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Songhai people

The Songhai people are an ethnic group in West Africa who speak the various Songhai languages. Their history and lingua franca is linked to the Songhai Empire which dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century. Predominantly a Muslim community, the Songhai are found throughout Mali in the Western sudanic region; the name Songhai was neither an ethnic nor linguistic designation, but a name for the ruling caste of the Songhay Empire. Speakers in Mali have adopted it as an ethnic designation but other Songhay-speaking groups identify themselves by other ethnic terms such as Zarma or Isawaghen; the dialect of Koyraboro Senni spoken in Gao is unintelligible to speakers of the Zarma dialect of Niger, according to at least one report. The Songhay languages are taken to be Nilo-Saharan but this classification remains controversial: Dimmendaal believes that for now it is best considered an independent language family, it was from one of Mali's former conquests, the kingdom of Gao, that the last major empire of the western Sudan emerged.

Although the city of Gao had been occupied by a Songhai dynasty prior to being conquered by Mansa Musa's forces in 1325, it was not until much that the Songhai empire emerged. The empire saw its pre-eminent rise under the military strategist and influential Songhai king, Sonni Ali Ber, it began its rise in 1468 when Sonni Ali conquered much of the weakening Mali empire's territory as well as Timbuktu, famous for its Islamic universities, the pivotal trading city of Djenné. Among the country's most noted scholars was Ahmed Baba—a distinguished historian quoted in the Tarikh al-Sudan and other works; the people consisted of fishermen and traders. Following Sonni Ali's death, Muslim factions rebelled against his successor and installed Soninke general, Askia Muhammad, to be the first and most important ruler of the Askia dynasty. Under the Askias, the Songhai empire reached its zenith. Following Askia Muhammad, the empire began to collapse, it could not be kept under control. The kingdom of Morocco saw Songhay's still flourishing salt and gold trade and decided that it would be a good asset.

The Dendi people are a subgroup of the Songhai. The language and culture of the Songhai people is distinguishable from the Zarma people; some scholars consider the Zarma people to be a part of and the largest ethnic sub-group of the Songhai. Some study the group together as Zarma-Songhai people. However, both groups see themselves as two different peoples; the Songhai people have traditionally been a stratified society, like many West African ethnic groups with castes. According to the medieval and colonial era descriptions, their vocation is hereditary, each stratified group has been endogamous; the social stratification has been unusual in two ways. Louis Dumont, the 20th-century author famous for his classic Homo Hierarchicus, recognized the social stratification among Zarma-Songhai people as well as other ethnic groups in West Africa, but suggested that sociologists should invent a new term for West African social stratification system. Other scholars consider this a bias and isolationist because the West African system shares all elements in Dumont's system, including economic, ritual, deemed polluting and spread over a large region.

According to Anne Haour – a professor of African Studies, some scholars consider the historic caste-like social stratification in Zarma-Songhay people to be a pre-Islam feature while some consider it derived from the Arab influence. The different strata of the Songhai-Zarma people have included the kings and warriors, the scribes, the artisans, the weavers, the hunters, the fishermen, the leather workers and hairdressers, the domestic slaves; each caste reveres its own guardian spirit. Some scholars such as John Shoup list these strata in three categories: free and the slave class; the servile group were required to be endogamous, while the slaves could be emancipated over four generations. The highest social level, states Shoup, claim to have descended from King Sonni'Ali Ber and their modern era hereditary occupation has been Sohance; the traditionally free strata of the Zerma people have owned property and herds, these have dominated the political system and governments during and after the French colonial rule.

