Sonoma Raceway is a road course and dragstrip located at Sears Point in the southern Sonoma Mountains of Sonoma, United States. The road course features 12 turns on a hilly course with 160 feet of total elevation change, it is host to one of only three NASCAR Cup Series races each year. It has played host to the IndyCar Series, the NHRA Mello Yello Drag Racing Series, several other auto races and motorcycle races such as the American Federation of Motorcyclists series. Sonoma Raceway continues to host amateur, or club racing events with some open to the public; the largest such car club is the Sports Car Club of America. The track is 30 miles north of San Oakland. With the closure of Riverside International Raceway in Moreno Valley, California after the 1988 season, NASCAR wanted a West Coast road course event to replace it, chose the Sears Point facility. Riverside Raceway was razed for the Moreno Valley Mall. In 2002, Sears Point Raceway was renamed after Infineon Technologies. However, as with many renamings of sports complexes, many people still call it by its original name.
On March 7, 2012, it was announced that Infineon would not renew their contract for naming rights when the deal expired in May 2012, that track management is looking for a new company to take over naming rights. The 2.52-mile road racing course was constructed on 720 acres by Marin County owners Robert Marshall Jr. an attorney from Point Reyes, land developer Jim Coleman of Kentfield. The two conceived of the idea of a race track while on a hunting trip. Ground was broken in August 1968 and paving of the race surface was completed in November; the first official event at Sears Point was an SCCA Enduro, held on December 1, 1968. In 1969 the track was sold to Filmways Corp. a Los Angeles-based entertainment company for $4.5 million. In May 1970 the track was closed and became a tax shelter for Filmways after losses of $300,000 were reported. Hugh Harn of Belvedere and Parker Archer of Napa arranged to lease the track from Filmways in 1973. Bob Bondurant and operator of the Bob Bondurant School of High Performance Driving, partner Bill Benck took over management and control of the leased raceway from Parker Archer and Hugh Harn in 1974.
A few years a group calling itself Black Mountain Inc. which included Bondurant, William J. Kolb of Del Mar and Howard Meister of Newport Beach, purchased the track from Filmways for a reported $1.5 million. American Motorcycle Association national motocross races in the hills north of Turn 7 became popular with Bay Area fans, but were phased out by the end of the decade because of rising insurance costs. In 1981 Filmways regained ownership of the track after a financial dispute with Black Mountain group. Jack Williams, the 1964 NHRA top-fuel drag racing champion, Rick Betts and John Andersen purchased the track from Filmways at an auction for $800,000; the track was renamed Sears Point International Raceway. In 1985 the track was repaved, in part with funds donated from the "Pave the Point" fund raising campaign; the first shop spaces were built. In 1986 Harvey "Skip" Berg of Tiburon, CA took control of the track and became a major stockholder in Brenda Raceway Corp. which controlled the track until 1996.
Additional buildings constructed on the property brought shop space to more than 700,000 square feet during 1987. In addition, a five-year contract was signed with the National Hot Rod Association for the California Nationals; the NASCAR Winston Cup Series debuted at the raceway in 1989. In 1994 more than $1 million was spent on a beautification project and construction of a 62-foot -high, four-sided electronic lap leader board in the center of the road course. In the following years a major $3 million renovation plan included VIP suites and a two-story driver's lounge/emergency medical facility. In 1995 Trans-Am and SportsCar races returned to Sears Point and the NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series was added to the major-events schedule. Owner "Skip" Berg sold the track to O. Bruton Smith, chairman of Speedway Motorsports, Inc. in November 1996. Major renovations began at Sears Point Raceway in 1998 with the creation of "The Chute", an 890-foot high-speed stretch; the first-ever running of the American Le Mans Series took place at Sears Point in July 1999.
In 2000 Sears Point Raceway gained unanimous approval from the Sonoma County Board of Supervisors by a 5–0 vote to begin work on a $35 million Modernization Plan that included 64,000 Hillside Terrace seats, repaving of both the road course and drag strip and increased run-off around the entire track. After the turn of the millennium, Infineon Technologies bought the naming rights, on June 22, 2002, the course was renamed Infineon Raceway. In 2006, the Grand Prix of Sonoma was transferred to the Rolex Sports Car Series, who would limit it to Daytona Prototypes only for 2007–2008 before the event was discontinued altogether. Since 2010, the course has seen a mild resurgence, with the circuit becoming a sponsor for various events as well as hosting an increasing amount of lesser series, including the WTCC and the return of the SCCA World Challenge; the year 2012 saw the end of Infineon as the corporate sponsor, with the track renaming itself Sonoma Raceway. The standard, full length road course at Sonoma Raceway is a 2.52 miles 12-turn course.
