Mission San Francisco Solano (California)
Mission San Francisco Solano was the 21st, northernmost mission in Alta California. It was the only mission built in Alta California; the difficulty of its beginning demonstrates the confusion resulting from that change in governance. The California Governor wanted a robust Mexican presence north of the San Francisco Bay to keep the Russians who had established Fort Ross on the Pacific coast from moving further inland. A young Franciscan friar from Mission San Francisco de Asis wanted to move to a location with a better climate and access to a larger number of potential converts; the Mission was successful, given its short eleven year life, but was smaller in number of converts and with lower productivity and diversity of industries than the older California missions. The mission building is now part of the Sonoma State Historic Park and is located in the city of Sonoma, California. Fr. José Altimira at age 33 arrived from Spain, to serve at Mission San Francisco de Asís; the mission was not thriving because of its climate and had established a medical asistencia in San Rafael to help the mission’s ill neophytes recover their health.
California Governor Luis Argüello was interested in blocking the Russians at Bodega Bay and Fort Ross from moving further inland. Together they developed and presented to the church authorities and the territory a plan for moving Mission San Francisco de Asís and the San Rafael asistencia to a new location north of the Bay; the legislature approved. Under the old Spanish regime, founding a new mission required the approval of both New Spain's Bishop and the King’s Viceroy. Beginning in 1823, while waiting for a response from the church authorities, Fr. Altimira, with military escorts, began exploring north of the Bay for a suitable mission site. On July 4, 1823, the soldiers placed a large redwood cross on the place in the Sonoma Valley where they expected the new Mission San Francisco de Assis to be established, they celebrated Mass to consecrate the location. They returned south to begin gathering men and materials to begin construction; the area around the selected site was not empty. It was near the northeast corner of the territory of the Coast Miwok, Southern Pomo to the northwest, Wappo to the northeast and Ptwin peoples to the east.
A detachment of soldiers from the Presidio of San Francisco would be provided to protect the Mission and guard the neophytes. Altimira with soldiers and neophytes from Mission San Francisco de Asís returned to the Sonoma area near the end of August. Altimira decided. Just after starting he received a letter from Father-President Sarria who refused Altimira permission to continue building. Fr. Altimira obeyed and the month of September saw continuing negotiations between California’s civil and religious leaders. On September 30 an agreement was reached: a new mission could be built and Fr. Altimira would be its minister, but Mission San Francisco de Asís would not be closed and the San Rafael asistencia had been designated as a full mission. Beginning in October 1823 Fr. Altimira had the opportunity to build his new mission at the location he chose, but since Mission San Francisco de Asís would remain open this Mission needed a different patron saint. Altimira chose a 17th-century Franciscan missionary to South America.
His company of soldiers and neophytes set about building all the facilities needed in a California mission. His annual report for 1823 listed no baptisms, one marriage, one funeral, a population of 482 Indians and 1341 animals; the work had started too late in the year for anything to be harvested. On April 4, 1824, Passion Sunday, Father Altimira proudly dedicated his church, it was a crude, temporary structure but it symbolized development at the Mission. The church was well furnished and decorated. Many of the articles were gifts from the Russians at Fort Ross, it held a canvas painting of San Francisco Solano, donated by the Father-President. Furthermore, the Mission had been promised a relic of the patron saint to put in the altar; the Mission continued to develop until an argument arose about the sharing of the bountiful 1826 harvest. Indians not living at the Mission were unhappy with the amount allocated for their work. Fr. Altimira with a few faithful neophytes fled to Mission San Rafael Arcángel.
