Works Progress Administration
The Works Progress Administration was an American New Deal agency, employing millions of people to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads. It was established on May 6, 1935, by Executive Order 7034. In a much smaller project, Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, writers and directors in large arts, drama and literacy projects; the four projects dedicated to these were: the Federal Writers’ Project, the Historical Records Survey, the Federal Theatre Project, the Federal Music Project, the Federal Art Project. In the Historical Records Survey, for instance, many former slaves in the South were interviewed. Theater and music groups toured throughout America, gave more than 225,000 performances. Archaeological investigations under the WPA were influential in the rediscovery of pre-Columbian Native American cultures, the development of professional archaeology in the US; every community in the United States had a new park, bridge, or school, constructed by the agency.
The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States, while developing infrastructure to support the current and future society. Above all, the WPA hired workers and craftsmen who were employed in building streets. Thus, under the leadership of the WPA, more than 1 million km of streets and over 10,000 bridges were built, in addition to many airports and much housing; the largest single project of the WPA was the Tennessee Valley Authority, which provided the impoverished Tennessee Valley with dams and waterworks to create an infrastructure for electrical power. Camp David, the presidential estate in Maryland used for international meetings, San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge were both constructed by the WPA. At its peak in 1938, it provided paid jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration.
Between 1935 and 1943, when the agency was disbanded, the WPA employed 8.5 million people. Most people who needed a job were eligible for employment in some capacity. Hourly wages were set to the prevailing wages in each area. Full employment, reached in 1942 and emerged as a long-term national goal around 1944, was not the goal of the WPA. "Millions of people needed subsistence incomes. Work relief was preferred over public assistance because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, kept skills sharp."The WPA was a national program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments, which provided 10–30% of the costs. The local sponsor provided land and trucks and supplies, with the WPA responsible for wages. WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation or Federal Emergency Relief Administration programs, it was liquidated on June 30, 1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the worker shortage of World War II.
The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for eight years. A joint resolution introduced January 21, 1935, the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 was passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on April 8, 1935. On May 6, 1935, FDR issued executive order 7034; the WPA superseded the work of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, dissolved. Direct relief assistance was permanently replaced by a national work relief program—a major public works program directed by the WPA; the WPA was shaped by Harry Hopkins, supervisor of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and close adviser to Roosevelt. Both Roosevelt and Hopkins believed that the route to economic recovery and the lessened importance of the dole would be in employment programs such as the WPA. Hallie Flanagan, national director of the Federal Theatre Project, wrote that "for the first time in the relief experiments of this country the preservation of the skill of the worker, hence the preservation of his self-respect, became important."The WPA was organized into the following divisions: The Division of Engineering and Construction, which planned and supervised construction projects including airports, dams and sanitation systems.
The Division of Professional and Service Projects, responsible for white-collar projects including education programs, recreation programs, the arts projects. It was named the Division of Community Service Programs and the Service Division; the Division of Finance. The Division of Information; the Division of Investigation, which succeeded a comparable division at FERA and investigated fraud, misappropriation of funds and disloyalty. The Division of Statistics known as the Division of Social Research; the Project Control Division, which processed project applications. Other divisions including the Employment, Safety and Training and Reemployment; these ordinary men and women proved to be extraordinary beyond all expectation. They
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Gallup, New Mexico
Gallup is a city in McKinley County, New Mexico, United States, with a population of 21,678 as of the 2010 census. A substantial percentage of its population is Native American, with residents from the Navajo and Zuni tribes. Gallup is the county seat of McKinley County and the most populous city between Flagstaff and Albuquerque, along the historic U. S. Route 66; the city was founded in 1881 as a railhead for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, named after David Gallup, a paymaster for the railroad. It is on the Trails of one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways; because of the nearby rugged terrain, it was a popular location in the 1940s and 1950s for Hollywood Westerns. Gallup was founded in 1881 as a railhead for the Pacific Railroad; the city was named after a paymaster for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. During World War II, the city fought to prevent 800 Japanese American residents from being placed in wartime internment, the only New Mexico city to do so. Gallup is known as the "Heart of Indian Country" because it is on the edge of the Navajo reservation and is home to members of many other tribes as well.
