Songs in the Key of Life

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Songs in the Key of Life
Songs in the key of life.jpg
Studio album by
ReleasedSeptember 28, 1976 (1976-09-28)
Recorded1974–76
StudioCrystal Sound, Hollywood; Record Plant Los Angeles; Record Plant Sausalito; The Hit Factory, New York City
Genre
Length104:49
LabelTamla
ProducerStevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder chronology
Fulfillingness' First Finale
(1974)
Songs in the Key of Life
(1976)
Looking Back – Anthology
(1977)
Singles from Songs in the Key of Life
  1. "I Wish"
    Released: December 1976
  2. "Isn't She Lovely"
    Released: February 1977 (non-US single)
  3. "Sir Duke"
    Released: March 1977
  4. "Another Star"
    Released: August 1977
  5. "As"
    Released: October 1977

Songs in the Key of Life is the eighteenth album by American recording artist Stevie Wonder, released on September 28, 1976, by Motown Records, through its division Tamla Records. It was the culmination of his "classic period" albums.[2] The album was recorded primarily at Crystal Sound studio in Hollywood, with some sessions recorded at the Record Plant in Hollywood, the Record Plant in Sausalito, and The Hit Factory in New York City. Final mixing was performed at Crystal Sound.[3]

An ambitious double LP with a four-song bonus EP,[4] Songs in the Key of Life became the best-selling and most critically acclaimed album of Wonder's career. In 2003, it was ranked number 57 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. In 2005, it was inducted into the National Recording Registry by the Library of Congress, which deemed it "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."

Background[edit]

By 1976, Stevie Wonder had become one of the most popular figures in R&B and pop music, not only in the U.S., but worldwide. Within a short space of time, the albums Talking Book, Innervisions and Fulfillingness' First Finale were all back-to-back top five successes, with the latter two winning Grammy Award for Album of the Year, in 1974 and 1975, respectively. By the end of 1975, Wonder became serious about quitting the music industry and emigrating to Ghana to work with handicapped children. He had expressed his anger with the way that the U.S. government was running the country.[5][6] A farewell concert was being considered as the best way to bring down the curtain on his career. Wonder changed his decision, when he signed a new contract with Motown on August 5, 1975, thinking he was better off making the most of his career. At the time, rivals such as Arista and Epic were also interested in him. The contract was laid out as a seven-year, seven LP, $37 million deal ($168,547,928 in 2017 dollars[7]) and gave him full artistic control, making this the largest deal made with a recording star up to that point.[5] Almost at the beginning Wonder took a year off from the music market, with a project for a double album to be released in 1976.[8]

There was huge anticipation for the new album which was initially scheduled for release around October 1975. It was delayed on short notice when Wonder felt that further remixing was essential. According to Wonder, the marketing campaign at Motown decided to take advantage of the delay by producing "We're almost finished" T-shirts.[9] Work on the new album continued into early 1976. A name was finally chosen for the album: Songs in the Key of Life. The title would represent the formula of a complex "key of life" and the proposals for indefinite success.[10] The album was released on September 28, 1976, after a two-year wait as a double LP album with a four-track seven-inch EP titled A Something's Extra ("Saturn", "Ebony Eyes", "All Day Sucker" and "Easy Goin' Evening (My Mama's Call)") and a 24-page lyric and credit booklet.[9][11]

Recording[edit]

Wonder used an Electro-Voice RE20 microphone (pictured) to record his voice for upbeat songs such as "I Wish". A variety of microphones were used for other songs.[3]

The working title was Let's See Life the Way It Is.[12] Wonder recorded the great majority of the album at Crystal Sounds in Hollywood, with Gary Olazabal as engineer, and studio owner John Fischbach as engineer.[3] Some material was recorded at the Record Plant in Hollywood and the Record Plant in Sausalito. During a period when Crystal Sounds had a prior obligation to record another artist, Wonder and Fischbach traveled to the Hit Factory in New York City to work for about six weeks but only used one basic track.[3][13] As a perfectionist, Wonder spent long hours in the studio for almost every track he recorded. He was "not eating or sleeping, while everyone around him struggled to keep up."[8] According to Wonder, "If my flow is goin', I keep on until I peak."

