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Sonoluminescence is the emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound. The sonoluminescence effect was first discovered at the University of Cologne in 1934 as a result of work on sonar. H. Frenzel and H. Schultes put an ultrasound transducer in a tank of photographic developer fluid, they hoped to speed up the development process. Instead, they noticed tiny dots on the film after developing and realized that the bubbles in the fluid were emitting light with the ultrasound turned on, it was too difficult to analyze the effect in early experiments because of the complex environment of a large number of short-lived bubbles. This phenomenon is now referred to as multi-bubble sonoluminescence. In 1960 Peter Jarman from Imperial College of London proposed the most reliable theory of sonoluminescence phenomenon; the collapsing bubble generates an imploding shock wave that compresses and heats the gas at the center of the bubble to high temperature. In 1989 an experimental advance was introduced.

In single-bubble sonoluminescence, a single bubble trapped in an acoustic standing wave emits a pulse of light with each compression of the bubble within the standing wave. This technique allowed a more systematic study of the phenomenon, because it isolated the complex effects into one stable, predictable bubble, it was realized that the temperature inside the bubble was hot enough to melt steel, as seen in an experiment done in 2012. Interest in sonoluminescence was renewed when an inner temperature of such a bubble well above one million kelvins was postulated; this temperature is thus far not conclusively proven. This cavity may take the form of a pre-existing bubble, or may be generated through a process known as cavitation. Sonoluminescence in the laboratory can be made to be stable, so that a single bubble will expand and collapse over and over again in a periodic fashion, emitting a burst of light each time it collapses. For this to occur, a standing acoustic wave is set up within a liquid, the bubble will sit at a pressure anti-node of the standing wave.

The frequencies of resonance depend on the shape and size of the container in which the bubble is contained. Some facts about sonoluminescence: The light flashes from the bubbles last between 35 and a few hundred picoseconds long, with peak intensities of the order of 1–10 mW; the bubbles are small when they emit the light—about 1 micrometre in diameter—depending on the ambient fluid and the gas content of the bubble. Single-bubble sonoluminescence pulses can have stable periods and positions. In fact, the frequency of light flashes can be more stable than the rated frequency stability of the oscillator making the sound waves driving them. However, the stability analyses of the bubble show that the bubble itself undergoes significant geometric instabilities, due to, for example, the Bjerknes forces and Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities; the addition of a small amount of noble gas to the gas in the bubble increases the intensity of the emitted light. Spectral measurements have given bubble temperatures in the range from 2300 K to 5100 K, the exact temperatures depending on experimental conditions including the composition of the liquid and gas.

Detection of high bubble temperatures by spectral methods is limited due to the opacity of liquids to short wavelength light characteristic of high temperatures. A study describes a method of determining temperatures based on the formation of plasmas. Using argon bubbles in sulfuric acid, the data show the presence of ionized molecular oxygen O2+, sulfur monoxide, atomic argon populating high-energy excited states, which confirms a hypothesis that the bubbles have a hot plasma core; the ionization and excitation energy of dioxygenyl cations, which they observed, is 18 electronvolts. From this they conclude the core temperatures reach at least 20,000 kelvins; the dynamics of the motion of the bubble is characterized to a first approximation by the Rayleigh–Plesset equation: R R ¨ + 3 2 R ˙ 2 = 1 ρ This is an approximate equation, derived from the Navier–Stokes equations and describes the motion of the radius of the bubble R as a function of time t. Here, μ is the viscosity, p the pressure, γ the surface tension.

The over-dots represent time derivatives. This equation, though approximate, has been shown to give good estimates on the motion of the bubble under the acoustically driven field except during the final stages of collapse. Both simulation and experimental measurement show that during the critical final stages of collapse, the bubble wall velocity exceeds the speed of sound of the gas inside the bubble, thus a more detailed analysis of the bubble's m

Athletics at the 1908 Summer Olympics – Men's 5 miles

The men's 5 miles race was held at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London. It was discontinued after that in favour of the metric races of 10,000 metres; the competition was held on July 15, 1908, July 18, 1908. 36 runners from 14 nations competed. There were six preliminary heats, with the winner and the four runners-up with the best time advancing to the final. NOCs could enter up to 12 athletes; these are Olympic records prior to the 1908 Summer Olympics. The 5 miles race was only held twice at the Olympic, 1906 and 1908. All first round heats were held on July 15, 1908. Ragueneau retired in the first quarter-mile. Coales dropped out after about four miles. Hefferon led for about half the race. Intermediate times: 1 mile 4:52.0, 2 miles 10:02.8, 3 miles 15:10.4, 4 miles 20:29.4 Voigt broke away from the pack at about four miles. Intermediate times: 1 mile 5:06.2, 2 miles 10:40.0, 3 miles 16:06.0, 4 miles 21:16.0 Landqvist led the entire way pulling away from the rest of the runners. Intermediate times: 1 mile 5:07.6, 2 miles 10:32.6, 3 miles 15:53.4, 4 miles 21:26.2 Intermediate times: 1 mile 4:49.6, 2 miles 9:59.8, 3 miles 15:12.4, 4 miles 20:31.4 Murphy was in the lead for the entirety of the race.