U. S. Route 66 passed through Gallup, the town's name is mentioned in the lyrics of the song of the same name. In 2003, the U. S. and New Mexico Departments of Transportation renumbered US Highway 666, the city's other major highway, as Route 491. Former Governor Bill Richardson pushed for the number changed because "666" is associated with Satan and Devil worship, thus it was considered "cursed" or a "Beast" to some locals; the situation was exacerbated by the high death toll on the highway, a result of high rates of drivers under the influence of alcohol or drugs, budget shortfalls among both the New Mexico Department of Transportation and state and local law enforcement agencies. Gallup has a modestly lively night time culture downtown, Indian dances during summertime nights, art crawls, small museums including a Navajo Code Talk museum. Gallup commissioned a number of murals highlighting local culture and contributions dot downtown. Being the largest city between Flagstaff and Albuquerque, Gallup claims many notable buildings, places and people.
The historic El Rancho Hotel & Motel has hosted a numerous array of movie stars including John Wayne, Ronald Reagan, Humphrey Bogart, Spencer Tracy, Katharine Hepburn, Joan Crawford, Kirk Douglas, Doris Day, Gregory Peck, Burt Lancaster. The rugged terrain surrounding Gallup was popular with Hollywood filmmakers during the 1940s and 50s for the on-location shooting of Westerns. Actors and film crews would stay at that hotel during filming. Films made in Gallup include Billy the Kid, The Sea of Grass, Four Faces West, Only the Valiant, Ace in the Hole, Escape from Fort Bravo, A Distant Trumpet, The Hallelujah Trail. Other movies shot here are Superman. Gallup is sometimes called the "Indian Capital of the World", for its location in the heart of Native American lands, the presence of Navajo, Zuni and other tribes. 1/3 of the city's population has Native American roots. Gallup's nickname references the huge impact of the Native American cultures found in and around the city. In 2013, Gallup was named by Rand McNally as the "Most Patriotic Small Town in America 2013."
Gallup is located at 35°31′41″N 108°44′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.4 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 20,209 people, 6,810 households, 4,869 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,513.7 people per square mile. There were 7,349 housing units at an average density of 550.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 35.2% White, 43.8% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 1.2% African American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 12.0% from other races, 5.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31.7% of the population. There were 6,810 households out of which 41.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 19.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.5% were non-nuclear families. 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.39.
In the city, the population was spread out with 32.7% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 8.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.2 males. It has close proximity to Native American reservations, historic lack of economic development in addition to many mine closures in the last century; as a result of these mine closures, Gallup has a large socioeconomic poor population. The median income for a household in the city was $34,868, the median income for a family was $39,197. Males had a median income of $33,380 versus $24,441 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,789. About 16.6% of families and 20.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 16.8% of those age 65 or over. Crime is a serious problem in Gallup. In 2012, violent crime was nearly five times the national average.
As a result, the city has the highest violent crime rate in the state of New Mexico. According to an article published in November 2014, "Gallup saw 463 violent crimes last year including murder, rape and aggravated assault. That’s an elev
Glen Rose, Texas
Glen Rose is a city in and the county seat of Somervell County, United States. As of the 2012 census estimate, the city population was 2,502; the area was first settled in 1849 by Charles Barnard. After the region became a federal Indian reservation in 1855, Barnard moved his business to Fort Belknap. Circa 1859 when the reservation was abolished, he returned to the area and built the first store on what is now the site of Glen Rose. A three-story stone gristmill was constructed along the Paluxy River and the town that grew up around it became known as Barnard's Mill; the mill was sold to T. C. Jordan of Dallas in 1871 for $65,000. Jordan's wife, a native of Scotland, decided to rename the town Rose Glen to reflect the area's natural surroundings; the citizens voted to call the community Glen Rose. A post office opened in 1874; when Somervell County was formed on March 15, 1875, Glen Rose was designated as its county seat. A Baptist college was organized in 1879 and was sold to the Paluxy Baptist Association.