Within the stratified social system, the Islamic system of polygynous marriages is a norm, with preferred partners being cross cousins. This endogamy within Songhai-Zarma people is similar to other ethnic groups in West Africa; the Songhai people cultivate cereals, raise small herds of cattle and fish in the Niger Bend area where they live. They have traditionally been one of the key West African ethnic groups associated with caravan trade. Zarma people Zin Kibaru


Gathbandhan is an Indian television drama series that aired from 15 January to 27 November 2019 on Colors TV. Produced by Jay Mehta under Jay Production, it starred Abrar Qazi and Sonali Naik. Raghu Jadhav and Dhanak Parekh are two individuals with contrasting personalities tied by the string of marriage and love. Raghu is a petty goon of Maharashtra. Savitri Jadhav, his mother acts as the matriarch of their village. Savitri wants her son to loot people so they can create a fearful reputation. Enter Dhanak, an aspiring IPS Officer. Raghu falls in love with Dhanak at first sight. Dhanak hates Raghu but falls for him and the two marry. Savitri tries to create misunderstandings between Raghu and Dhanak but the two sort things out. Shruti Sharma as ACP Dhanak Parekh– Mahendra's daughter.

Jorge Fondebrider

Jorge Fondebrider is an Argentinian poet and translator. His published poetry books are Elegías, Imperio de la Luna, Los últimos tres años and La extraña trayectoria de la luz. Poemas reunidos 1983-2013, he was translated into English and into Swedish. He published La Buenos Aires ajena, a history of the city told by foreigners that visited it since 1536 to 2000. Historias de hombres lobos de Occidente, a history of werewolfism in the Western world through the ages until the present, he has edited four anthologies of Argentinian poetry and a number of critical essays on poetry and cultural matters. Among them, Conversaciones con la poesía argentina, Tres décadas de poesía argentina, Una antología de la poesía argentina. 1970-2008, Giannuzzi. Reseñas, artículos y trabajos académicos Otro río que pasa. Poesía argentina 1910-2010, Poésie récente d'Argentine. Une anthologie possible, Cómo se ordena una biblioteca, Cómo se empieza a narrar Poetas que traducen poesía and the collected works of César Fernández Moreno and Joaquín O. Giannuzzi.

He translated many books of contemporary French poetry –Guillaume Apollinaire, Henri Deluy and Yves Di Manno, among others–, the huge anthology Poesía francesa contemporánea. 1940-1997, three volumes by Georges Perec, an annotated versions of Madame Bovary and Three Tales by Gustave Flaubert, as well as Welsh and Scottish authors and some Americans. He is an active promoter of Irish culture in Latin America and introduced to a wide Spanish speaking audience authors as Anthony Cronin, Claire Keegan, Joseph O’Connor and Moya Cannon. Together with Gerardo Gambolini, he choose and translated the texts from Poesía irlandesa contemporánea, the first bilingual anthology of contemporary Irish poetry published in a Spanish speaking country. In 2009 he co-founded with Julia Benseñor the Club de Traductores Literarios de Buenos Aires

Dorabji Tata

Sir Dorabji Tata was an Indian businessman, a key figure in the history and development of the Tata Group. He was knighted in 1910 for his contributions to industry in British India. Dorab was the elder son of Parsi Zoroastrian Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata. Through an aunt, Jerbai Tata, who married a Bombay merchant, Dorabji Saklatvala, he was a cousin of Shapurji Saklatvala who became a Communist Member of the British Parliament. Tata received his primary education at the Proprietary High School in Bombay before travelling to England in 1875, where he was tutored, he entered Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge in 1877, where he remained for two years before returning to Bombay in 1879. He continued his studies at St. Xavier's College, where he obtained a degree in 1882. Upon graduating, Dorab worked for two years as a journalist at the Bombay Gazette. In 1884, he joined the cotton business division of his father's firm, he was first sent to Pondicherry a French colony, to determine whether a cotton mill might be profitable there.

Thereafter, he was sent to Nagpur, to learn the cotton trade at the Empress Mills, founded by his father in 1877. Dorabji's father Jamshetji had visited Mysore State in south India on business, had met Dr. Hormusji Bhabha, a Parsi and the first Indian Inspector-General of Education of that state. While visiting the Bhabha home, he had approved of young Meherbai, Bhabha's only daughter. Returning to Bombay, Jamshetji sent Dorab to Mysore State to call on the Bhabha family. Dorab did so, duly married Meherbai in 1897; the couple did not have children. Meherbai's brother Jehangir Bhabha became a reputed lawyer, he was the father of the scientist Homi J. Bhabha and thus Dorabji was Homi Bhabha's uncle by marriage; this family connection explains why the Tata group lavishly funded Bhabha's research and the research institutions set up by Bhabha, including the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. Dorabji was intimately involved in the fulfilment of his father's ideas of a modern iron and steel industry, agreed to the necessity for hydroelectric electricity to power the industry.