Fitzgerald and Stevenson were close together for the first mile Robertson broke away. This left Stevenson to fight over second place. Intermediate times: 1 mile 4:52.8, 2 miles 10:02.6, 3 miles 15:18.4, 4 miles 20:37.4 Owen had the largest margin of victory in the preliminary heats, defeating Galbraith by a full lap of the track. Intermediate times: 1 mile 4:46.8, 2 miles 9:56.0, 3 miles 15:19.2, 4 miles 20:51.0 The final was held on July 18, 1908. Fitzgerald, Owen, Svanberg and Voigt led at various times during the final. Owen led after one mile reached in 4:46.2, with Hefferon leading at the two and three mile marks, with times of 9:54.2 and 15:05.6. After four miles, Svanberg was in front, with a time of 20:19.2. In the last two laps, Voigt sprinted to the lead, he won the race setting a new Olympic record. As the competition has been discontinued, his Olympic record still stands. Cook, Theodore Andrea; the Fourth Olympiad. London: British Olympic Association. De Wael, Herman. "Athletics 1908". Herman's Full Olympians.

Retrieved 12 March 2008. Wudarski, Pawel. "Wyniki Igrzysk Olimpijskich". Retrieved 12 March 2008

Lowell Ganz

Lowell Ganz is an American screenwriter, television writer, television producer. He is the long-time writing partner of Babaloo Mandel. Ganz was born in the son of Jean and Irving Ganz, an arts supply executive. Both of his parents were first-generation Americans born in New York, his mother's family is of Polish Jewish origin from the Białystok area. Ganz grew up in New York, he attended Queens College, City University of New York, where he and his friend Mark Rothman wrote several comedic skits and shows for school productions. After Rothman's father Abe—a chauffeur who sometimes drove for The Mike Douglas Show—was able to pass a spec script of theirs to Tony Randall, the two got a try-out writing gig on Randall's hit TV show The Odd Couple. However, the producers of the show would only pay. Ganz and Rothman headed west to take the job. After being fired—causing them to live in their car and contemplate driving back across the country to New York—and re-hired by producer Garry Marshall, the two became regular writers on the show.

That led to a career in Hollywood. After writing for the short-lived sitcom Paul Sand in Friends and Lovers in 1974, Ganz moved on to writing for Happy Days and co-created two of its spin-off series and Shirley and Joanie Loves Chachi. Ganz and Rothman's TV writing partnership dissolved after studio executives broke up the pair circa 1981. Ganz met Babaloo Mandel, at The Comedy Store, shortly thereafter. In 1982, Ganz and Mandel teamed up with fellow Happy Days alumni Ron Howard—who wanted to start directing—and Henry Winkler—who wanted to move away from his image as Fonzie—to make their first film, the low-budget comedy Night Shift, actor Michael Keaton's first film. Ganz's second film outing, launched the careers of Tom Hanks and Daryl Hannah and earned Ganz a nomination for the 1984 Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. Ganz and Mandel went on to write several other films, four directed by Howard and one by Penny Marshall, alumna of Ganz's previous projects Paul Sand in Friends and Lovers and Laverne and Shirley.

Five of their films have starred Billy Crystal, two have starred Tom Hanks, two have starred Michael Keaton. Two of Ganz's films are about baseball. Ganz and Mandel's film Parenthood was semi-autobiographical and praised by critics and led to two different spin-off television shows. Ganz and Mandel are widely used as Hollywood script doctors, known for their reliability and fast turnaround time, their screenwriting on several major films of the late 1990s and 2000s is uncredited, including Stuart Little and Stuart Little 2 as notable examples. Ganz lives in Los Angeles with his wife of Jeanne Russo Ganz, they have three children — Scott and Simon — all working in entertainment. He is a member of the Wilshire Boulevard Temple. Night Shift Splash Spies Like Us Gung Ho The Money Pit Vibes Parenthood City Slickers A League of Their Own Mr. Saturday Night Greedy City Slickers II: The Legend of Curly's Gold Forget Paris Multiplicity Fathers' Day Liar Liar EDtv Where the Heart Is Fever Pitch Robots Tooth Fairy Parental Guidance Pinsky The Odd Couple Happy Days Laverne & Shirley Busting Loose The Ted Knight Show The Rita Moreno Show America 2100 Angie Joanie Loves Chachi The New Odd Couple Amazing Stories Channel 99 Knight & Daye Hiller and Diller Gung Ho Parenthood A League of Their Own Parenthood Splash Parenthood A League of Their Own Mr. Saturday Night Greedy Robots Wrong Turn at LungfishOff-Broadway show starring George C. Scott and Tony Danza Ganz and Mandel were featured in The Dialogue interview series.