A total of 130 people worked on the album, but Wonder's preeminence during the album was evident. Among the people present during the sessions, there were legendary figures of R&B, soul and jazz music – Herbie Hancock played Fender Rhodes on "As", George Benson played electric guitar on "Another Star", and Minnie Riperton and Deniece Williams added backing vocals on "Ordinary Pain". Mike Sembello was a prominent personality throughout the album, playing guitar on several tracks and also co-writing "Saturn" with Wonder. Some of the most socially conscious songs of the album were actually written by Wonder with other people – these included "Village Ghetto Land" and "Black Man" (co-written with Gary Byrd) and "Have a Talk with God" (co-written by Calvin Hardaway). Nathan Watts, Wonder's newest bass player at the time, originally recorded a bass track for "Isn't She Lovely" that Wonder replaced with his own keyboard bass for the final version. The same guide-track method was employed for "Knocks Me Off My Feet".

Critical reception[edit]

Professional ratings
Review scores
SourceRating
AllMusic5/5 stars[14]
Christgau's Record GuideA[15]
Encyclopedia of Popular Music5/5 stars[16]
The Great Rock Discography8/10[16]
MusicHound5/5[16]
Pitchfork Media10/10[17]
Rolling Stone5/5 stars[18]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide5/5 stars[19]
Sputnikmusic4.5/5[20]

At the time of release, reporters and music critics, and everyone who had worked on the album, traveled to Long View Farm, a recording studio in Massachusetts for a press preview of the album. Everybody received autographed copies of the album and Wonder gave interviews. Critical reception was positive. The album was viewed as a guided tour through a wide range of musical styles and the life and feelings of the artist. It included recollections of childhood, of first love and lost love. It contained songs about faith and love among all peoples and songs about social justice for the poor and downtrodden.[21]

On February 19, 1977, Wonder was nominated for seven Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year, an award that he had already won twice, in 1974 and 1975, for Innervisions and Fulfillingness’ First Finale.[11] Since 1973, Stevie’s presence at the Grammy ceremonies had been consistent – he attended most of the ceremonies and also used to perform on stage. But in 1976, he did not attend as he was not nominated for any awards (as he had not released any new material during the past year). Paul Simon, who received the Grammy for Album of the Year in that occasion (for Still Crazy After All These Years) jokingly thanked Stevie “for not releasing an album” that year. A year after, Wonder was nominated for Songs in the Key of Life in that same category, and was widely favored by many critics to take the award. The other nominees were Breezin’ by George Benson, Chicago X by Chicago, Silk Degrees by Boz Scaggs, and the other favorite, Peter Frampton’s Frampton Comes Alive!, which was also a huge critical and commercial success. Wonder was again absent from the ceremony, as he had developed an interest in visiting Africa. In February he traveled to Nigeria for two weeks, primarily to explore his musical heritage, as he put it. A satellite hook-up was arranged so that Stevie could be awarded his Grammys from across the sea. Bette Midler announced the results during the ceremony, and the audience was only able to see Wonder at a phone smiling and giving thanks.[22] The video signal was poor and the audio inaudible. Andy Williams went on to make a public blunder when he asked the blind-since-birth Wonder, “Stevie, can you see us?”[21] In all, Wonder won four out of seven nominations at the Grammys: Album of the Year, Best Male Pop Vocal Performance, Best Male R&B Vocal Performance and Producer of the Year.

Legacy and influence[edit]

Over time, the album became a standard, and it is considered Wonder's signature album. "Of all the albums," he told Q magazine (April 1995 issue), "Songs in the Key of Life I'm most happy about. Just the time, being alive then. To be a father and then… letting go and letting God give me the energy and strength I needed." Songs in the Key of Life is often cited as one of the greatest albums in popular music history.[23] It was voted as the best album of the year in The Village Voice's annual Pazz & Jop critics poll; in 2001 the TV network VH1 named it the seventh greatest album of all time; in 2003, the album was ranked number 57 on Rolling Stone Magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.

Many musicians have also remarked on the quality of the album and its influence on their own work. For example, Elton John said, in his notes for Wonder on the 2003 Rolling Stone's list of "The Immortals – The Greatest Artists of All Time" (in which Wonder was ranked number 15): "Let me put it this way: wherever I go in the world, I always take a copy of Songs in the Key of Life. For me, it's the best album ever made, and I'm always left in awe after I listen to it."[24] In an interview with Ebony magazine, Michael Jackson called Songs in the Key of Life his favorite Stevie Wonder album. George Michael cited the album as his favorite of all time[25] and with Mary J. Blige covered "As" for a 1999 hit single. Michael performed "Love's in Need of Love Today" on his Faith tour in 1988, and released it as a B-side to "Father Figure". He also performed "Village Ghetto Land" at the Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute in 1988. He later covered "Pastime Paradise" and "Knocks Me Off My Feet" in his 1991 Cover to Cover tour.