In 1889, the northern Presbyterians opened Glen Rose Collegiate Institute, which remained in operation for the next 15 to 20 years. A courthouse around Glen Rose's town square burned down a year later. A newly built Romanesque Revival style courthouse was constructed soon after with locally quarried limestone; that building sustained damage in a 1902 tornado that damaged part of the town square. Throughout the period from the 1900s to the 1920s, Glen Rose was home to 1,000 people; the area's mineral springs attracted self-styled healers to the community. During Prohibition, the area was a center of moonshining and Glen Rose became known as the "whiskey woods capital of the state." The population remained steady during the Great Depression, although unemployment rates in both Glen Rose and Somervell County increased. As part of the New Deal, Glen Rose borrowed $80,000 under the Public Works Administration to construct a new water and sewage system. Three low-water dams on the Paluxy River, several local school buildings, a canning plant were built with Works Projects Administration money.
During the post-war years, the population of Somervell County declined from 3,071 in 1940 to 2,542 in 1950 as many residents moved in search of greater employment opportunities. At the same time, Glen Rose grew from 1,050 residents in 1940 to 1,248 in 1950; the construction of the Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant in the mid-1970s brought financial advantages and new residents to the Glen Rose area. The city experienced a 34 percent increase in population between 1970 and 1980; the nuclear plant came to dominate the local economy. Other chief industries include farming and tourism. 111 rated businesses were located in Glen Rose as of 1991. By 2000, the population of the city had grown to 2,122 and the total number of rated businesses rose to 224. Glen Rose is located at 32°14′12″N 97°45′14″W, around the junction of U. S. Highway 67 and State Highway 144 in central Somervell County; the city is situated nearly 17 miles south of 52 miles southwest of Fort Worth. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.7 square miles, all land.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Glen Rose has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,122 people, 801 households, 543 families residing in the city. The population density was 777.6 people per square mile. There were 903 housing units at an average density of 330.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.09% White, 0.28% African American, 0.94% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 5.51% from other races, 1.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.32% of the population. There were 801 households out of which 36.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.1% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,837, the median income for a family was $37,545. Males had a median income of $30,238 versus $19,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,940. About 12.2% of families and 14.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.2% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over. Glen Rose is part of TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. Fossil Rim Wildlife Center is an 1,800-acre wildlife preserve open to the public, it features many different species of animals. Dinosaur Valley State Park, located about 2 miles west of Glen Rose, features a large number of dinosaur footprints, the Glen Rose Formation, in the bed of the Paluxy River.
The park is one of the top local tourist attractions. Creation Evidence Museum; the Promise, yearly since 1989, musical production of the life of Christ at Texas Amphitheatre. Glen Rose is served by the Glen Rose Independent School District. Two
The Edwards Plateau is a region of west-central Texas, bounded by the Balcones Fault to the south and east, the Llano Uplift and the Llano Estacado to the north, the Pecos River and Chihuahuan Desert to the west. San Angelo, San Antonio and Del Rio outline the area; the eastern portion of the plateau is known as the Texas Hill Country. According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, the following 41 counties comprise the Edwards Plateau: The bedrock consists of limestone, with elevations ranging between 100 and 3000 ft. Caves are numerous; the landscape of the plateau is savanna scattered with trees. It lacks deep soil suitable for farming, though the soil is fertile mollisols and some cotton, grain sorghum, oats are grown. For the most part, the thin soil and rough terrain areas are grazing regions, with cattle and Angora goats predominant. Several rivers cross the region, which flow to the south and east through the Texas Hill Country toward the Gulf of Mexico; the area is well drained.
Rainfall varies from 15 to 33 inches per year, on average, from northwest to southeast, the area has a moderate temperature and a reasonably long growing season. Trees of the savanna include juniper and oak species scattered over grasses, a vegetation type shaped by droughts and regular fires; some pecan trees are found near the rivers. The Balcones Fault is associated with the Edwards Plateau formation; this fault line is an ecological demarcation for the range definition of a number of species. Caves of the Edwards Plateau are important habitats for a great deal of wildlife; the area is home to some of the largest colonies of bats in the world, including millions of Mexican free-tailed bats. The largest colony of these inhabits Bracken Cave near San Antonio, while the Congress Avenue Bridge in Austin is the summer home for over half a million and is the largest bat colony anywhere in an urban area; the Edwards Plateau is home to at least 14 endemic freshwater fishes, including two subterranean species of catfish and 13 fish species considered to be spring-associated.