Fr. Buenaventura Fortuni, an aging Spanish Franciscan, working at Mission San José, was assigned to replace Altimira. Fr. Fortuni reestablished order and morale and the work of building the mission restarted, he arranged the main buildings to form a square enclosure. In 1830 Fr. Fortuni, having labored alone at this mission for 3 1/2 years, felt the need to transfer to another mission where the work load could be shared, he was 58 years old. José Gutiérrez, a Franciscan friar from South America; the Mexican government had in 1826 required that all the Spanish friars who would not pledge loyalty to Mexico leave. Fr. Fortuni had been exempted from this rule but all new churchmen would be required to take the pledge. Fr. Gutierrez increased the agricultural effort. By 1832 the mission had 27 rooms in the convento or priest's quarters, with a great adobe church at the east end, a wooden storehouse at the west end. Completing this enclosure were workshops where the Indians were
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Glen Ellen, California
Glen Ellen is a census-designated place in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County, United States. The population was 784 at the 2010 census, down from 992 at the 2000 census. Glen Ellen is the location of Jack London State Historic Park, Sonoma Valley Regional Park, a former home of Hunter S. Thompson; the whole of Glen Ellen was damaged by the Nuns Fire during the October 2017 Northern California wildfires. In 1859, Charles V. Stuart purchased a part of the Rancho Agua Caliente land grant and in 1868 began building a house there establishing a 1,000-acre vineyard he named Glen Ellen after his wife; the town that grew up around the vineyard came to be called Glen Ellen, Stuart's home was renamed Glen Oaks Ranch. In October 2017, the area was badly affected by wildfire. Glen Ellen is about 6 miles northwest of the city of Sonoma; the United States Census Bureau fixes the total area at 2.1 square miles, 99.95% of it land and 0.05% covered by water. Sonoma Creek, the principal river of the Sonoma Valley flows through Glen Ellen.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Glen Ellen had a population of 784. The population density was 372.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Glen Ellen was 693 White, 3 African American, 9 Native American, 16 Asian, 3 Pacific Islander, 18 from other races, 42 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 67 persons; the Census reported that 98.3% of the population lived in households and 1.7% lived in non-institutionalized group quarters. There were 364 households, out of which 74 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 172 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 26 had a female householder with no husband present, 14 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 23 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 6 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 122 households were made up of individuals and 34 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12. There were 212 families; the population was spread out with 126 people under the age of 18, 37 people aged 18 to 24, 142 people aged 25 to 44, 376 people aged 45 to 64, 103 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 51.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.2 males. There were 421 housing units at an average density of 200.2 per square mile, of which 60.4% were owner-occupied and 39.6% were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.3%. 60.5% of the population lived in owner-occupied housing units and 37.9% lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 992 people, 340 households, 219 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 473 people per square mile. There were 387 housing units at an average density of 185/sq mi; the racial makeup of the CDP was 89.4% White, 1.9% African American, 1.2% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.40% Pacific Islander, 2.7% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races. 8.5% of the population were Hispanic. There were 340 households out of which 34.7% had children under the age of 18, 49.4% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.3% were non-families.
25.0% of all households consist of individuals and 3.8% have someone living alone, 65 or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.91. The age distribution is as follows: 28.6% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 33.9% from 45 to 64, 8.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 120.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $52,143, the median income for a family was $54,219. Males had a median income of $50,714 versus $35,952 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $22,680. About 11.5% of families and 14.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.8% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. Writer Jack London lived in Glen Ellen from 1909 to his death in 1916, where he devoted much of his time to development of his Beauty Ranch and the building of his mansion, Wolf House.
Many of his novels and stories, notably The Iron Heel and The Valley of the Moon mention Glen Ellen and Sonoma County. The site of his ranch is now Jack London State Historic Park, which contains the ruins of Wolf House, several ranch buildings, the grave of Jack and Charmian London, a museum housed in Charmian London's "House of Happy Walls", a restaurant. Glen Ellen is the home of several gourmet star restaurants such as: The Glen Ellen Star Yeti Restaurant Aventine Glen Ellen Inn The Fig Cafe The Wolf House Olive and VineThe Sonoma Developmental Center is located just outside Glen Ellen near the Jack London ranch, its predecessor, the California Home for the Care and Training of Feeble Minded Children, was the setting for Jack London's story "Told in the Drooling Ward." Glen Ellen is located in the Wine Country and is part of the Sonoma Mountain AVA. Like all the communities in Sonoma Valley, Glen Ellen is home to many vineyards and wineries including B. R. Cohn Winery, Benziger Family Winery, Mayo Family Winery, Valley of the Moon Winery.
