Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
The Tyranni are a clade of passerine birds that includes more than 1,000 species, the large majority of which are South American. It is named after the type genus Tyrannus; these have a different anatomy of the syrinx musculature than the oscines, hence its common name of suboscines. The available morphological, DNA sequence, biogeographical data, as well as the fossil record, agree that these two major passerine suborders are evolutionarily distinct clades. According to Sibley and Ahlquist's DNA-DNA hybridization studies the Tyranni can be divided into three infraorders: Acanthisittides and Tyrannides; the first, containing the Acanthisittidae, is of disputed position. Current opinion is that they are more a distinct and ancient lineage, constitute a suborder on their own; the Eurylaimides contain the Old World suboscines – distributed in tropical regions around the Indian Ocean – and a single American species, the sapayoa: Eurylaimidae: broadbills Philepittidae: asities Sapayoidae: broad-billed sapayoa Pittidae: pittasThe former three are placed into a distinct superfamily from the pittas, Eurylaimoidea.
More as passeriform relationships become better resolved, there is an increasing trend to elevate the Eurylaimides to suborder rank. The Tyrannides contain all the suboscines from the Americas, except the broad-billed sapayoa: Furnariidae: ovenbirds and woodcreepers Thamnophilidae: antbirds Formicariidae: antthrushes Grallariidae: antpittas Rhinocryptidae: tapaculos Conopophagidae: gnateaters and gnatpittas Tyrannidae: tyrant-flycatchers Tityridae: tityras and allies. However, as indicated above, DNA-DNA hybridization has shown to be not well suited to reliably resolve the suboscine phylogeny, it was determined that there was a simple dichotomy between the antbirds and allies, the tyrant-flycatchers and allies. Given that the "parvorder" arrangement advanced is obsolete - more so if the Eurylaimides are elevated to a distinct suborder - it would be advisable to rank the clades as superfamilies, or if the broadbill group is considered a separate suborder, as infraorders. In the former case, the name Furnarioidea would be available for the tracheophones, whereas "Tyrannoidea", the "bronchophone" equivalent, has not yet been formally defined.
In the latter case, the tracheophones would be classified as "Furnariides", while the Tyrannides would be restricted to the tyrant-flycatchers and other "bronchophone" families. The tracheophones contain the Furnariidae, Thamnophilidae and Conopophagidae; the tyrant-flycatcher clade includes the namesake family, the Tityridae, the Cotingidae, the Pipridae. Irestedt, Martin. P.: Systematic relationships and biogeography of the tracheophone suboscines. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23: 499–512. Doi:10.1016/S1055-790300034-9
The common cuckoo is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, which includes the roadrunners, the anis and the coucals. This species is a widespread summer migrant to Europe and Asia, winters in Africa, it is a brood parasite, which means it lays eggs in the nests of other bird species of dunnocks, meadow pipits, reed warblers. Although its eggs are larger than those of its hosts, the eggs in each type of host nest resemble the host's eggs; the adult too is a mimic, in its case of the sparrowhawk. The species' binomial name is derived from the Latin canorus; the cuckoo family gets its common name and genus name by onomatopoeia for the call of the male common cuckoo. The English word "cuckoo" comes from the Old French cucu and it first appears about 1240 in the poem Sumer Is Icumen In - "Summer has come in / Loudly sing, Cuckoo!" in modern English. The scientific name is from Latin. Cuculus is "cuckoo" and canorus, "melodious ". There are four subspecies worldwide: C. c. canorus, the nominate subspecies, was first described by Linnaeus in 1758.
It occurs from Ireland through Scandinavia, northern Russia and Siberia to Japan in the east, from the Pyrenees through Turkey, Mongolia, northern China and Korea. It winters in South Asia. C. c. bakeri, first described by Hartert in 1912, breeds in western China to the Himalayan foothills in northern India, Myanmar, northwestern Thailand and southern China. During the winter it is found in East Bengal and southeastern Asia. C. c. bangsi was first described by Oberholser in 1919 and breeds in Iberia, the Balearic Islands and North Africa, spending the winter in Africa. C. c. subtelephonus, first described by Zarudny in 1914, breeds in Central Asia from Turkestan to southern Mongolia. It migrates to southern Africa for the winter. Although the common cuckoo's global population appears to be declining, it is classified of being of Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, it is estimated that the species numbers between 25 million and 100 million individuals worldwide, with around 12.6 million to 25.8 million of those birds breeding in Europe.