This course was utilized by all competition through 1997. Most races, including the Grand Prix of Sonoma, use the full course; the course is noted for turns two and three, which are negative-camber turns, with the inside of the turn higher than the outside. This provides a challenge for the driver, as turn two would have
Jadu Gopal Mukherjee was a Bengali Indian revolutionary who, as the successor of Jatindranath Mukherjee or Bagha Jatin, led the Jugantar members to recognise and accept Gandhi's movement as the culmination of their own aspiration. Jadugopal or Jadu was born at Tamluk in the district of Medinipur on the bank of the Rupnarayan River in West Bengal, where his father Kishorilal practised law and distinguished himself as a Kheyal singer; the family came from Beniatola in north Kolkata. Jadu's mother Bhubanmohini hailed from a Vaishnava family and transmitted in her children a spirit of devotion. Jadu's younger brother was to settle in the U. S. A. and to be known in the West the famous writer and cultural scholar Dhan Gopal Mukerji. As an upper class student of the Duff School in Kolkata, Jadu learnt to think patriotically, thanks to one of his teachers, he became a member of the Kolkata Anushilan Party in 1905, attracted by its physical culture and, on the foil of the Partition, by its political climate.
He writes in his autobiography that the single-handed fight of Bagha Jatin with a Royal Bengal tiger thrilled him and his friends in 1906, he had an impression of belonging to a heroic epoch. After the F. A. examination, in 1908, Jadu entered the Calcutta Medical College. Fond of observing and analysing the rising tide of patriotism and the Government measures to repress them, Jadu preferred remaining aloof, confining himself to a couple of close friends. Relief work during the 1913 Damodar floods brought Jadu close to Bagha Jatin and the latter's important associates. Busy cementing the regional units for organising an armed insurrection during the forthcoming War, Jatin designated Rash Behari Bose as the responsible for Upper India. Though jealous of Naren Bhattacharya's proximity with Jatin, Jadu received the charge of developing the external links with Taraknath Das in California and Virendranath Chattopadhyay in Germany. With the failure of the Indo-German Plan and Bagha Jatin's sudden death in 1915, finding Atulkrishna Ghosh, the legitimate right-hand man of Jatin, plunged in a momentary despair, Jadu replaced him and asked the revolutionaries to disperse.
During Jadu's absence, Bhupendra Kumar Datta maintained the leadership till his arrest in 1917. Hiding in the hilly forests of Assam-Burma and Tibeto-Bhutan frontiers, Jadu was informed about the impact of the revolutionaries' activities on the Imperialists and about the question of a possible concession of constitutional reforms with the Rowlatt Act at the end of World War I. Returning home in 1921, Jadu obtained a special permission to sit for the Medical degree Examination and passed it with record results in 1922. After Gandhi's first failure, according to their initial contract, the Jugantar members worked under Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das and Satyendra Chandra Mitra Satyendra Chandra Mitra to form the alternative Swaraj movement and they declared their new programme by celebrating the 8th anniversary of Bagha Jatin's self-giving on 9 September 1923, from Bengal to Punjab. After receiving a message from Lala Har Dayal, Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil went to Allahabad where he drafted the constitution of Hindustan Republican Association in the winter season of 1923 with the help of Dr. Jadugopal Mukherjee and Sachindra Nath Sanyal both of these revolutionaries were from Bengal.
The basic name and aims of the organisation were typed on a Yellow Paper in Allahabad. Alerted by this, the British authorities arrested the radicals. Released in 1927, he was externed from Bengal. Settled in Ranchi, he earned an outstanding reputation in TB treatment, he had two sons. At this juncture, he succeeded in bringing together the Jugantar and the Anushilan radicals, creating the short-lived federated Karmi-Sangha. Jadu took the initiative, in 1938, announced that the Jugantar stopped existing as a Party distinct from the Congress, extending its full support to Gandhi. Arrested again for helping Gandhi to organise the Quit India movement, in 1942, he was released two years later, he disagreed with the Congress compromise on vital issues such as complete independence and partition of India, he resigned in 1947. He died in 1976
Colonel Redl is a 1985 biographical drama film by Hungarian director István Szabó. The plot, set in the period before World War I, follows the rise of Alfred Redl, an officer in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Redl, who comes from a humble background, enters military school as a boy and has an illustrious military career pushed forward by his loyalty to the crown, he is appointed the head of an intelligence gathering unit, but his attraction to men causes his downfall. The screenplay, loosely inspired from British playwright John Osborne's play A Patriot for Me, charts the rise of inter-ethnic tensions in Austro-Hungary, which were to bring about the assassination in Sarajevo and the empire's eventual disintegration; the film stars Jan Niklas and Gudrun Landgrebe. It was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Film and won the Jury Prize at Cannes Film Festival in 1985. Alfred Redl, a Ruthenian boy from Galicia in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, wins an appointment to a prestigious military academy in spite of being the son of a mere peasant farmer.