Quarryhill Botanic Garden, located near Glen Ellen, is
Sonoma is a city in Sonoma County's Sonoma Valley, in California's Wine Country. Today, Sonoma is a center of California's wine industry in the Sonoma Valley AVA Appellation. Sonoma is known as the home of the Sonoma International Film Festival and for its historic town plaza, a remnant of the town's Mexican colonial past. Sonoma's population was 10,648 as of the 2010 census, while the Sonoma urban area had a population of 32,678; the area around what is now the City of Sonoma, California was not empty when the first Europeans arrived. It is near the northeast corner of the territory claimed by the Coast Miwok, with Southern Pomo to the northwest, Wappo to the northeast and Patwin peoples to the east. Mission San Francisco Solano was the predecessor of the Pueblo of Sonoma; the Mission, established in 1823 by Father José Altimira of the Franciscan Order was the 21st, last and northernmost mission built in Alta California. It was the only mission built in Alta California after Mexico gained independence from the Spanish Empire.
In 1833 the Mexican Congress decided to close all of the missions in Alta California. The Spanish missionaries were to be replaced by parish priests; the commander of the Company of the National Presidio at San Francisco, Lieutenant Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo was appointed administrator to oversee the closing of Mission San Francisco Solano. Governor José Figueroa's naming of Lieutenant Vallejo as the administrator to secularize the Mission was part of a larger plan. Governor Figueroa had received instructions from the National Government to establish a strong presence in the region north of the San Francisco Bay to protect the area from encroachments of foreigners. An immediate concern was the further eastward movement of the Russian America Company from their settlements at Fort Ross and Bodega Bay on the California coast. Figueroa's next step in implementing his instructions was to name Lieutenant Vallejo as Military Commander of the Northern Frontier, to order the soldiers and materiel at the Presidio of San Francisco moved to the site of the secularized Mission San Francisco Solano.
The Sonoma Barracks were built to house the soldiers. Until the building was habitable, the troops were housed in the buildings of the old Mission. In 1834, George C. Yount, the first Euro-American permanent settler in the Napa Valley, was employed as a carpenter by General Vallejo; the Governor granted Lieutenant Vallejo the initial lands of Rancho Petaluma west of Sonoma. Vallejo was named Director of Colonization which meant that he could initiate land grants for other colonists and the diputación. Vallejo had been instructed by Governor Figueroa to establish a pueblo at the site of the old Mission. In 1835, with the assistance of William A. Richardson, he laid out, in accordance with the Spanish Laws of the Indies, the streets, central plaza and broad main avenue of the new Pueblo de Sonoma. Although Sonoma had been founded as a pueblo in 1835, it remained under military control, lacking the political structures of municipal self-government of other Alta California pueblos. In 1843, Lieutenant Colonel Vallejo wrote to the Governor recommending that a civil government be organized for Sonoma.
A town council was established in 1844 and Jacob P. Leese was named first alcalde, Cayetano Juarez second alcalde. Before dawn on Sunday, June 14, 1846, thirty-three Americans in rebellion against the Alta California government, arrived in Sonoma; some of the group had traveled from the camp of U. S. Army Brevet Captain John C. Frémont who had entered California in late 1845 with his exploration and mapping expedition. Others had joined along the way; as the number of immigrants arriving in California had swelled, the Mexican government barred them from buying or renting land and threatened them with expulsion because they had entered without official permission. Mexican officials were concerned about the coming war with the United States coupled with the growing influx of American immigrants into California. A group of rebellious Americans had departed from Frémont's camp on June 10 and captured a herd of 170 Mexican government-owned horses being moved by Californio soldiers from San Rafael and Sonoma to Alta California's Commandante General José Castro in Santa Clara.
The insurgents next determined to seize the weapons and materiel stored in the Sonoma Barracks and to deny Sonoma to the Californios as a rallying point north of San Francisco Bay. Meeting no resistance, they pounded on his door. After a few minutes Vallejo opened the door dressed in his Mexican Army uniform. Vallejo invited the filibusters' leaders into his home to negotiate terms. However, when the agreement was presented to those outside they refused to endorse it. Rather than releasing the Mexican officers under parole they insisted they be held as hostages. William Ide gave an impassioned speech urging the rebels to start a new republic. Referring to the stolen horses Ide ended his oration with "Choose ye this day what you will be! We are robbers, or we must be conquerors!" At that time and his three associates were placed on horseback and taken to Frémont accompanied by eight or nine of the insurgents who did not favor forming a new republic under the circumstances. The Sonoma Barracks became the headquarters for the remaining twenty-four rebels, who within a few days created their Bear Flag.