The maximum recorded lifespan of a common cuckoo in the United Kingdom is 6 years, 11 months and 2 days. The common cuckoo is 32–34 centimetres long from bill to tail (with a tail of 13–15 centimetres and a wingspan of 55–60 centimetres; the legs are short. It is greyish with a slender body and long tail and can be mistaken for a falcon in flight, where the wingbeats are regular. During the breeding season, common cuckoos settle on an open perch with drooped wings and raised tail. There is a rufous colour morph, which occurs in adult females but more in juveniles. All adult males are slate-grey; the iris, orbital ring, the base of the bill and feet are yellow. Grey adult females have a pinkish-buff or buff background to the barring and neck sides, sometimes small rufous spots on the median and greater coverts and the outer webs of the secondary feathers. Rufous morph adult females have reddish-brown upperparts with dark black bars; the black upperpart bars are narrower than the rufous bars, as opposed to rufous juvenile birds, where the black bars are broader.
Common cuckoos in their first autumn have variable plumage. Some have strongly-barred chestnut-brown upperparts. Rufous-brown birds have barred upperparts with some feathers edged with creamy-white. All have whitish edges to the upper primaries; the secondaries and greater coverts have chestnut spots. In spring, birds hatched in the previous year may retain some barred wing-coverts; the most obvious identification features of juvenile common cuckoos are the white nape patch and white feather fringes. Common cuckoos moult twice a year: a partial moult in summer and a complete moult in winter. Males weigh around 130 females 110 grams; the common cuckoo looks similar to the Oriental cuckoo, shorter-winged on average. A study using stuffed bird models found that small birds are less to approach common cuckoos that have barred underparts similar to the Eurasian sparrowhawk, a predatory bird. Eurasian reed warblers were found more aggressive to cuckoos that looked less hawk-like, meaning that the resemblance to the hawk helps the cuckoo to access the nests of potential hosts.
Other small birds, great tits and blue tits, showed alarm and avoided attending feeders on seeing either sparrowhawks or cuckoos. Hosts attack cuckoos more; the existence of the two plumage morphs in females may be due to frequency-dependent selection if this learning applies only to the morph that hosts see neighbors mob. In an experiment with dummy cuckoos of each morph and a sparrowhawk, reed warblers were more to attack both cuckoo morphs than the sparrowhawk, more to mob a certain cuckoo morph when they saw neighbors mobbing that morph, decreasing the reproductive success of that morph and selecting for the less common morph; the male's song, goo-ko, is given from an open perch. During the breeding season the male gives this vocalisation with intervals of 1–1.5 seconds, in groups of 10–20 with a rest of a few seconds between groups. The fem
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram. The term may be more applied only to nodes adjacent to the root, or more loosely applied to nodes regarded as being close to the root; each node in the tree corresponds to a clade. The terms deep-branching or early-branching are similar in meaning. While there must always be two or more basal clades sprouting from the root of every cladogram, those clades may differ in taxonomic rank and/or species diversity. If C is a basal clade within D that has the lowest rank of all basal clades within D, C may be described as the basal taxon of that rank within D. Greater diversification may be associated with more evolutionary innovation, but ancestral characters should not be imputed to the members of a less species-rich basal clade without additional evidence, as there can be no assurance such an assumption is valid. In general, clade A is more basal than clade B if B is a subgroup of the sister group of A.
Within large groups, "basal" may be used loosely to mean'closer to the root than the great majority of', in this context terminology such as "very basal" may arise. A'core clade' is a clade representing all but the basal clade of lowest rank within a larger clade. A basal group in the stricter sense forms a sister group to the rest of the larger clade, as in the following case: While it is easy to identify a basal clade in such a cladogram, the appropriateness of such an identification is dependent on the accuracy and completeness of the diagram, it is assumed in this example that the terminal branches of the cladogram depict all the extant taxa of a given rank within the clade. Additionally, this qualification does not ensure. In phylogenetics, the term basal can be objectively applied to clades of organisms, but tends to be applied selectively and more controversially to groups or lineages thought to possess ancestral characters, or to such presumed ancestral traits themselves. In describing characters, "ancestral" or "plesiomorphic" are preferred to "basal" or "primitive", the latter of which may carry false connotations of inferiority or a lack of complexity.