R&B singers in particular have praised the album – Prince called it the best album ever recorded, Mariah Carey generally names the album as one of her favorites, and Whitney Houston also remarked on the influence of Songs in the Key of Life on her singing. (During the photoshoot for her Whitney: The Greatest Hits, as seen on its respective home video, the album was played throughout the photo sessions, at Houston’s request.) The album's importance has even been recognized by heavy metal musicians, with singer Phil Anselmo describing a live performance of Songs in the Key of Life as "a living, breathing miracle".[26]

The album’s tracks have provided numerous samples for rap and hip-hop artists; for example, "Pastime Paradise", which itself drew on the first eight notes and four chords of J.S. Bach's Prelude No. 2 in C minor (BWV 847),[citation needed] was reworked by Coolio as "Gangsta's Paradise". In 1995, smooth jazz artist Najee recorded a cover album titled Najee Plays Songs from the Key of Life, which is based entirely on Wonder's album. In 1999, Will Smith used "I Wish" as the base for his US number-one single "Wild Wild West". The song repeated the main melody of "I Wish" as a riff and some lyrics re-formed.

In April 2008, the album was voted the "Top Album of All Time" by the Yahoo! Music Playlist Blog, using a formula that combined four parameters – "Album Staying Power Value + Sales Value + Critical Rating Value + Grammy Award Value".[27]

In December 2013, Wonder did a live concert performance of the entire Songs in the Key of Life album at the Nokia Theater in Los Angeles. The event was his 18th annual House Full of Toys Benefit Concert, and featured some of the original singers and musicians from the 1976 double-album as well as several from the contemporary scene.[28]

In November 2014, Wonder began performing the entire album in a series of concert dates in the U.S. and Canada. The start of the tour coincided with the 38th anniversary of the release of Songs in the Key of Life.[29][30]

Commercial performance[edit]

Highly anticipated, the album surpassed all commercial expectations. It debuted at number 1 on the Billboard Pop Albums Chart on October 8, 1976, becoming only the third album in history to achieve that feat and the first by an American artist (after British singer/composer Elton John's albums Captain Fantastic and the Brown Dirt Cowboy and Rock of the Westies, both in 1975). In Canada, the album achieved the same feat, entering at number one on the RPM national albums chart on October 16.[31] Songs in the Key of Life spent thirteen consecutive weeks at number one in the U.S., and 11 during 1976. It was the album with the most weeks at number one during the year. In those eleven weeks, Songs in the Key of Life managed to block four other albums from reaching the top – in order, Boz Scaggs’s Silk Degrees, Earth, Wind & Fire's Spirit, Led Zeppelin's soundtrack for The Song Remains the Same and Rod Stewart's A Night on the Town.[32] On January 15, 1977, the album finally dropped to number two behind Eagles' Hotel California and the following week it fell to number four. On January 29 it returned to the top for a fourteenth and final week. The album then began its final fall. It spent a total of 35 weeks inside the top ten and 80 weeks on the Billboard albums chart. Songs in the Key of Life also saw longevity at number one on the Billboard R&B/Black Albums chart, spending 20 non-consecutive weeks there.

In all, Songs in the Key of Life became the second best-selling album of 1977 in the U.S., only behind Fleetwood Mac's blockbuster Rumours, and was certified as a diamond album by the RIAA, for sales of 10 million units in the U.S. alone (each individual record or disc included with an album counts towards RIAA certifications).[33] It was the highest selling R&B/Soul album on the Billboard Year-End chart that same year.[34]

Songs in the Key of Life was also the most successful Wonder project in terms of singles. The lead-off, the upbeat "I Wish" was released in November 1976, over a month after the album was released. On January 15, 1977, it reached number one on the Billboard R&B chart, where it spent five weeks at the top. Seven days after, it also reached the summit of the Billboard Hot 100, although it spent only one week at number one. The track became an international top 10 single, and also reached number five in the UK. "I Wish" became one of Wonder's standards and remained one of his most sampled songs. The follow-up, the jazzy "Sir Duke", surpassed the commercial success of "I Wish". It was released in March 1977 and also reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 (spending three weeks at the top starting on May 21) and the R&B chart (for one week, starting on May 28). It also reached number two in the UK, where it was kept off the top spot by the song "Free" by Deniece Williams, who had provided backing vocals on the album.

As sales for the album began to decline during the second half of 1977, the two other singles from Songs in the Key of Life failed to achieve the commercial success of "I Wish" and "Sir Duke". "Another Star" was released in August and reached only number 32 on the Hot 100 (number 18 on the R&B chart, and number 29 in the UK) and "As" came out two months later, peaking at number 36 on both the Pop and R&B charts. Though not released as a single, "Isn't She Lovely" received wide airplay and became one of Wonder's most popular songs. It was soon released by David Parton as a single in 1977 and became a top 10 hit in the UK.

