Fortifications of Copenhagen (17th century)
The fortifications of Copenhagen underwent a comprehensive modernization and expansion in the 17th century. The project was commenced and was largely the masterplan of Christian IV in the early 17th century but was continued and completed by his successors, the ring fortification consisted of four bastioned ramparts and an annexed citadel as well as various outworks. Today only the Christianshavn Rampart and the citadel Kastellet remain intact, Christian IVs modernization of the fortifications of Copenhagen commenced in 1606 and would take 20 years to complete. The course of the fortifications was kept but Slotsholmen was now incorporated into the complex. A large bastion in masonry was constructed on its southwestern tip, in the same time, Østervold was taken around parts of Bremerholm to meet the sea. A total of 12 bastions were constructed and just outside the entire fortification a moat was dug, due to topographical variations in the terrain, it was constructed as a series of basins, separated by dams, to solve the problem of variations in the terrain.
The uppermost basin was fed by water from Peblingesøen, the Western and Northern City Gates were renovated and given tall spires and a new Eastern City Gate was built. From 1618-23 Christianshavn was laid out and incorporated as a market town. Strategically situated in the middle of a shallow-watered, marshy area north of Amager, the rampart was constructed with four and a half bastions and a gate, known as Amager Gate. To guard the entrance to the port, a blockhouse was constructed on the shallow-watered Refshaleø in 1624. On the Zealand side of the harbour, north of the city and this work was begun in 1627. As part of his aspirations to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, as early as 1606, when his modernization of the fortifications began, he had purchased 200 hectares of land outside the Eastern City Gate. His intention was to redevelop this area into a new district referred to as Ny København or Sankt Annæ By, the plan was to change the course of Østervold, which at that time made a bend and ran along what is today Gothersgade and Kongens Nytorv.
The new Østervold would be an extension of Nørrevold, connecting it to Sankt Annæ Skanse. However, the 1630s was a time of crisis and both Sankt Annæ Skanse and the new course of Østervold was delayed with no major work going on during that decade. After both Jutland and Scania had been occupied by forces in the first half of the 1640s. The new Østervold was constructed and a new project for the fortress at Sankt Annæ Skanse, in 1840 Christian VIII appointed a national defense commission which two years recommended that the existing fortifications be decommissioned. At the outbreak of the First Schleswig War in 1848, nothing had happened, in 1852, the Line of Demarcation was partially disabandoned but work to maintain and improve the ramparts were carried out as late as 1856-57
Second Northern War
The Second Northern War was fought between Sweden and its adversaries the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Brandenburg-Prussia, the Habsburg Monarchy and Denmark–Norway. The Dutch Republic often intervened against Sweden, in 1655, Charles X Gustav of Sweden invaded and occupied western Poland–Lithuania, the eastern half of which was already occupied by Russia. The rapid Swedish advance became known in Poland as the Swedish Deluge, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania became a Swedish fief, the Polish–Lithuanian regular armies surrendered and the Polish king John II Casimir Vasa fled to the Habsburgs. Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia initially supported the estates in Royal Prussia, Russia took advantage of the Swedish setback, declared war on Sweden and pushed into Lithuania and Swedish Livonia. John II Vasa found an ally in Leopold I of Habsburg and this triggered Frederick III of Denmarks invasion of the Swedish mainland in the spring of 1657, in an attempt to settle old scores from the Torstenson War while Sweden was busy elsewhere.
Brandenburg left the alliance with Sweden when granted full sovereignty in the Duchy of Prussia by the Polish king in the treaties of Wehlau, Frederick IIIs war on Sweden gave Charles X Gustav a reason to abandon the Polish–Lithuanian deadlock and fight Denmark instead. In the Treaty of Roskilde, Denmark had to abandon all Danish provinces in what is now Southern Sweden, the anti-Swedish allies meanwhile neutralized the Transylvanian army and Polish forces ravaged Swedish Pomerania. In 1658 Charles X Gustav decided that instead of returning to the remaining Swedish strongholds in Poland–Lithuania and this time, Denmark withstood the attack and the anti-Swedish allies pursued Charles X Gustav to Jutland and Swedish Pomerania. Throughout 1659, Sweden was defending her strongholds in Denmark and on the southern Baltic shore, while little was gained by the allies and a peace was negotiated. When Charles X Gustav died in February 1660, his successor settled for the Treaty of Oliva with Poland–Lithuania and Brandenburg in April and the Treaty of Copenhagen with Denmark in May.