Despite the ubiquity of the usage of basal, some systematists believe its application to extant groups is unnecessary and misleading. The term is more applied when one branch is less diverse than another branch; the term may be equivocal in that it refers to the direction of the root of the tree, which represents a hypothetical ancestor. An extant basal group may or may not resemble the last common ancestor of a larger clade to a greater degree than other groups, is separated from that ancestor by the same amount of time as all other extant groups. However, there are cases where the unsually small size of a sister group does indeed correlate with an unusual number of ancestral traits, as in Amborella. Other famous examples of this phenomenon are the oviparous reproduction and nipple-less lactation of monotremes, a basal clade of mammals with just five species, the archaic anatomy of the tuatara, a basal clade of lepidosaurian with a single species; the flowering plant family Amborellaceae, restricted to New Caledonia in the southwestern Pacific, is a basal clade of extant angiosperms, consisting of the most basal species, genus and order within the group.
The traits of Amborella trichopoda are regarded as providing significant insight into the evolution of flowering plants. However, those traits are a mix of archaic and apomorphic features that have only been sorted out via comparison with other angiosperms and their positions within the phylogenetic tree. Within the primate family Hominidae, gorillas are a sister group to common chimpanzees and humans; these five species form the subfamily Homininae, of which Gorilla is the basal genus. However, if the analysis is not restricted to genera, the Homo plus Pan clade is basal. Moreover, orangutans are a sister group to Homininae and are the basal genus in the family as a whole. Subfamilies Homininae and Ponginae are both basal within Hominidae, but given that there are no nonbasal subfamilies in the cladogram it is unlikely the term would be applied to either. In general, a statement to the effect that one group is basal, or branches off first, within another group may not make sense unless the appropriate taxonomic level is specified.
If that level cannot be specified a more detailed description of the relevant sister groups may be needed. In this example, orangutans differ from the other genera in their Asian range; this fact plus their basal status provides a hint that the most recent common ancestor of extant great apes may have been Eurasian, a suggestion, consistent with other evidence. Orangutans differ from African apes in their more arboreal lifestyle, a
There are 7 species of Australasian treecreeper in the passerine bird family Climacteridae. They are medium-small brown birds with patterning on their underparts, all are endemic to Australia-New Guinea, they resemble, but are not related to, the Holarctic treecreepers. The family is one of several families identified by DNA–DNA hybridisation studies to be part of the Australo-Papuan songbird radiation. There is some molecular support for suggesting; as their name implies, treecreepers forage for insects and other small creatures living on and under the bark of trees eucalypts, though several species hunt on the ground, through leaf-litter, on fallen timber. Unlike the Holarctic treecreepers they do not use their tail for support when climbing tree trunks, only their feet. Australasian treecreepers nest in holes in trees; the species in the family hold breeding territories, although the extent to which they are defended and last varies. Some species, such as the red-browed treecreeper and the brown treecreeper are cooperative breeders, like the white-throated treecreeper are not.
The cooperative breeders form groups or a single breeding pair as well as up to three helpers, which are the young males of previous pairings. Helpers assist with the construction of the nest, feeding of the incubating female and feeding and defending the young; the Australasian treecreepers are small oscine songbirds, measuring 14 to 19 cm in length and weighing 17–44 g. They have long tails, short legs with strong feet, stout bodies and longish and down-curved bills; the plumage of this family is dull, trending towards brown, reddish-brown or greyish brown above and paler below. There is some sexual dimorphism in plumage, with females having some reddish colour in the head or breast, absent in the males. Other differences between the sexes are common, can arise early in the life of these birds, being present in late-stage nestlings, they are poor fliers, with their flight described as gliding. All the Australian treecreepers are endemic to Australia except for one species restricted to New Guinea.
They are found across much of Australia except for the large island of Tasmania because they are poor fliers and unable to disperse across water barriers, or because of a lack of bark-dwelling invertebrates to feed on. Across their global distribution they occupy a wide range of habitats; the Papuan treecreeper is found in mid-montane to montane forested habitats on New Guinea, from 1,250–3,000 m. The white-browed treecreeper inhabits acacia and Casuarina woodlands in deserts in southern Australia. Other species inhabit subtropical eucalypt woodlands and southern beech forests; the brown treecreeper is semi-terrestrial and can live in more open woodland habitats, but is still sensitive to the loss of its habitat. The Australasian treecreepers are non-migratory, although there are distinct differences in the dispersal of young birds after fledging between the two genera; the Australasian treecreepers principally forage for arthropods found on the bark of trees, but they will take prey from the ground and will eat tree sap and nectar from flowers.
