Frederick II of Denmark
Frederick II was King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death. Frederick II was the son of King Christian III of Denmark and Norway and Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, the daughter of Magnus I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, he was hailed as successor to the throne of Denmark in 1542, of Norway in 1548. Unlike his father, King Frederick II was affected by military ideals; as a young man, he made friendships with German war princes. In 1552, Steward of the Realm, Peder Oxe, had been raised to Councillor of State. During the spring of 1557, Oxe and the King had quarreled over a mutual property exchange. Failing to compromise matters with the King, Oxe had fled to Germany in 1558. However, financial difficulties arose during the stress of the Northern Seven Years' War. King Frederick II won his first victory with the conquest of Dithmarschen in Schleswig-Holstein under Johan Rantzau, during the summer of 1559. From his predecessor, he inherited the Livonian War. In 1560, he installed Magnus of Holstein, in the Bishopric of Ösel -- Wiek.
King Frederick II tried to avoid conflict in Livonia and consolidated amicable relations with Tsar Ivan IV of Russia in the 1562 Treaty of Mozhaysk. His brother Magnus was made titular King of Livonia, as a vassal of Tsar Ivan IV. King Frederick's competition with Sweden for supremacy in the Baltic broke out into open warfare in 1563, the start of the Northern Seven Years' War, the dominating conflict of his rule, he tried in vain to conquer Sweden, ruled by his cousin, King Eric XIV. It developed into an expensive war of attrition in which the areas of Scania were ravaged by the Swedes, Norway was lost. During this war, King Frederick II led his army on the battlefield, but without much result; the conflict damaged his relationship with his noble councillors. After state finances collapsed during the years 1566 to 1567, King Frederik II called Peder Oxe home to address the kingdom's economy; the taking over of Danish administration and finances by the able councillor, provided a marked improvement for the national treasury.
Councillors of experience, including Niels Kaas, Arild Huitfeldt, Christoffer Valkendorff, took care of the domestic administration. Subsequently, government finances were put in order and Denmark's economy improved. One of the chief expedients of the improved state of affairs was the raising of the Sound Dues. Oxe, as lord treasurer, reduced the national debt and redeemed portions of crown lands. After King John III of Sweden, King Eric's successor, refused to accept a peace favoring Denmark in the Treaties of Roskilde, the ongoing war dragged on until it was ended by a status quo peace in the Treaty of Stettin, that let Denmark save face but show limits of Danish military power. After the war, King Frederick II kept the peace without giving up his attempt of trying to expand his prestige as a naval ruler, his foreign politics were marked by a moral support of the Protestant powers – but at the same time by a strict neutrality. A period of affluence and growth followed in Danish history. In 1567, King Frederick II founded Fredrikstad in Norway.
Frederik II Upper Secondary School in Fredrikstad, one of the largest schools of its kind in Norway, is named after Frederick. He rebuilt Kronborg in Elsinore from a medieval fortress into a magnificent Renaissance castle, between 1574 and 1585. In 1585, he visited Norway as king, he was a major close personal friend of the famous astronomer, Tycho Brahe. King Frederick II stands as a typical renaissance ruler of Denmark, he was a lover of hunting, wine and feasts. As a person, he was described as hot-headed, vain and ambitious; as a young man, Frederick II had desired to marry his mistress, Anne of Hardenberg, who had served as a lady-in-waiting to his mother, the Dowager Queen Dorothea of Denmark. He had wooed Queen Elizabeth I of England, an initiative which made him Knight of the Garter. On 20 July 1572, he was married to Sophia of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, a descendant of King John of Denmark, his own first half-cousin, through their grandfather, Frederick I, King of Denmark and Norway. Sophia was Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow and Elizabeth of Denmark.
Frederick and Sophia had eight children: Elizabeth of Denmark, married in 1590 to Henry Julius, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Anne of Denmark, married on 23 November 1589 to King James VI of Scotland. Christian IV, King of Denmark and Norway Ulrik of Denmark, last Bishop of the old Schleswig see, as Ulrich II, Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Schwerin, he married Lady Catherine Hahn-Hinrichshagen. John August of Denmark, died in infancy. Augusta of Denmark, married on 30 August 1596 to Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. Hedwig of Denmark, married on 12 September 1602 to Christian II, Elector of Saxony John of Denmark, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein The Royal Lineage at the website of the Danish Monarchy Frederik II at the website of the Royal Danish Collection Bain, Robert Nisbet. "Frederick II. of Denmark and Norway". Encyclopædia Britannica (11t
An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable or identifiable. A style may include such elements as form, method of construction, building materials, regional character. Most architecture can be classified within a chronology of styles which changes over time reflecting changing fashions and religions, or the emergence of new ideas, technology, or materials which make new styles possible. Styles therefore emerge from the history of a society, they are documented in the subject of architectural history. At any time several styles may be fashionable, when a style changes it does so as architects learn and adapt to new ideas; the new style is sometimes only a rebellion against an existing style, such as post-modernism, which has in recent years found its own language and split into a number of styles which have acquired other names. Styles spread to other places, so that the style at its source continues to develop in new ways while other countries follow with their own twist.