After the flag was raised Californios called the insurgents Los Osos because of their flag and in derision of their scruffy appearance. The rebels embraced the expression, an
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
The Miwok are members of four linguistically related Native American groups indigenous to what is now Northern California, who traditionally spoke one of the Miwok languages in the Utian family. The word Miwok means people in the Miwok language. Anthropologists divide the Miwok into four geographically and culturally diverse ethnic subgroups; these distinctions were not used among the Miwok before European contact. Plains and Sierra Miwok: from the western slope and foothills of the Sierra Nevada, the Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Coast Miwok: from present day location of Marin County and southern Sonoma County Lake Miwok: from Clear Lake basin of Lake County Bay Miwok: from present-day location of Contra Costa County The United States Bureau of Indian Affairs recognizes eleven tribes of Miwok descent in California, they are as follows: Buena Vista Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians California Valley Miwok Tribe known as the Sheep Ranch Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians Chicken Ranch Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria known as the Federated Coast Miwok Ione Band of Miwok Indians, of Ione, California Jackson Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians Middletown Rancheria Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians, Shingle Springs Rancheria Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria United Auburn Indian Community of Auburn Rancheria Wilton Rancheria Indian Tribe Miwok Tribe of the El Dorado Rancheria Nashville-Eldorado Miwok Tribe Colfax-Todds Valley Consolidated Tribe of the Colfax Rancheria Southern Sierra Miwuk Nation Calaveras Band of Mi-Wuk Indians Miwok of Buena Vista Rancheria River Valley Miwok Indians, formally known as Historical Families of Wilton Rancheria The predominant theory regarding the settlement of the Americas date the original migrations from Asia to around 20,000 years ago across the Bering Strait land bridge, but one anthropologist claims that the Miwok and some other northern California tribes descend from Siberians who arrived in California by sea around 3,000 years ago.
The Miwok lived in small bands without centralized political authority before contact with European Americans in 1769. They were otherwise hunter-gatherers; the Sierra Miwok harvested acorns from the California Black Oak. In fact, the modern-day extent of the California Black Oak forests in some areas of Yosemite National Park is due to cultivation by Miwok tribes, they burned understory vegetation to reduce the fraction of Ponderosa Pine. Nearly every other kind of edible vegetable matter was used as a food source, including bulbs and fungi. Animals were hunted depending on the species and the situation. Grasshoppers were a prized food source, as were mussels for those groups adjacent to the Stanislaus River; the Miwok ate meals according to appetite rather than at regular times. They stored food for consumption in flat-bottomed baskets. Miwok mythology and narratives tend to be similar to those of other natives of Northern California. Miwok had totem animals, identified with one of two moieties, which were in turn associated with land and water.
These totem animals were not thought of as literal ancestors of humans, but rather as predecessors. Miwok people played athletic games on a 110-yard playing field called poscoi a we’a. A unique game was played with young women. To soccer, the object was to put an elk hide ball through the goalpost; the girls were allowed to do anything, including kicking the ball and picking it up and running with it. The boys were only allowed to use their feet, but if a girl was holding it he could pick her up and carry her towards his goal. In 1770, there were an estimated 500 Lake Miwok, 1,500 Coast Miwok, 9,000 Plains and Sierra Miwok, totaling about 11,000 people, according to historian Alfred L. Kroeber, although this may be a serious undercount; the 1910 Census reported only 671 Miwok total, the 1930 Census, 491. See history of each Miwok group for more information. Today there are about 3,500 Miwok in total; the Star Wars films feature a fictional species of forest-dwelling creatures known as Ewoks, who are ostensibly named after the Miwok.
However, the historical Northern-California footprint of the Miwok people may have caused the Ewoks' name to be retconned to enhance the marketability of the 1983 film. The Miwok people are encountered in The Years of Rice and Salt. In an alternate history scenario depicted in the book they are the first group of Native Americans encountered by the first Chinese to discover the continent. Kule Loklo Saklan Lucy Telles Utian languages Access Genealogy: Indian Tribal records, Miwok Indian Tribe. Retrieved on 2006-08-01. Main source of "authenticated village" names and locations. Barrett, S. A. and Gifford, E. W. Miwok Material Culture: Indian Life of the Yosemite Region. Yosemite Association, Yosemite National Park, California, 1933. ISBN 0-939666-12-X Cook, Sherburne; the Conflict Between the California White Civilization. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1976. ISBN 0-520-03143-1. Kroeber, Alfred L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Washington, D. C: Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78..