They obtain insect prey by gleaning from surface of bark, but will probe into holes and pull at loose strips of bark and flick underneath it with their quadrifid tongue. Del Hoyo, J.. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 12: Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-84-96553-42-2 Noske, N. A.. "A Demographic Comparison of Cooperatively Breeding and Noncooperative Treecreepers". Emu 91 73 - 86 Sibley, C. G.. E. Ahlquist "The relationship of the Australo-Papuan Treecreepers Climacteridae as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization". Emu 84: 236 - 241 Christidis, L.. & M Westerman "Molecular Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Affinities of Lyrebirds and Treecreepers". Australian Journal of Zoology 44 215 - 222 Australasian Treecreeper videos on the Internet Bird Collection
A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma
Corvus is a distributed genus of medium-sized to large birds in the family Corvidae. The genus includes species known as crows, ravens and jackdaws. Ranging in size from the small pigeon-sized jackdaws to the common raven of the Holarctic region and thick-billed raven of the highlands of Ethiopia, the 45 or so members of this genus occur on all temperate continents except South America, several islands; the crow genus makes up a third of the species in the family Corvidae. The members appear to have evolved in Asia from the corvid stock; the collective name for a group of crows is a "flock" or a "murder". The genus name is Latin for "raven". Recent research has found some crow species capable of not only tool use, but tool construction. Crows are now considered to be among the world's most intelligent animals with an encephalization quotient equal to that of many non-human primates. Corvus species are all black with little white or grey plumage, they are stout with strong legs. Sexual dimorphism is limited.
The members of the genus Corvus are believed to have evolved in central Asia and radiated out into North America, Africa and Australia. The latest evidence regarding the evolution indicates descent within the Australasian family Corvidae. However, the branch that would produce the modern groups such as jays and large, predominantly black Corvus species had left Australasia and were concentrated in Asia by the time the Corvus species evolved. Corvus produced five species with one recognized subspecies; the genus was described by Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae. The name is derived from the Latin corvus meaning "raven"; the type species is the common raven. The genus was broader, as the magpie was designated C. pica before being moved into a genus of its own. At least 42 extant species are now considered to be in this genus, at least 14 extinct species have been described; the fossil record of crows is rather dense in Europe, but the relationships among most prehistoric species are not clear.
Corvids are found in major cities across the world, a major increase in the number of crows in urban settings has occurred since the 1900s. Historical records suggest that the population of American crows found in North America has been growing since the introduction of European colonization, spread east to west with the opening of the frontier. Crows were uncommon in the Pacific Northwest in the 1900s. Populations in the west increased from the late 1800s to mid 1900s. Crows and ravens spread along with agriculture and urbanization into the western part of North America. Crows gather in large communal roosts numbering between 200 and tens of thousands of individuals during nonbreeding months in the winter; these gatherings tend to happen near large food sources such as garbage dumps and shopping centers. Countless incidents are recorded of corvids at play. Many behaviourists see play as an essential quality in intelligent animals. Crows and the other members of the genus make a wide variety of vocalizations.
Crows have been observed to respond to calls of other species. Crows' vocalizations are complex and poorly understood; some of the many vocalizations that crows make are a "koww" echoed back and forth between birds, a series of "kowws" in discrete units, a long caw followed by a series of short caws, an echo-like "eh-aw" sound, more. These vocalizations vary by species, within each species they vary regionally. In many species, the pattern and number of the numerous vocalizations have been observed to change in response to events in the surroundings; as a group, crows show remarkable examples of intelligence. Natural history books from the 18th century recount an often-repeated, but unproven anecdote of "counting crows" — a crow whose ability to count to five is established through a logic trap set by a farmer. Crows and ravens score highly on intelligence tests. Certain species top the avian IQ scale. Wild hooded crows in Israel have learned to use bread crumbs for bait-fishing. Crows air - "chicken" to establish pecking order.
They have been found to engage in activities such as sports, tool use, the ability to hide and store food across seasons, episodic-like memory, the ability to use individual experience in predicting the behavior of environmental conspecifics. One species, the New Caledonian crow, has been intensively studied because of its ability to manufacture and use tools in the day-to-day search for food. On 5 October 2007, researchers from the University of Oxford presented data acquired by mounting tiny video cameras on the tails of New Caledonian crows, they pluck and bend twigs and grass stems to procure a variety of foodstuffs. Crows in Queensland have learned how to eat the toxic cane toad by flipping the cane toad on its back and violently stabbing the throat where the skin is thinner, allowing the crow to access the nontoxic innards. The