For instance, Renaissance ideas emerged in Italy around 1425 and spread to all of Europe over the next 200 years, with the French, German and Spanish Renaissances showing recognisably the same style, but with unique characteristics. A style may spread through colonialism, either by foreign colonies learning from their home country, or by settlers moving to a new land. One example is the Spanish missions in California, brought by Spanish priests in the late 18th century and built in a unique style. After a style has gone out of fashion, revivals and re-interpretations may occur. For instance, classicism found new life as neoclassicism; each time it is revived, it is different. The Spanish mission style was revived 100 years as the Mission Revival, that soon evolved into the Spanish Colonial Revival. Vernacular architecture is listed separately; as vernacular architecture is better understood as suggestive of culture, writ broadly, it technically can encompass every architectural style--or none at all.
In and of itself, vernacular architecture is not a style. Constructing schemes of the period styles of historic art and architecture was a major concern of 19th century scholars in the new and mostly German-speaking field of art history. Important writers on the broad theory of style including Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, Gottfried Semper, Alois Riegl in his Stilfragen of 1893, with Heinrich Wölfflin and Paul Frankl continued the debate into the 20th century. Paul Jacobsthal and Josef Strzygowski are among the art historians who followed Riegl in proposing grand schemes tracing the transmission of elements of styles across great ranges in time and space; this type of art history is known as formalism, or the study of forms or shapes in art. Semper, Wölfflin, Frankl, Ackerman, had backgrounds in the history of architecture, like many other terms for period styles, "Romanesque" and "Gothic" were coined to describe architectural styles, where major changes between styles can be clearer and more easy to define, not least because style in architecture is easier to replicate by following a set of rules than style in figurative art such as painting.
Terms originated to describe architectural periods were subsequently applied to other areas of the visual arts, more still to music and the general culture. In architecture stylistic change follows, is made possible by, the discovery of new techniques or materials, from the Gothic rib vault to modern metal and reinforced concrete construction. A major area of debate in both art history and archaeology has been the extent to which stylistic change in other fields like painting or pottery is a response to new technical possibilities, or has its own impetus to develop, or changes in response to social and economic factors affecting patronage and the conditions of the artist, as current thinking tends to emphasize, using less rigid versions of Marxist art history. Although style was well-established as a central component of art historical analysis, seeing it as the over-riding factor in art history had fallen out of fashion by World War II, as other ways of looking at art were developing, a reaction against the emphasis on style developing.
According to James Elkins "In the 20th century criticisms of style were aimed at further reducing the Hegelian elements of the concept while retaining it in a form that could be more controlled". While many architectural styles explore harmonious ideals, Mannerism wants to take style a step further and explores the aesthetics of hyperbole and exaggeration. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial qualities. Mannerism favours compositional instability rather than balance and clarity; the definition of Mannerism, the phases within it, continues to be the subject of debate among art historians. An example of mannerist architecture is the Villa Farnese at Caprarola in the rugged country side outside of Rome; the proliferation of engravers during the 16th century spread Mannerist styles more than any previous styles. A center of Mannerist design was Antwerp during its 16th-century boom. Through Antwerp and Mannerist styles were introduced in England and northern and eastern Europe in general.
Dense with ornament of "Roman" detailing, the display doorway at Colditz Castle exemplifies this northern style, characteristically applie
Abbey Gate (Sorø)
The Abbey Gate in Sorø, Denmark, is the original gate of Absalon's Sorø Abbey dating from about 1200. It now affords access to the grounds of Sorø Academy, which include the old abbey church, Denmark's longest church building, is claimed to be the oldest inhabited house in Denmark; the gatehouse was completed in two stages, the first in the 1160s and the second in about 1200. It guarded the entrance to the grounds of Sorø Abbey surrounded by a wall, it faced the town centre of Sorø, just south of its marketplace. Few outsiders, never any women, were afforded access to the grounds. With the completion of the second stage in 1200, the building was built to a cross shaped layout, it was altered by Johan Daniel Herholdt in 1883. Until the late 19th century it was white-washed and could be closed by two massive doors in oak. A western extension to the gate is known as Saxo's Cell, after Saxo Gramaticus, although his exact relationship to Sorø, let alone the building, is uncertain, was used by the guards at the gate.