Dorab is credited with the establishment of the conglomerates Tata Steel in 1907 which his father founded and Tata Power in 1911, which are the core of the present-day Tata Group. Dorabji is known to have accompanied the mineralogists who were searching for iron fields, it is said that his presence encouraged the researchers to look in areas that would otherwise have been neglected. Under Dorabji's management, the business that had once included three cotton mills and the Taj Hotel Bombay grew to include India's largest private sector steel company, three electric companies and one of India's leading insurance companies. Founder of New India Assurance Co Ltd. in 1919, the largest General Insurance company in India. Dorabji Tata was knighted in January 1910 by Edward VII. Dorabji was fond of sports, was a pioneer in the Indian Olympic movement; as president of the Indian Olympic Association, he financed the Indian contingent to the Paris Olympics in 1924. The Tata family, like most of India's big businessmen, were Indian nationalists but did not trust the Congress because it seemed too aggressively hostile to the Raj, too socialist, too supportive of trade unions.

Meherbai Tata died of leukaemia in 1931 at the age of 52. Shortly after her death, Dorabji established the Lady Tata Memorial Trust to advance the study into diseases of the blood. On 11 March 1932, one year after Meherbai's death and shortly before his own, he established a trust fund, to be used "without any distinction of place, nationality or creed," for the advancement of learning and research, disaster relief, other philanthropic purposes; that trust is today known as the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust. Dorabji additionally provided the seed money to fund the setting up of India's premier scientific and engineering research institution, the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Dorabji died in Bad Kissingen, Germany on 3 June 1932, at the age of 73, he is buried alongside his wife Meherbai in Brookwood Cemetery, England. They had no children. Sir Dorabji Tata and Allied Trusts Tata Group Choksi, R. "Tata, Sir Dorabji Jamshed" in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography accessed 28 Jan 2012, a brief scholarly biography Nomura, Chikayoshi.

"Selling steel in the 1920s: TISCO in a period of transition," Indian Economic & Social History Review 48: pp 83–116, doi:10.1177/001946461004800104 Biography at the Dorabji Tata Trust Biography at Tata Central Archives Tata family tree

Jamestown Vikings

The Jamestown Vikings were a professional ice hockey team that played in the now defunct Mid-Atlantic Hockey League. They were in New York at the Jamestown Savings Bank Ice Arena; the league canceled the remainder of the 2007-08 season and suspended operations on February 12, 2008. The MAHL planned to return with teams in new locations in 2008-09; the Vikings and Valley Forge Freedom, the league's two most fiscally solvent franchises, were expected to remain in the league if and when the league returns. After the season ended, several Vikings players went on a drunken rampage at a local lodge in Jamestown, believing that league and team owner Andrew Haines owned the lodge and causing tens of thousands of dollars in damage. League officials said that they expected the Vikings to be a part of a renewed league in 2008-09. However, on March 18, the league announced that the Jamestown team would move to Ohio, play as the Lake Erie Vikings, citing the vandalism incident as the primary reason for the departure.

It was revealed that the Jamestown Savings Bank Ice Arena had revoked the Vikings' lease because of the league's financial problems. The team announced its intentions to begin play at "The Pond" in Auburn Township, Geauga County, but after the folding of the MAHL in September 2008, the Vikings never played again. A junior "A" hockey franchise named. Lake Erie Vikings Mid-Atlantic Hockey League

The Sports

The Sports were an Australian rock group which performed and recorded between 1976 and 1981. Mainstay members were Stephen Cummings on lead vocals and Robert Glover on bass guitar, with long-term members such as Paul Hitchins on drums, Andrew Pendlebury on lead guitar and vocals, Martin Armiger on guitar, their style was similar to British new wave. The Sports' top forty singles are "Who Listens to the Radio", "Don't Throw Stones", "Strangers on a Train" and "How Come", their top 20 releases on the Australian Kent Music Report Albums Chart are Don't Throw Stones and Sondra. In October 2010 Don't Throw; the Sports were formed in 1976 by Stephen Cummings, the lead singer of Melbourne rockabilly group, The Pelaco Brothers. The original line-up were Cummings and ex-The Pelaco Brothers bandmate, Ed Bates, on guitar, Robert Glover on bass guitar, Jim Niven on piano and Paul Hitchins on drums, their early sets contained covers of Chuck Berry, Billy Emerson, Don Covay, Company Caine and Graham Parker material.