Sweden was to keep most of her gains from Roskilde, the Duchy of Prussia became a sovereign state, Sweden had already concluded a truce with Russia in 1658, which gave way to a final settlement in the Treaty of Cardis in 1661. In English language, German and Scandinavian historiography, these conflicts were traditionally referred to as First Northern War, the term Second Northern War, coined in Polish historiography, has lately been increasingly adopted by German and English language historiography. Another ambiguous term referring to the Second Northern War is the Little Northern War, in Poland, the term The Deluge is ambiguous, as it is sometimes used for a broader series of wars against Sweden, Russia and the Cossacks. In 1648, the Peace of Westphalia had ended the Thirty Years War, in the Torstenson War, a theater of the Thirty Years War, Sweden had defeated the former Baltic great power Denmark. Sweden had been at peace with Russia since the Treaty of Stolbovo had ended the Ingrian War in 1617, Sweden had remained in a state of war with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth since the Polish–Swedish War, which was concluded by the repeatedly renewed truce.
As a consequence, the Commonwealth lacked a sufficient defense, seeing the great success on the Russian side, Sweden decided to intervene, among other reasons using the explanation that it was to protect the Protestant population in Poland. Having a close relationships with the Prince of Transylvania, Sweden had intentions to defeat the Catholic Poland, Sweden drew the rising Cossack Hetmanate to its side that stood in the strong opposition to the Polish government and promised military support if the Cossacks will break with the Russians. Bohdan Khmelnytsky sent an expedition headed by the Kiev colonel to Halychyna which soon turned back due to mutiny within its ranks, the leader of Hetmanate did not participate in actions due to poor health conditions
Amaliegade is a street in central Copenhagen, which makes up the longer of the two axes on which the Rococo district Frederiksstaden is centred. The street is dominated by a number of elegant mansions, most of which are from the half of the 18th century. At Amalienborg Palace, Amaliegade is spanned by a colonnade, designed by royal architect Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, it was built in 1794–95 to connect Moltkes Palace, the residence of the king, to Schacks Palace where the Crown prince resided. Collins Gouse was built in 1751–1752 for boot maker Peder Svendsen, the House breaks with scematic guidelines stipulated by Eigtved. It is receded from the street, jonas Collin, a prominent citizen of his day, lived in the house from 1739–1761 and during those years Hans Christian Andersen was a frequent visitor to the house. They were designed by Nicolai Eigtved as two houses of which one has been given an extra floor. The Yellow Palace, or Bergums Palace, was built 1759–1764 by the architect Nicolas-Henri Jardin for the timber merchant and it is considered the first example of Neoclassical architecture in Copenhagen.
Today it houses the Lord Chamberlain’s Office, king Frederick VI purchased the palace in 1810 to use it as a guest residence for visiting relatives of the royal family. Prince Valdemar lived in the Yellow Palace until his death in 1939 as its last royal resident, No.21 is the Italien ambassadors residence in Copenhagen. Amaliegade and 23B are two houses but the latter is entered through the gateway of the former. Both 23, 23b and the house at No.25 are today used by the Danish Social Appeals Board No.23 was designed by Nicolai Eigtved. 23b was built as an infill on the empty lot between Eigtveds Rococo house at No.23 and de Thurahs Baroque house at No.25 between 1785 and 1787 and it was designed by Joseph Guione in Neoclassical style. Built 1755–1757, Lauritz de Thurah built this house for his own use after returning to Copenhagen to direct the redevelopment of the Frederiksstaden district. During the same years de Thurah built Gammel Holtegård north of Copenhagen as a house with a fine Baroque garden.