Mechanisms for spring association of fishes is not understood, but thought to mediated by water temperature. The large numbers of reptiles and birds include breeding populations of the Texan endemic golden-cheeked warbler. Nearly all the natural habitat of the plateau has been converted to ranchland, farmland, or urban areas, such as Austin and San Antonio, with only about 2% remaining in scattered fragments to the east of the plateau. Further alteration to the savanna has incurred though the encroachment of shrubs now that grassland fires are controlled. Small areas of intact habitat remain around Austin, where areas are protected, such as the Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge. Another important area for wildlife is Fort Hood military base. Earliest human settlement of this area was by Native Americans. First it was used and wandered about by Jumano and Coahuiltecan groups the Apacheria extended into the Southern Plains by the forerunners of the Lipan and Mescalero Apaches. After the expulsion of the Apachean groups from the Plains by the Comanche, this area was dominated by the Penateka band of the Southern Comanche.
Texas Hill Country Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge Colorado River Mount Bonnell List of ecoregions in the United States Johnson, E. H.. "Edwards Plateau". TSHA Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. "Plateaus and Canyonlands". Texas Beyond History. University of Texas at Austin. Texas counties map showing the ecoregion
Hood County, Texas
Hood County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 51,182, its county seat is Granbury. The county is named for John Bell Hood, a Confederate lieutenant general and the commander of Hood's Texas Brigade. Hood County is part of the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Granbury Micropolitan Area. Hood County was formed in 1866 from portions of Johnson County, it was named after John Bell Hood, a general of the Confederate Army and commander of Hood's Texas Brigade. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 437 square miles, of which 421 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 377 State Highway 144 Parker County Johnson County Somervell County Erath County Palo Pinto County As of the census of 2000, there were 41,100 people, 16,176 households, 12,099 families residing in the county; the population density was 98 people per square mile. There were 19,105 housing units at an average density of 45 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 94.77% White, 0.33% Black or African American, 0.82% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.40% from other races, 1.32% from two or more races. 7.24% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 16,176 households out of which 28.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.60% were married couples living together, 7.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.20% were non-families. 21.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.88. As of the 2010 census, there were about 3.4 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.60% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 26.60% from 45 to 64, 17.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.20 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,668, the median income for a family was $50,111. Males had a median income of $38,662 versus $23,723 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,261. About 6.00% of families and 8.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.00% of those under age 18 and 7.40% of those age 65 or over. Hood County is part of the Dallas/Fort Worth Television media market in North Central Texas. Local News media outlets are: KDFW-TV, KXAS-TV, WFAA-TV, KTVT-TV, KERA-TV, KTXA-TV, KDFI-TV, KDAF-TV, KFWD-TV, KDTX-TV. Hood County is serviced by two news media sources, "Hood County Free Press", an online daily news publication, the bi-weekly newspaper, Hood County News; the following school districts serve Hood County: Bluff Dale ISD Glen Rose ISD Godley ISD Granbury ISD Lipan ISD Tolar ISD Hood County has become a Republican county since 1980. Brazos Bend Cresson DeCordova Granbury Lipan Tolar Canyon Creek Oak Trail Shores Pecan Plantation Acton Paluxy List of museums in North Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Hood County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Hood County Hood County Lawyer- Daniel Webb Site has some good links about Hood County.
Hood County government's website Hood County from the Handbook of Texas Online U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Hood County, Texas
Texas Ranger Division
The Texas Ranger Division called the Texas Rangers, is a U. S statewide investigative law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, based in the capital city of Austin. Over the years, the Texas Rangers have investigated crimes ranging from murder to political corruption, acted in riot control and as detectives, protected the governor of Texas, tracked down fugitives, functioned as a paramilitary force at the service of both the Republic and the state of Texas; the Texas Rangers were unofficially created by Stephen F. Austin in a call-to-arms written in 1823 and were first headed by Captain Morris. After a decade, on August 10, 1835, Daniel Parker introduced a resolution to the Permanent Council creating a body of rangers to protect the border; the unit was dissolved by the federal authorities during the post–Civil War Reconstruction Era, but was reformed upon the reinstitution of home government. Since 1935, the organization has been a division of the Texas Department of Public Safety.