Its interior has a central tile stone column supporting four groin vaults. The gatehouses still contains a residence for one of the teachers at Sorø Academy, making it the oldest inhabited building in Denmark. Over the years, apart from its original use, it has served as a coal storage facility, a jailhouse and an exhibition space
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV, sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Den Fjerde in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark–Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648. His 59-year reign is the longest of Danish monarchs, of Scandinavian monarchies. A member of the house of Oldenburg, Christian began his personal rule of Denmark in 1596 at the age of 19, he is remembered as one of the most popular and proactive Danish kings, having initiated many reforms and projects. Christian IV obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth, unmatched elsewhere in Europe, he engaged Denmark in numerous wars, most notably the Thirty Years' War, which devastated much of Germany, undermined the Danish economy, cost Denmark some of its conquered territories. He rebuilt and renamed the Norwegian capital Oslo as Christiania after himself, a name used until 1925. Christian was born at Frederiksborg Castle in Denmark on 12 April 1577 as the third child and eldest son of King Frederick II of Denmark–Norway and Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
He was descended, through his mother's side, from king John of Denmark, was thus the first descendant of King John to assume the crown since the deposition of King Christian II. At the time, Denmark was still an elective monarchy, so in spite of being the eldest son Christian was not automatically heir to the throne. However, in 1580, at the age of 3, his father had him elected Prince-Elect and successor to the throne. At the death of his father on 4 April 1588, Christian was 11 years old, he succeeded to the throne, but as he was still under-age a regency council was set up to serve as the trustees of the royal power while Christian was still growing up. It was led by chancellor Niels Kaas and consisted of the Rigsraadet council members Peder Munk, Jørgen Ottesen Rosenkrantz and Christopher Walkendorf, his mother Queen Dowager Sophie, 30 years old, had wished to play a role in the government, but was denied by the Council. At the death of Niels Kaas in 1594, Jørgen Rosenkrantz took over leadership of the regency council.
Christian continued his studies at Sorø Academy where he had a reputation as a headstrong and talented student. In 1595, the Council of the Realm decided that Christian would soon be old enough to assume personal control of the reins of government. On 17 August 1596, at the age of 19, Christian signed his haandfæstning, an identical copy of his father's from 1559. Twelve days on 29 August 1596, Christian IV was crowned at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen by the Bishop of Zealand, Peder Jensen Vinstrup, he was crowned with a new Danish Crown Regalia, made for him by Dirich Fyring, assisted by the Nuremberg goldsmith Corvinius Saur. On 30 November 1597, he married Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, a daughter of Joachim Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia. Christian took an interest in many and varied matters, including a series of domestic reforms and improving Danish national armaments. New fortresses were constructed under the direction of Dutch engineers; the Danish navy, which in 1596 had consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 1610 rose to sixty, some of them built after Christian's own designs.
The formation of a national army proved more difficult. Christian had to depend upon hired mercenary troops as was common practice in the times—well before the establishment of standing armies—augmented by native peasant levies recruited for the most part from the peasantry on the crown domains. Up until the early 1620s, Denmark's economy profited from general boom conditions in Europe; this inspired Christian to initiate a policy of expanding Denmark's overseas trade, as part of the mercantilist wave fashionable in Europe. He founded a number of merchant cities, supported the building of factories, he built a large number of buildings in Dutch Renaissance style. His sister Anne had married King James VI of Scotland, who succeeded to the English throne in 1603. To foster friendly relations between the two kingdoms, Christian paid a state visit to England in 1606; the visit was judged to be a success, although the heavy drinking indulged in by English and Danes alike caused some unfavourable comments: both Christian and James had an ability to consume great amounts of alcohol, while remaining lucid, which most of their courtiers did not share.
The entertainment, intended to crown the visit- a masque of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba- was described by the audience as a drunken fiasco, where most of the players fell over from the effects of too much wine. Despite Christian's many efforts, the new economic projects did not return a profit, he looked abroad for new income. Christian IV's Expeditions to Greenland involved a series of voyages in the years 1605-1607 to Greenland and to Arctic waterways in order to locate the lost Eastern Norse Settlement and to assert Danish sovereignty over Greenland; the expeditions were unsuccessful due to leaders lacking experience with the difficult Arctic ice and weather conditions. The pilot on all three trips was English explorer James Hall. An expedition to North America was commissioned in 1619; the expedition was captained by Jens Munk. The ships, searching for the Northwest Passage, arrived in Hudson Bay landing at the mouth of Churchill River, settling at what is now Churchill, Manitoba. However, it was a disastrous voyage, with cold and scurvy killing most of the crew.