Thus he never moved into No.25 Amaliegade, instead it was rented out upon completion, built 1896 to the design of architect Ole Boye. Notanle for its painted animal frieze depicting dragonflies and frogs, in its centre stand two tigers head-to-head next to rows of penguins. No.33 is the Danish Shipowners Association, built by carpenter and builder Andreas Hallander in 1788. It has seven bays separated by Ionic pilasters and another typical Neoclassical decoration is a running dog, the relief in the triangular pediment is an early work by Bertel Thorvaldsen depicting a female figure with a monocular next to a putto decorated with a garland
Johan Jacob Bruun
Johan Jacob Bruun was a Danish painter. Often working in gouaches, he is most known for his topographic prospects which herald the development of a Danish landscape painting and he was born in Slagelse in 1715. He started in an apprenticeship under the painter Johan Herman Coning, between 1737 and 1769 he executed more than 1,000 gouaches and touch drawings depicting towns and other motives. He assisted with Lauritz de Thurahs Hafnia Hodierna and Den Danske Vitruvius, when his contributions were not included in Frederick Vs Atlas, he received permission and economic support to publish them in Novus Atlas Daniæ of which only one volume appeared. A number of Bruuns works have preserved, including at Rosenborg Castle, Frederiksborg Castle. Among his known works are portraits of King Christian VI and Queen Consort Sophia Magdalen, Poul Løvenørn and Niels Trolle, Ove Gjedde, towards the end of his life he turned blind and he died in Hillerød in 1789. Art of Denmark List of Danish painters En maritim miniature fra 1739 Illustrations Roskilde prospect
Nyboder is a historic row house district of former Naval barracks in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was planned and first built by Christian IV to accommodate a need for housing for the personnel of the rapidly growing Royal Danish Navy and their families during that time. Nyboder is today very much associated with their colour and Nyboder yellow is in Danish often used as a generic term to refer to their exact hue of yellow. However, the colour of the development was red and white. Under Christian IV the Royal Danish Navy grew rapidly and there was an urgent need for accommodation for its personnel. The new development was planned on land outside Copenhagen previously acquired by the king with the intention to expand the city northwards. This had still not happened but Saint Annes Post, to develop into Kastellet, had already constructed a little further north. Construction of Nyboder was commenced in 1631, the area was laid out around two main streets radiating from a planned square which was never established.
The rows were oriented perpendicularly to these streets. The architects assisting the King were Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger and Leonhard Blasius, Christian IVs Nyboder was completed around 1641. In 1647, one year before Christian IVs death, Nyboder was definitively absorbed by the city when the Eastern City Gate is moved. Just north of Nyboder lay a piece of undevelopped land known as Greenland, on 16 December 1658 a gunpowder magazine just north of Nyboder exploded, damaging or demolishing many houses and causing numerous casualties. In 1668 Copenhagens gallows were moved from its previous location, at the site where Kongens Nytorv would be out a few years later. In 1677, Nyboder saw another bleak neighbour when the Stocks House was built a little to the south, from its early days, the Nyboder area included a guardhouse which was replaced by a new building in the 1780s. It had a bell which was used to gather people in the event of a military attack or fire. The building houses the Nyboder barracks own guard and contained a jail, when the Frederiksholm islet is created by a series of Land reclamation, the intention is to use it for new naval barracks but again the plans are not carried out.
In the end it was decided to build new houses at Nyboder, in 175624 two-storey houses designed by Philip de Lange were built and while extensions would be directed by other architects, it continued to be to his initial design. In 1771 some of Christian IVs original rows were extended with an extra storey by Anthon, from 1781-96 another app.150 houses were built. A guard house and five houses were added to the area during the same period
It was characterized by new explorations of form and shadow, and dramatic intensity. Baroque architecture and its embellishments were on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, the new style manifested itself in particular in the context of the new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits who aimed to improve popular piety. The architecture of the High Roman Baroque can be assigned to the reigns of Urban VIII, Innocent X and Alexander VII. Dissemination of Baroque architecture to the south of Italy resulted in variations such as Sicilian Baroque architecture or that of Naples. To the north, the Theatine architect Camillo-Guarino Guarini, Bernardo Vittone and Sicilian born Filippo Juvarra contributed Baroque buildings to the city of Turin and the Piedmont region. A synthesis of Bernini and Cortona’s architecture can be seen in the late Baroque architecture of northern Europe which paved the way for the more decorative Rococo style. During the 17th century, Baroque architecture spread through Europe and Latin America, michelangelos late Roman buildings, particularly St.
