackles and 1-1/2 sacks while intercepting a pass, he recorded 2 blocked kicks and knocked down 5 passes. He and fellow linebackers Mike Curtis and Ray May anchored a unit, one of the NFL's best in defending against the run, they allowed only 234 points, 7th in the NFL. He was chosen to the first of four All-Pro selections in 1971, he picked off 5 passes while batting away 7 passes. He recorded 5 sacks and blocked 2 more kicks; the Colts defense was ranked #1 in the NFL in fewest rushing yards allowed and lowest rushing attempt. The Colts did not advance to the Super Bowl, losing to the Miami Dolphins. In 1972 Hendricks recorded 99 tackles, 6 sacks, knocked down 7 passes, intercepted two passes and blocked 2 field goals; the following season Hendricks made 86 tackles and 4 sacks and picked off 3 passes for 33 yards, while batting away 7 passes for the third consecutive season and blocking a punt.

He was second-team All-Pro in both 1972 and 1973. After five seasons with the Colts, he was traded to the Green Bay Packers. After Hendricks was traded to the Packers, he was assigned jersey no. 56 and signed a'future contract' with the nascent World Football League. Hendricks was in the option year of his NFL contract, had one of his best seasons: five interceptions, seven blocked kicks and a safety, two sacks, 75 tackles, two knocked down passes while again earning consensus All-Pro honors for the second time. With the World Football League bankrupt, owner Al Davis of the Raiders sent two first round draft choices to the Packers for the rights to Hendricks, signing him as a limited free agent. After the trade, Hendricks went on to nine seasons with the Raiders before retiring after the 1983 season. In his first year on the Raider team, coach John Madden used him sparingly as a result of a feud Madden had with Al Davis. However, Madden had him starting by the end of the 1975 season. Hendricks recorded only 27 tackles and 3 passes batted and 2 interceptions.

He was recorded 5 sacks in that role. He recorded 4 sacks in a playoff win against the Cincinnati Bengals. Injuries limited the number of defensive lineman Madden had available so he used Hendricks as a stand-up defensive end, the position Hendricks played in college. At season's end the Raiders defense was among the NFL's top units, despite injuries to a few key defensive linemen; the Raiders led the NFL in interceptions and they ranked 2nd in the NFL in sacks, 7th in fewest points allowed, were 3rd in total defense. The next year Hendricks became a full-time player with the Raiders, the Raiders switched to a 3–4 defense early in the season. Hendricks played the weakside linebacker, since All-Pro Phil Villapiano played Hendricks' strong-side; the Raiders defense was 6th in the NFL in sacks but did not finish in the top ten in points allowed or total defense. The Raiders won Super Bowl XI


Kergunyah is a locality in north eastern Victoria. The locality is on the Kiewa Valley Highway, 353 kilometres north east of the state capital, Melbourne. At the 2006 census, Kergunyah had a population of 188; the town was home to the "Kergunyah Football Club", established in 1923. They competed in leagues including the "Allans Flat District Football Association", the "Yackandandah Football Association", the "Dederang And District Football Association", the "Tallangatta And District Football League", they won Tallangatta And District Football League premierships in 1955, 1956, 1957. They folded in 1975 after dwindling numbers. After folding, a number of former players met to form a new club with "'Kergunyah being the Origins" for the Wodonga Raiders. Media related to Kergunyah, Victoria at Wikimedia Commons