In 1618, Christian appointed Admiral Ove Gjedde to lead an expedition establish a Danis
Sorø Academy is a boarding school and gymnasium located in the small town of Sorø, Denmark. It traces its history back to the 12th century when Bishop Absalon founded a monastery at the site, confiscated by the Crown after the Reformation, since, on and off, it has served as an educational institution, in a variety of forms, including as a knight academy founded by Christian IV and a venue for higher learning during the Danish Golden Age. Danish writer and academian Ludvig Holberg bequested most of his fortune to re-establishing the academy in 1750 after a devastating fire. Sorø Academy traces its history back to 1140 when Archbishop Absalon founded the Cistercian Sorø Abbey in a remote woodlands setting on the shores of Lake Sorø on the island of Zealand, it developed into the most wealthy monastery in Denmark. After the Reformation in 1536, the Crown confiscated the Catholic Church's properties and the former abbey served first as an educational institution for Protestant priests before Frederick II turned it into a boarding school for an equal number of noble and commoner boys.
Sorø Academy was founded in 1623 when Christian IV turned the boarding school into a Equestrian Academy. Attempts were made to transform it into a university proper but it only existed as such for about 20 years before closing in 1665. After the closure the premises continued as a school until 1737. Efforts were made to reestablish the academy and around 1740, under the reign of Christian VI, the old buildings were rebuilt by Lauritz de Thurah, yet the plans did not materialize until Ludvig Holberg, who had no heirs, was persuaded to bequest his considerable fortune to the institution; the agreement, settled upon exempted Holberg from paying taxes from the proceeds of his lands and to reach this end he was ennobled with title of Baron. Holberg was consulted on the organization of the academy and the appointment of professors. Jens Schielderup Sneedorff was appointed professor in political sciences on his recommendation in 1751; the main wing burnt down in a fire in 1813 but was rebuilt from 1822 to 1827 to the design of Peder Malling.
In 1825, before the rebuilding had been completed, the Sorø Academy reopened once again. Over the next decades it became a central venue of the Danish Golden Age with Bernhard Severin Ingemann as a central figure. Both N. F. S. Grundtvig, Hans Christian Andersen and Bertel Thorvaldsen visited the Academy during this period; the current main wing is designed by Peder Malling in a Neoclassical style which relies more on Greek than Roman architecture for its inspiration. It interior has decorative works by Georg Hilker; the Academy is surrounded by an English-style park known as the Academy Garden. Located in the park is the Vænget building which contains Adam Wilhelm Hauch's Physical Cabinet, one of the largest collections of scientific instruments in Europe; the conventual church is an example of Cistercian craftsmanship. It is the third longest church in Denmark, is one of the first Danish churches built of brick; the Reformation whitewashed the traditional decorations of the church. Holberg is buried in the church, as are King Valdemar Atterdag and his father King Christopher II.
The gatehouse is the oldest inhabited building in Denmark today. It is where Saxo Grammaticus wrote the famous chronicles'Gesta Danorum', a medieval historical work recounting the early Christian history of Scandinavia. Two former professor's residences, today known as Molbech's House and Ingemann's House, survived the fire in 1813 and date from Lauritz de Thurah's rebuilding of the Academy in 1740; the old well, stemming from the original abbey, was in 1915 topped by a well house designed by Martin Nyrop, one of the schools former students. Other buildings are the Alumnatet and the Library Building; the current school has 630 students, of which 140 are boarders and the rest day students from Sorø, Ringsted and the surrounding countryside. The library has a large collection of rare books. Wilhelm Hauch's physical Physical Cabinet, one of the largest collections of scientific instruments in Europe; the Sorø Academy Foundation owns 6000 hectares of land covered by forest. The foundation owns a number of properties in the town of Sorø.