Peters Basilica, may be considered precursors to Baroque architecture. Colonialism required the development of centralized and powerful governments with Spain and France, the initial mismanagement of colonial wealth by the Spaniards bankrupted them in the 16th century, recovering only slowly in the following century. While this was good for the industries and the arts, the new wealth created an inflation. Rome was known just as much for its new sumptuous churches as for its vagabonds, one of the first Roman structures to break with the Mannerist conventions exemplified in the Gesù, was the church of Santa Susanna, designed by Carlo Maderno. The dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters, central massing, there is an incipient playfulness with the rules of classic design, but it still maintains rigor. These concerns are more evident in his reworking of Santa Maria della Pace. Probably the most well known example of such an approach is Saint Peters Square, the piazza, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, is formed principally by two colonnades of free standing columns centred on an Egyptian obelisk.
Berninis own favourite design was his church of SantAndrea al Quirinale decorated with polychome marbles. His secular architecture included the Palazzo Barberini based on plans by Maderno, Berninis rival, the architect Francesco Borromini, produced designs that deviated dramatically from the regular compositions of the ancient world and Renaissance. His building plans were based on geometric figures, his architectural forms were unusual and inventive. Borrominis architectural spaces seem to expand and contract when needed, showing some affinity with the style of Michelangelo. A work, the church of SantIvo alla Sapienza, displays the same playful inventiveness and antipathy to the flat surface, following the death of Bernini in 1680, Carlo Fontana emerged as the most influential architect working in Rome
Frederiksstaden is a district in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was developed to commemorated the 300 years jubilee of the House of Oldenburg ascending to the Danish throne, a. G. Moltke was in charge of the project and Nicolai Eigtved was the main architect. The district is characterized by broad streets in a straight-angled street layout. The streets are lined by houses and palaces. Another important building in the district is the royal Frederiks Hospital which was Denmarks first hospital in the meaning of the word. It now houses the Danish Museum of Art & Design, amalienborg Frederiks Church The Odd Fellow Mansion Moltkes Mansion Royal Danish Playhouse
For its Antillian namesake, see Charlotte Amalie, U. S. Virgin Islands Amalienborg is the home of the Danish royal family, and is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. Amalienborg was originally built for four families, when Christiansborg Palace burned on 26 February 1794. Over the years various kings and their families have resided in the four different palaces, the Frederiksstaden district was built on the former grounds of two other palaces. The first palace was called Sophie Amalienborg, other parts of the land were used for Rosenborg Castle and the new Eastern fortified wall around the old city. Work on the began in 1664, and the castle was built 1669-1673. The King died in 1670, and the Queen Dowager lived there until her death on 20 February 1685, the presentation was a great success, and it was repeated a few days on 19 April. However, immediately after the start of the performance a stage decoration caught fire, causing the theatre and the palace to burn to the ground. The King planned to rebuild the palace, whose church, Royal Household, ole Rømer headed the preparatory work for the rebuilding of Amalienborg in the early 1690s.
In 1694, the King negotiated a deal with the Swedish building master Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and his drawing and model were completed in 1697. The King, found the plans too ambitious, and instead began tearing down the buildings that same year. The second Amalienborg was built by Frederick IV at the beginning of his reign, the second Amalienborg consisted of a summerhouse, a central pavilion with orangeries, and arcades on both side of the pavilion. On one side of the buildings was a French-style garden, the pavilion had a dining room on the groundfloor. On the upper floor was a salon with an out to the harbour, the garden. This development is thought to have been the brainchild of Danish Ambassador Plenipotentiary in Paris. Heading the project was Lord High Steward Adam Gottlob Moltke, one of the most powerful and influential men in the land, with Nicolai Eigtved as royal architect and supervisor. The project consisted of four identical mansions, built to house four distinguished families of nobility from the royal circles and these mansions form the modern palace of Amalienborg, albeit much modified over the years.