As of 2015, there are 162 commissioned members of the Ranger force. The Rangers have taken part in many of the most important events of Texas history, such as stopping the assassination of presidents William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz in El Paso, in some of the best-known criminal cases in the history of the Old West, such as those of gunfighter John Wesley Hardin, bank robber Sam Bass, outlaws Bonnie and Clyde. Scores of books have been written about the Rangers, from well-researched works of nonfiction to pulp novels and other such fiction, making the Rangers significant participants in the mythology of the Wild West; the Lone Ranger the best-known example of a Texas Ranger–derived fictional character, draws his alias from having once been a Texas Ranger. Other well-known examples include. During their mixed history, a distinct Ranger tradition has evolved. There is a museum dedicated to the Texas Rangers in Texas; the rangers were founded in 1823 when Stephen F. Austin, known as the Father of Texas, employed ten men to act as rangers to protect 600 to 700 newly settled families who arrived in Texas following the Mexican War of Independence.
While there is some discussion as to when Austin employed men as "rangers", Texas Ranger lore dates the year of their organization to this event. The Texas Rangers were formally constituted in 1835 and, in November, Robert McAlpin Williamson was chosen to be the first Major of the Texas Rangers. Within two years the Rangers comprised more than 300 men. Following the Texas Revolution and the creation of the Republic of Texas, newly elected president Mirabeau B. Lamar, raised a force of 56 Rangers to fight the Cherokee and the Comanche in retaliation for the support they had given the Mexicans at the Cordova Rebellion against the Republic. Ten rangers were killed in the Battle of Stone Houses in 1837; the size of the Ranger force was increased from 56 to 150 men by Sam Houston, as President of the Republic, in 1841, The Rangers continued to participate in skirmishes with Native Americans through 1846, when the annexation of Texas to the United States and the Mexican–American War saw several companies of Rangers mustered into federal service.
They played important roles at various battles, acting as guides and participating in Counter-guerrilla warfare, soon establishing a fearsome reputation among both Mexicans and Americans. At the Battle of Monterrey in September 1846, famous Texas Rangers such as John Coffee "Jack" Hays, Ben McCulloch, Bigfoot Wallace, Samuel Hamilton Walker played important roles in the battle, to include advising General William Jenkins Worth on the tactics required to fight inside a Mexican city. Richard Addison Gillespie, a famed Texas Ranger, died at Monterrey, General Worth renamed a hill "Mount Gillespie" after him. Colonel Hays organized a second regiment of Texas Rangers, including Rip Ford, who fought with General Winfield Scott in his Mexico City Campaign and the Anti-guerrilla campaign along his line of communications to Vera Cruz. John Jackson Tumlinson Sr. the first alcalde of the Colorado district, is considered by many Texas Ranger historians to be the first Texas Ranger killed in the line of duty.
One of his most urgent issues was protection of settlers from murder by marauders. On his way to San Antonio, in 1823, to discuss the issue with the governor, Tumlinson was killed by Native Americans, his traveling companion, a Mr. Newman, escaped. Tumlinson's body was never found. Following the end of the war in 1848, the Rangers were disbanded, but the election of Hardin Richard Runnels as governor in 1857 meant $70,000 was allocated to fund the Rangers under John Salmon "Rip" Ford, a veteran of the Mexican war; the now 100-strong Rangers participated in campaigns against the Comanche and other tribes, whose raids against the settlers and their properties had become common. Ford and his Rangers fought the Comanche in the Battle of Little Robe Creek in 1858 and Juan Cortina in the Battle of Rio Grande City the following year; the success of a series of campaigns in the 1860s marked a turning point in Rangers' history. The U. S. Army could provide only limited and thinly-stretched protection in the enormous territory of Texas.
By contrast, the Rangers' effectiveness when dealing with these threats convinced both the people of the state and the political leaders that a well-funded and organized state Ranger force was essential. Such a force could use the deep fa