Reinhold Timm, painter Abraham Wuchters, painter Johann Elias Schlegel, political sciences, trade sciences Jens Schielderup Sneedorff, political sciences Johann Bernhard Basedow, moral philosophy Ove Høegh-Guldberg, historian, de facto prime minister Johan Theodor Holmskjold and natural history Bernhard Severin Ingemann, Danish literature Frederik Johnstrup, natural science Christen Dalsgaard, painter Ulrik of Denmark, administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Schwerin, military Esaias Fleischer, printmaker Hinrich Johannes Rink, geologist Frederik Vermehren, painter Carl Steen Andersen Bille, journalist and civil servant Fredrik Bajer H. R. Hiort-Lorenzen and writer Christian Henrik Arendrup, governor of the Danish West Indies Martin Nyrop, architect Kristian Zahrtmann, painter Hans Egede Budtz, actor Herman Bang, writer Poul Rasmusen, politician Sigurd Langberg, actor Ebbe Hamerik, composer Hans Kirk, writer Jørgen-Frantz Jacobsen, writer Aage Kann Rasmussen, engineer Ove Arup, structural engineer Erik Seidenfaden, journalist Gunnar Seidenfaden and botanist, Mogens Boisen and translator Dan Fink, businessman Villum Kann Rasmussen, engineer Ha
An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance in which the chief local authorities are called bishops. It is the structure used by many of the major Christian Churches and denominations, such as the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Church of the East and Lutheran churches or denominations, other churches founded independently from these lineages. Churches with an episcopal polity are governed by bishops, practicing their authorities in the dioceses and conferences or synods, their leadership is both constitutional. Bishops are considered to derive their authority from an unbroken, personal apostolic succession from the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. Bishops with such authority are said to represent the historical historic episcopate. Churches with this type of government believe that the Church requires episcopal government as described in the New Testament. In some systems, bishops may be subject to bishops holding a higher office, they meet in councils or synods.
These gatherings, subject to presidency by higher ranking bishops make important decisions, though the synod or council may be purely advisory. For much of the written history of institutional Christianity, episcopal government was the only known form of church organization; this changed at the Reformation. Many Protestant churches are now organized by either congregational or presbyterian church polities, both descended from the writings of John Calvin, a Protestant reformer working and writing independently following the break with the Roman Catholic Church precipitated by The Ninety-Five Theses of Martin Luther; the definition of the word episcopal has variation among Christian traditions. There are subtle differences in governmental principles among episcopal churches at the present time. To some extent the separation of episcopal churches can be traced to these differences in ecclesiology, that is, their theological understanding of church and church governance. For some, "episcopal churches" are churches that use a hierarchy of bishops that regard themselves as being in an unbroken, personal apostolic succession.
"Episcopal" is commonly used to distinguish between the various organizational structures of denominations. For instance, "Presbyterian" is used to describe a church governed by a hierarchy of assemblies of elected elders, referred to as Presbyterian polity. "episcopal" is used to describe a church governed by bishops. Self-governed local congregations, governed neither by elders nor bishops, are described as "congregational". More the capitalized appellation "Episcopal" is applied to several churches based within Anglicanism, including those still in communion with the Church of England. Using these definitions, examples of specific episcopal churches include: The Catholic Church The Eastern Orthodox Church The Oriental Orthodox churches The Assyrian Church of the East The Churches of the Anglican Communion The Old Catholic churches Numerous smaller "catholic" churches Certain national churches of the Lutheran confession The African Methodist Episcopal Church The United Methodist ChurchSome Lutheran churches practice congregational polity or a form of presbyterian polity.
Others, including the Church of Sweden, practice episcopal polity. Many Methodist churches retain the form and function of episcopal polity, although in a modified form, called connexionalism. Since all trace their ordinations to an Anglican priest, John Wesley, it is considered that their bishops do not share in apostolic succession, though United Methodists still affirm that their bishops share in the historic episcopate. All orthodox Christians were in churches with an episcopal government, that is, one Church under local bishops and regional Patriarchs. Writing between ca. 85 and 110, St. Ignatius of Antioch, Patriarch of Antioch, was the earliest of the Church fathers to define the importance of episcopal government. Assuming Ignatius' view was the Apostolic teaching and practice, the line of succession was unbroken and passed through the four ancient Patriarchal sees, Jerusalem and Alexandria. Rome was the leading Patriarchate of the ancient four by virtue of its founding by Saints Peter and Paul and their martyrdom there, not to mention being the political center of the Roman empire at the time.
Some organizations, though aloof from the political wranglings of imperial Christianity also practiced episcopal polity. Shortly after the Roman Emperor Constantine I legalized Christianity in 321, he constructed an elaborate second capital of the Roman Empire located at Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople, in 324; the single Roman Empire was divided between these two autonomous administrative centers and Constantinopolitan, West and East, Latin speaking and Greek speaking. This