The noblemen who owned them were willing to part with their mansions for promotion and money, and the Moltke and Schack Palaces were acquired in the course of a few days. A colonnade, designed by royal architect Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, was added 1794-1795 to connect the recently occupied King’s palace, Moltke Palace, with that of the Crown Prince, Schack’s Palace
Marselisborg Palace, is a royal residence of the Danish Royal Family in Aarhus. It has been the residence of Queen Margrethe II since 1967. Just south of Marselisborg Palace is Aarhus Forestry Botanical Garden and a Deer Park, just west and north of the Palace is Aarhus Racecourse and the Atletion Stadium. The couple became king Christian X and queen Alexandrine and initiated the tradition of using the Palace as a summer residence, the palace is the property of the Kingdom of Denmark, and will remain in possession of all future monarchs of Denmark. The present Queen, Margrethe II, was given the palace by her father and her consort Henrik used the palace as their summer residence. To this day the residence is used during the summer, as well as during the Easter, the name Marselisborg refers to the old barony manor Marselisborg. Marselisborg means Marselis Castle in Danish and it was located where Marselisborg Gymnasium have residence now, the manor dates back to the 1500s and was originally named Havreballegård, but in the 1600s the German-Dutch merchant Gabriel Marselis, replaced the name with the more grandiose Marselis Castle.
The Municipality of Aarhus took ownership of the Marselisborg estate in 1896, the manor house caught fire several times in the early 1900s and does not exist anymore. The only relation to Marselisborg Palace is the name Marselisborg and the fact that the Palace was erected on the land of the Marselis estate. The palace is a gift of the people, in the sense that the project was funded by individual economical contributions, among the contributors are the cities of Vejle, Randers, Aalborg and Nykøbing Mors, to name just a few. The fundraising was initiated in the autumn of 1897 by prefect Dreyer, baron J. Rosenkrantz of Sophiendal, the palace is situated in a 32-acre park known as Slotshaven. The park was designed by architect L. Christian Diedrichsen in traditional English landscape style, featuring large sweeping lawns dotted with ponds, clusters of trees. There is a garden and a herb garden and the landscape is dotted with art sculptures. The park and gardens are open to the public while the Queen and royal family are not in residence, whereas the palace itself is never open to the public.
When the royal family is in residence, a changing of the ceremony takes place at noon. The main gates are the entrance and exit to the palace
Sorgenfri Palace is a royal residence of the Danish monarch, located in Lyngby-Taarbæk Municipality, on the east side of Lyngby Kongevej, in the northern suburbs of Copenhagen. The surrounding neighbourhood is called Sorgenfri after it, only the celler and foundations survive of the first Sorgenfri House, which was built in 1705 to design by François Dieussart. The current house was built in 1756 by Lauritz de Thurah, Lauritz de Thurah has designed buildings which flank the driveway closer to the road. Sprgenfri Palace is surrounded by a park which is bounded by Mølleåen to the east. It was adapted to the English Romantic style in the late 1790s and early 1899s, Christian X used it as a summer residence and it has been part of it let out to relatives of the royal family. The park is open to the public, Sorgenfri Palace is located at the site of a medieval settlement, Mølletorp, which was owned by the Bishopric of Roskilde but confiscated by the crown during the Reformation in the 1530s. In 1686, it was replaced by a house by High Court Justice Michael Vibe.
Count Carl von Ahlefeldt acquired the estate in 1702 and he commissioned the architect François Dieussart to build a new summer residence at the site and renamed it Sorgenfri. The building, a half-timbered, three-winged complex in Baroque style, was completed in 1705, the central wing contained a banquet hall with double high cailings. Passage between the two side wings was therefore only possible at the ground floor. King Christian VI acquired the estate in 1730 and his son, Crown Prince Frederick, the King Frederick V, used it as summer residence from 1742. The building was refurbished by Lauritz de Thurah who constructed new stables, after his ascend to the throne in 1747, Frederick V gave the property to his aunt, Sophie Caroline, Dowager Princess of East Frisia. She demolished it and charged Lauritzde Thurah with the construction of a new house on the foundations of the old one, in 1766, Sorgenfri was ceded to the 12-year-old Prince Frederick, the half-brother of Christian VII of Denmark.