Original songs written by Cummings and Bates, completed their sets. The Sports' debut recording was a four-track extended play, Fair Game, released in early 1977 on the independent label, Zac Records. A friend in London posted the record to the New Musical Express which declared it'Record of the Week'; the Sports were in tune with music trends dominating London rock and had provided song-based rock as an antidote to punk, dubbed new wave. Cummings was compared favourably with Mick Jagger and Bates was praised for his slide guitar style: being similar to Little Feat. "We were surprised", Cummings said in 1997 of the NME review. It was my undoing in some ways; when you have everything go right so you expect that everything after, going to be good and that easy. It meant that I didn't put myself out as much as I should have."Andrew Pendlebury joined on guitar in August 1977 and assisted Cummings with song writing. Cummings recalled, "I dragged them into it. I always wanted Andrew in the group as a guitarist and I had an idea for a rockabilly country sound.

But I always wanted to change it because I liked the MC5 and wanted to make it more like that as well." In May 1978 The Sports issued their debut studio album, Reckless, on Mushroom Records with ex-The Pelaco Brothers bandmate, Camilieri, as their producer. John Magowan of Woroni enthused about the "passionate, in its own way, unique" album, which showed "a perfect synthesis of archetypal 50's romance and the cutting neurotic edge of life in the 70's." Australian musicologist, Ian McFarlane, felt it "displayed plenty of charm, but failed to capture the atmosphere of the band's sweaty live shows."The lead track, "Boys!", was released in March 1978 and peaked at 55 on the Australian Kent Music Report Singles Chart. In England it provided some confusion with the titled, "Watching the Detectives", by Elvis Costello, released in the previous October. In August 1978 Cummings brought in Martin Armiger on guitar and for song writing, to replace Bates. According to McFarlane, Bates had been "ousted" as Armiger "had a more commercial outlook".

On the strength of Reckless, The Sports were chosen to support Graham Parker & the Rumour's Australian tour that year. Luis Feliu of The Canberra Times described The Sports in September that year, " roots lie in the fifties or early rock'n' roll and blues... pen short and sharp songs... brings with him a more electric sound." Parker arranged for The Sports to support their United Kingdom tour in February of the following year. Fellow Australian musician Keith Shadwick accompanied the band on the tour and wrote an extensive account for the Australian music magazine Roadrunner. In November, they started work on their second album, Don't Throw Stones, with Pete Solley and Dave Robinson producing, it was released in February 1979 ahead of their joining Graham Parker & the Rumour's UK tour. Feliu felt "plenty of admiration for their punchy and melodic rockabilly sound, found the change to the more diverse, bigger-breath songs of new a wee strange but acceptable." While in the UK they recorded another four-track EP, O.

K, U. K!, which appeared in August that year. Don't Throw Stones reached No. 9 on the Kent Music Report Albums Chart, which provided two top 40 singles, "Who Listens to the Radio" and the title track. "Who Listens to the Radio?", was their only hit on the United States Billboard Pop Singles chart, peaking at No. 45 in November 1979. Stiff issued material from the first two Australian albums under the name, Don't Throw Stones, in October 1979; the group's third album, was released in March 1980 and was produced by Solley. Feliu opined that it showed "trimmed up reggae-favoured tunes and souped-up straight, melodic rockers... has its fair share of goodies" while he "had reservations about the overall slickness, excesses in production for the sake of commercial acceptance" by Solley. McFarlane noticed that it "featured an slicker, more commercial pop sound." In Australia, the album reached No. 13 and its lead single, "Strangers on a Train", peaked at No. 22. Before the album had appeared Hitchins was