In this 90-minute interview with producer Mike DeLuca and Mandel discusses their 40-year partnership as it evolved from television to feature films. Lowell Ganz on IMDb The Dialogue: Learn from the Masters Interview Lowell Ganz at The Interviews: An Oral History of Television Mr. Saturday Night's Writers: Funny All Week

Dead Gods

Dead Gods is an adventure module for the second edition of the Advanced Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game. Dead Gods is composed of two adventures which revolve around the theme of death and resurrection of a god: "Out of the Darkness" and "Into the Light"; each adventure can be played separately, although the two plots can be woven together by the Dungeon Master."Out of the Darkness" consists of nine chapters. Long ago, Orcus the tanar'ri lord of the undead had grown fat and inattentive towards his realm in the Abyss; the minor demipower Kiaransalee, drow goddess of vengeance, conspired against Orcus and slew him, supplanting his realm and position and banishing his name across the planes. Orcus’ corpse lay dead on the Astral Plane for some time, until he began to stir in the not-so-distant past, his form changed to become thin and shadowy, but rather than being restored to life he had become an undead god much less powerful than before. Orcus disappeared from the Astral and chose a new name for himself: Tenebrous.

He sought to gain revenge on everyone in the multiverse, raised his former demonic servants as undead called visages to gather information to aid in his vengeance. He returned to an old base of his, a fortress on the Negative Energy Plane, on the plane of Arborea he found a magical force called the Last Word, potent enough to slay a god. Kiaransalee had sent two of her drow followers to bury his powerful artifact, the Wand of Orcus, in an unreachable vault of stone on the plane of Pandemonium. In his search for his Wand, Tenebrous used the Last Word to slay Primus, the lord of the modrons, using Primus's form he began using the modrons to search for his Wand; when the modrons discovered the two drow who had buried the Wand, Tenebrous began making preparations to take back the Abyss. The player characters must follow the clues to discover Tenebrous's scheme and keep the Wand away from him long enough for the power of the Last Word to consume him. "Into the Light" consists of three parts, takes place in the city of Sigil.

Many years ago, the last worshippers of a dead god brought the pieces of his body from the Astral Plane to Sigil and used the body to construct a monument of five standing stones. Some time when the significance of the monument had been forgotten, adherents of another religion built a temple around the standing stones; this church stood vacant for centuries until bought by a wealthy man named Cruigh Manathas, who ordered his workmen to tear it down. The workmen disappeared one day – unknown to all, they had been absorbed into the standing stones, as were those who came to investigate what happened to the workmen. Secretly, a fighter named Argesh Fiord has been in control of the situation and is using it in an attempt to foment a war between some of the city's factions in revenge for the death of his wife; the player characters must uncover Fiord's plot in order to prevent the war. Dead Gods was published in 1997, was written by Monte Cook, with cover art by rk post and interior art by rk post, Adam Rex, Josh Timbrook.

Dead Gods was ranked the 14th greatest Dungeons & Dragons adventure of all time by Dungeon magazine in 2004, on the 30th anniversary of the Dungeons & Dragons game. Http://

1970 FIFA World Cup qualification (UEFA)

The European zone of qualification for the 1970 FIFA World Cup saw 29 teams competing for eight places at the finals. UEFA members England qualified automatically as the defending champions; the qualification process started on 19 May 1968 and ended on 7 December 1969. FIFA rejected the entry of Albania, both Malta and Iceland withdrew before the draw was made; the remaining 29 teams were drawn into eight groups, five groups of four teams and three of three teams. All eight group-winners qualified automatically. Czechoslovakia and Hungary finished level on points, a play-off on neutral ground was played to decide who would qualify. Czechoslovakia won the play-off to qualify for the World Cup. 9 goals 7 goals 6 goals 5 goals 4 goals 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal 1 own goal European Zone at

David F. Girard-diCarlo

David F. Girard-diCarlo is an American lawyer and former diplomat. Girard-diCarlo received his bachelor's degree from Saint Joseph's University and studied law at the Villanova University School of Law. After completing law school, he began his career as an associate with Wolf Block LLP, before moving on to Dilworth Paxon LLP, where he became a partner, he left Dilworth to take the position of chairman of the South Eastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority before returning to the lawfirm environment in 1991. In 1992, Girard-diCarlo began his work for Blank Rome LLP, where he served for 16 years as managing partner and CEO holding the position of chairman for six years, he was appointed as the CEO of subsidiary Blank Rome Government Relations LLC, the lobbying branch of the law firm based in Washington, D. C. In 2000, he was chairman of the Bush-Cheney election campaign in Pennsylvania. In 2002 and 2003, he was named to the PoliticsPA list of "Sy Snyder's Power 50" list of politically influential individuals.

David F. Girard-diCarlo was nominated as the U. S. ambassador to Austria following Susan McCaw's resignation from the post. He was confirmed by the United States Congress on June 27, 2008, he was sworn in by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice on July 1, arrived in Vienna on July 3, 2008 to host the July 4th reception in his future residence. On December 10, 2008, the Ambassador announced his intention to resign from the post following the inauguration of Barack Obama on January 20, 2009. Girard-diCarlo has been a major contributor to Republican Party campaigns, including most the presidential campaign of John McCain. United States Department of State Ambassadors of the United States List of alumni of Villanova University Girard-diCarlo's bio from Cozen O'Connor Appearances on C-SPAN