In 1769, he sold the property to Jean Henri Desmercières, the next owner was the merchant and shipowner Henrik Bolten, whose trading house was based in the Boltens Gård in Copenhagen. He went bankrupt in the late 1780s and Sorgenfri was reacquired by Prince Frederick in 1789 and he charged Peter Meyn with adapting and expanding the house. When Crown Prince Frederik died in 1805, Sorgenfriwas passed on to his son, the King Christian VIII, after his death in 1848, Dowager Queen Caroline Amalie spent all her summers at the estate until her death in 1881. Frederik VII had ceded Sorgenfri to the state in 1856 and after 1881 it was empty for years. In 1898, it was ceded to Prince Christian, King Christian X as summer residence, King Christian X and Queen Alexandrine continued to live at Sorgenfri in the summer time and the king was often seen riding in the neighborhood
Kastellet, located in Copenhagen, Denmark, is one of the best preserved star fortresses in Northern Europe. It is constructed in the form of a pentagram with bastions at its corners, Kastellet was continuous with the ring of bastioned ramparts which used to encircle Copenhagen but of which only the ramparts of Christianshavn remain today. A number of buildings are located within the grounds of Kastellet, the area houses various military activities but it mainly serves as a public park and a historic site. King Christian IV of Denmark initiated Kastellet’s construction in 1626 with the building of an advanced post, at that time the fortifications only reached as far north as present day Nørreport station, and returned south east to meet the coast at Bremerholm, the Royal Shipyard. However, part of the plan was to expand the area of the fortified city by abandoning the old East Rampart. This plan was not completed until the mid-1640s, shortly after King Frederick III succeeded King Christian IV, after the Swedish siege on Copenhagen the Dutch engineer Henrik Rüse was called in to help rebuild and extend the construction.
The fortification was named Citadellet Frederikshavn, but it is known as Kastellet. Kastellet was part of the defense of Copenhagen against England in the Battle of Copenhagen, christen Købke, Danish painter associated with the Golden Age of Danish Painting, grew up in Kastellet and made many paintings of the area. During the German invasion of Denmark on 9 April 1940, German troops landing at the nearby harbor captured The Citadel without resistance, Kastellet was renovated 1989–1999 with funds from the A. P. Møller and Wife Chastine McKinney Møllers General Fund. The Citadel has two gates, Kings Gate on the side, facing the city, and Norway Gate on the north side of the edifice. They are built in the Dutch Baroque style, and are on their interior side flanked by guardhouses, the Kings Gate is decorated with garlands and pilasters, and a bust of King Frederik III. The clock and two bells on the facade of the gate come from the Central Guard House at Kongens Nytorv and were installed in 1874 when the central guard moved to the Citadel.
In front of the gate stand two so-called caponiers from where it was possible to keep assaulting troops under fire, the Norway Gate used to face open countryside outside the city, and has therefore been built to a more simple design. The caponiers of this gate were demolished in the late 19th century, the five bastions are named as follows, The King’s Bastion, The Queen’s Bastion, The Count’s Bastion, the Princess’s Bastion and the Prince’s Bastion. Smedelinien is a system of outworks, separating the inner and the moat, located to the south. It consisted of four ravelins and three counter guard interconnected by long, low earthworks, on Fyns Ravelin, one of the namesake forges has been preserved and is now used by the park authorities. Another forge was built on Falsters Counter Guard in 1709, rebuilt in 1888, it now serves as residence of military employees. The Commanders House served as the residence of the commander of Kastellet and it was built in 1725 in the Baroque style by architect and master builder Elias Häuser who designed the first Christiansborg Palace which burned in 1794