Track listing[edit]

Original vinyl release

A Something's Extra EP[edit]

The A Something's Extra 7" 33 RPM EP (Tamla T 340EP) was included with the special-edition version of the original LP. Surprisingly, the EP (at least as released in the U.S.) uses the larger spindle hole typical of 45 RPM records. These tracks are also on most CD versions of the album, as well as the Blu-ray Audio,[35] either split between both discs or appended to the end of the second disc.

CD release
No.TitleWriter(s)Length
1."Love's in Need of Love Today"Wonder7:06
2."Have a Talk with God"Wonder, Hardaway2:42
3."Village Ghetto Land"Wonder, Byrd3:25
4."Contusion"Wonder3:46
5."Sir Duke"Wonder3:54
6."I Wish"Wonder4:12
7."Knocks Me Off My Feet"Wonder3:36
8."Pastime Paradise"Wonder3:28
9."Summer Soft"Wonder4:14
10."Ordinary Pain"Wonder6:23
11."Isn't She Lovely"Wonder6:34
12."Joy Inside My Tears"Wonder6:30
13."Black Man"Wonder, Byrd8:30
14."Ngiculela – Es Una Historia – I Am Singing"Wonder3:49
15."If It's Magic"Wonder3:12
16."As"Wonder7:08
17."Another Star"Wonder8:28

Personnel[edit]

Singles[edit]

Year Single Chart Position
1976 "Another Star" Club Play Singles 2
1977 Pop Singles 32
Black Singles 18
Adult Contemporary 29
"I Wish" Pop Singles 1
Black Singles 1
Adult Contemporary 23
"Sir Duke" Pop Singles 1
Black Singles 1
Adult Contemporary 3
"Isn't She Lovely" Adult Contemporary 23
"As" Adult Contemporary 24
Black Singles 36
1978 Pop Singles 36

Charts[edit]

Certifications[edit]

Region Certification Certified units/Sales
Canada (Music Canada)[56] 2× Platinum 200,000^
France (SNEP)[57] Gold 100,000*
United Kingdom (BPI)[58] Platinum 300,000^
United States (RIAA)[59] Diamond 5,000,000^