At his departure from home, his mother instils in him eternal gratitude towards the Emperor Franz Josef. Redl is never to forget. At the military academy, the young Redl soon stands out for his talent and loyalty to the Crown. One of his teachers forces him to inform on Kristof Kubinyi, a student, the subject of a practical joke. Alfred and Kristof become firm friends. Kubinyi invites Redl home for the holidays to the elegant residence of his parents, who lead a life of privilege and nobility in Hungary. There, Alfred meets Kristof's pretty sister, who welcomes him warmly. To Kubinyi's aristocratic parents, Redl hides his true humble background, pretending to be of Hungarian ancestry and a member from an old family who lost all its fortune. Redl and Kubinyi climb the ladder as career officers. Once they become adults, the two friends have different political ideals; as a Hungarian, Kubinyi falls prey to the national aspirations of a Hungary free from Habsburg rule, while Redl remains fiercely patriotic and faithful to his benefactor, the Austrian Emperor.
For Redl, his relationship with Kubinyi goes beyond friendship as Redl harbors an unrequited love for his comrade. When the two young men visit a brothel, Redl seems more interested in watching his friend having sex than in engaging a woman in his own room. Redl suppresses his attraction to Kristof and transfers it, as best as he can, to Katalin, his friend's beautiful sister. Back at the academy, Alfred serves as a second in a duel between Kristof and another classmate, killed in the contest; this foolishness jeopardizes the careers of both Kubinyi and Redl, but the commanding officer, Colonel von Roden, having noted Redl's hard work and loyalty to the Emperor, arranges a promotion for him and a prized assignment in Vienna. In Vienna, Redl is able to renew his friendship with Katalin, who is, by unhappily married, they become lovers in spite of Katalin knowing well that it is her brother who Alfred loves. Redl is assigned to a garrison serving on the Russian border; the discipline there is lax and Redl stands out as a serious-minded young officer.
When the district commander decides to retire, Redl is recommended for the job. As commanding officer, he proves demanding, working hard to reinvigorate the discipline of his outfit; this does not sit well with the junior officers, including Kristof because they feel superior to Redl by birth. When Redl and Kristof have a falling out over Kristof's sloppy habits and poor performance, Kristof mocks Redl's lowly origins in conversation with other officers. Colonel von Roden intervenes on Redl's behalf again, bringing him back to Vienna to serve as deputy chief of the counter-espionage branch of the Evidenzbureau. It's a nasty kind of job, since it entails spying on officers throughout the service, trying to identify those engaging in espionage activities for the Russians. On Katalin's suggestion, Redl undertakes a loveless marriage of convenience in order to quell rumors of his homosexual proclivities, his wife, suffers from ill health and remains a distant figure in his life. Redl's single-minded devotion to duty draws him into the orbit of the heir to the crown, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, a ruthless schemer.
Redl participates in one of the Archduke's plots, which involves setting up an aging Ukrainian officer for a dramatic fall so as to shake the army out of its complacency. The man is accidentally shot to death, during the search and seizure, negating the value of the plan; the Archduke decides to make Redl the fall guy instead. Redl contributes to his own downfall by allowing himself to be seduced by an Italian officer. Redl is now doomed. Under arrest, he is given a service pistol with, it falls upon Kristof to order him to commit suicide. After experiencing anger and despair, Redl shoots himself; the film ends with a brief depiction of the notorious assassination of the Archduke, at Sarajevo, the resulting chain of events leading to World War I. Klaus Maria Brandauer as Colonel Alfred Redl Hans Christian Blech as Major General Von Roden Armin Mueller-Stahl as Archduke Franz Ferdinand Gudrun Landgrebe as