Silliman, Stephen. Lost Laborers in Colonial California, Native Americans and the Archaeology of Rancho Petaluma. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press
Grape phylloxera. These microscopic, pale yellow sap-sucking insects, related to aphids, feed on the roots and leaves of grapevines. On Vitis vinifera, the resulting deformations on roots and secondary fungal infections can girdle roots cutting off the flow of nutrients and water to the vine. Nymphs form protective galls on the undersides of grapevine leaves of some Vitis species and overwinter under the bark or on the vine roots. American vine species have evolved to have several natural defenses against phylloxera; the roots of the American vines exude a sticky sap that repels the nymph form when it tries to feed from the vine by clogging its mouth. If the nymph is successful in creating a feeding wound on the root, American vines respond by forming a protective layer of tissue to cover the wound and protect it from secondary bacterial or fungal infections. There is no cure for phylloxera and unlike other grape diseases such as powdery or downy mildew, there is no chemical control or response.
The only successful means of controlling phylloxera has been the grafting of phylloxera-resistant American rootstock to more susceptible European vinifera vines. The phylloxera aphid has a complex life-cycle of up to 18 stages, that can be divided into four principal forms: sexual form, leaf form, root form, winged form; the sexual form begins with male and female eggs laid on the underside of young grape leaves. The male and female at this stage lack a digestive system, once hatched, they mate and die. Before the female dies, she lays one winter egg in the bark of the vine's trunk; this egg develops into the leaf form. This nymph, the fundatrix, climbs onto a leaf and lays eggs parthenogenetically in a leaf gall that she creates by injecting saliva into the leaf; the nymphs that hatch from these eggs may move to other leaves, or move to the roots where they begin new infections in the root form. In this form they perforate the root to find nourishment, infecting the root with a poisonous secretion that stops it from healing.
This poison kills the vine. This nymph reproduces by laying eggs for up to seven more generations each summer; these offspring spread to other roots of the vine, or to the roots of other vines through cracks in the soil. The generation of nymphs that hatch in the autumn hibernate in the roots and emerge next spring when the sap begins to rise. In humid areas, the nymphs develop into the winged form, else they perform the same role without wings; these nymphs start the cycle again by either staying on the vine to lay male and female eggs on the bottom side of young grape leaves, or flying to an uninfected vine to do the same. Many attempts have been made to interrupt this life cycle to eradicate phylloxera, but the aphid has proven to be adaptable, as no one stage of the life cycle is dependent upon another for the propagation of the species. In the late 19th century the phylloxera epidemic destroyed most of the vineyards for wine grapes in Europe, most notably in France. Phylloxera was introduced to Europe when avid botanists in Victorian England collected specimens of American vines in the 1850s.
Because phylloxera is native to North America, the native grape species are at least resistant. By contrast, the European wine grape Vitis vinifera is susceptible to the insect; the epidemic devastated vineyards in Britain and moved to the European mainland, destroying most of the European grape growing industry. In 1863, the first vines began to deteriorate inexplicably in the southern Rhône region of France; the problem spread across the continent. In France alone, total wine production fell from 84.5 million hectolitres in 1875 to only 23.4 million hectolitres in 1889. Some estimates hold that between two-thirds and nine-tenths of all European vineyards were destroyed. In France, one of the desperate measures of grape growers was to bury a live toad under each vine to draw out the "poison". Areas with soils composed principally of sand or schist were spared, the spread was slowed in dry climates, but the aphid spread across the continent. A significant amount of research was devoted to finding a solution to the phylloxera problem, two major solutions emerged: grafting cuttings onto resistant rootstocks and hybridization.
By the end of the 19th century, hybridization became a popular avenue of research for stopping the phylloxera louse. Hybridization is the breeding of Vitis vinifera with resistant species. Most native American grapes are phylloxera resistant but have aromas that are off-putting to palates accustomed to European grapes; the intent of the cross was to generate a hybrid vine, resistant to phylloxera but produced wine that did not taste like the American grape. The hybrids tend not to be resistant to phylloxera, although they are much more hardy with respect to climate and other vine diseases; the new hybrid varieties have never gained