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Grimstad, Paul. "What is Avant-Pop?". Brooklyn Rail. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  2. ^ Some observers count six classic albums, some count five, and others count four.
    Bogdanov, Vladimir; Woodstra, Chris; Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (2001). All Music Guide: The Definitive Guide to Popular Music (4 ed.). Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 447–448. ISBN 0-87930-627-0.
    Cramer, Alfred William (2009). Musicians and Composers of the 20th Century. 5. Salem Press. p. 1645. ISBN 1-58765-517-9.
    Brown, Jeremy K. (2010). Stevie Wonder: Musician. Black Americans of Achievement. Infobase Publishing. p. 57. ISBN 1-60413-685-5.
  3. ^ a b c d Buskin, Richard (December 2007). "Classic Tracks: Stevie Wonder 'Pastime Paradise'". Sound on Sound.
  4. ^ Lundy, Zeth. "Playing God: Songs in the Key of Life". Stylus Magazine, January 17, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
  5. ^ a b Lundy, Zeth, 33​13 Songs in the Key of Life, pp. 14/15.
  6. ^ Lundy, 33​13 Songs in the Key of Life, p. 119.
  7. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
  8. ^ a b "Songs in the Key of Life". Rolling Stone Magazine.
  9. ^ a b Davis, Sharon Stevie Wonder: Rhythms of Wonder p. 112.
  10. ^ Lundy, 33​13 Songs in the Key of Life, pp. 8/9.
  11. ^ a b Lundy, 33​13 Songs in the Key of Life, p. 16.
  12. ^ Lundy, 33​13 Songs in the Key of Life, p. 8.
  13. ^ Kirby, Terry (February 7, 2005). "Manhattan's Hit Factory ends production after three decades of legendary music making". The Independent. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
  14. ^ Bush, John. Songs in the Key of Life at AllMusic. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  15. ^ Christgau, Robert (1981). "Stevie Wonder". Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. Ticknor & Fields. ISBN 0899190251. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  16. ^ a b c "Songs in the Key of Life". Acclaimed Music. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  17. ^ Review: "Songs in the Key of Life". Retrieved 2016-21-08.
  18. ^ Walters, Barry (June 2, 2005). Rolling Stone. New York.
  19. ^ Considine, J. D. (2004). "Stevie Wonder". In Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian. The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. Simon & Schuster. pp. 885–87. ISBN 0743201698. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
  20. ^ Arp, Louis. Review: Songs in the Key of Life. Sputnikmusic. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
  21. ^ a b Steviewonder.org.uk
  22. ^ "Stevie Wonder Wins Album Of The Year". The Grammys. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
  23. ^ "Acclaimed Music – Songs in the Key of Life". Acclaimed Music. Retrieved November 11, 2007.
  24. ^ "News". Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
  25. ^ "BBC music reviews". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
  26. ^ Fred Pessaro (2016). Phil Anselmo on Superjoint, Trump and Making Things Right, CLRVYNT.com, accessed 21 December 2017
  27. ^ "The Top 20 Albums of All Time (For Real)". music.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
  28. ^ Mitchell, Gail (October 29, 2013). "Stevie Wonder to Perform Entire 'Songs In The Key Of Life' at Holiday Benefit". Billboard.com.
  29. ^ Grow, Kory (September 10, 2014). "Stevie Wonder to Take 'Songs in the Key of Life' on the Road". Rolling Stone.
  30. ^ Grow, Kory (January 15, 2015). "Stevie Wonder Adds More 'Songs in the Key of Life' Tour Dates". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  31. ^ Top Albums/CDs Archived 2014-04-13 at the Wayback Machine. - RPM Volume 26, No. 3, October 16, 1976. Library and Archives Canada.
  32. ^ Freespace.virgin.net Archived 2009-04-17 at WebCite
  33. ^ "Welcome Back, Wonder". RIAA. Archived from the original on December 31, 2007. Retrieved November 11, 2007.
  34. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. November 17, 2007. Archived from the original on November 17, 2007. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
  35. ^ Sinclair, Paul. "Stevie Wonder Songs In The Key Of Life blu-ray audio". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  36. ^ a b c Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992. St Ives, NSW: Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
  37. ^ "austriancharts.at Stevie Wonder – Songs in the Key of Life" (ASP). Hung Medien (in German). Retrieved April 27, 2014.
  38. ^ "Top Albums/CDs - Volume 26, No. 20" (PHP). RPM. 1976-02-12. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  39. ^ "dutchcharts.nl Stevie Wonder – Songs in the Key of Life" (ASP). Hung Medien. dutchcharts.nl. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
  40. ^ "InfoDisc : Tous les Albums classés par Artiste > Choisir Un Artiste Dans la Liste" (in French). infodisc.fr. Archived from the original on May 7, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
  41. ^ a b "Hit Parade Italia - Gli album più venduti del 1985" (in Italian). hitparadeitalia.it. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
  42. ^ Oricon Album Chart Book: Complete Edition 1970-2005. Roppongi, Tokyo: Oricon Entertainment. 2006. ISBN 4-87131-077-9.
  43. ^ "charts.org.nz Stevie Wonder – Songs in the Key of Life" (ASP). Hung Medien. Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
  44. ^ "norwegiancharts.com Stevie Wonder – Songs in the Key of Life" (ASP). Hung Medien. VG-lista. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
  45. ^ "swedishcharts.com Stevie Wonder – Songs in the Key of Life" (ASP) (in Swedish). Retrieved April 27, 2014.
  46. ^ "Stevie Wonder > Artists > Official Charts". UK Albums Chart. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  47. ^ "Allmusic: Songs in the Key of Life : Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums". allmusic.com. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
  48. ^ "Album Search: Stevie Wonder – Songs in the Key of Life" (in German). Media Control. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
  49. ^ "RPM Top 100 Albums of 1976". RPM. Archived from the original on February 24, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  50. ^ "Dutch charts jaaroverzichten 1976". Dutchcharts.nl. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  51. ^ "Les Albums (CD) de 1976 par InfoDisc" (in French). infodisc.fr. Archived from the original (PHP) on May 21, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
  52. ^ a b "Complete UK Year-End Album Charts". February 2016. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  53. ^ "RPM Top 100 Albums of 1977". RPM. 1977-12-31. Archived from the original on April 5, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  54. ^ "Dutch charts jaaroverzichten 1977". Dutchcharts.nl. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  55. ^ "Top Pop Albums of 1977". billboard.biz. February 2016. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  56. ^ "Canadian album certifications – Stevie Wonder – Songs in the Key of Life". Music Canada.
  57. ^ "Les Albums Or". infodisc.fr (in French). SNEP. Archived from the original on April 29, 2014. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
  58. ^ "British album certifications – Stevie Wonder – Songs in the Key of Life". British Phonographic Industry. Select albums in the Format field. Select Platinum in the Certification field. Type Songs in the Key of Life in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.
  59. ^ "American album certifications – Stevie Wonder – Songs in the Key of Life". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]