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Common sorrel or garden sorrel simply called sorrel, is a perennial herb in the family Polygonaceae. Other names for sorrel include spinach narrow-leaved dock, it is cultivated as a garden herb or salad vegetable. Sorrel is a slender herbaceous perennial plant about 60 centimetres high, with roots that run deep into the ground, as well as juicy stems and edible, arrow-shaped leaves; the leaves, when consumed raw, have a sour taste. The lower leaves are 7 to 15 centimetres in length with long petioles and a membranous ocrea formed of fused, sheathing stipules; the upper ones are sessile, become crimson. It has whorled spikes of reddish-green flowers; the species is dioecious, with pistils on different plants. The leaves are eaten by the larvae of several species of Lepidoptera including the blood-vein moth, as well as by non-specialized snails and slugs. Rumex acetosa occurs in grassland habitats throughout Europe from the northern Mediterranean coast to the north of Scandinavia and in parts of Central Asia.

It occurs as an introduced species in parts of North America. Several subspecies have been named. Not all are cultivated: Rumex acetosa ssp. acetosa Rumex acetosa ssp. ambiguus Rumex acetosa ssp. arifolius Rumex acetosa ssp. hibernicus Rumex acetosa ssp. hirtulus Rumex acetosa ssp. vinealis Common sorrel has been cultivated for centuries. The leaves may be added to salads; the plant's sharp taste is due to oxalic acid. In northern Nigeria, sorrel is used in stews with spinach. In some Hausa communities, it is steamed and made into salad using kuli-kuli, pepper and tomatoes. In India, the leaves are used in curries made with yellow lentils and peanuts. In Afghanistan, the leaves are coated in a wet batter and deep fried served as an appetizer or if in season during Ramadan, for breaking the fast. Throughout eastern Europe, wild or garden sorrel is used to make sour soups, stewed with vegetables or herbs, meats or eggs. In rural Greece, it is used with spinach and chard in spanakopita. In Albania, the leaves are simmered and served cold marinated in olive oil, or as an ingredient for filling byrek pies.

In Armenia, the leaves are collected in spring, woven into braids, dried for use during winter. The most common preparation is aveluk soup, where the leaves are rehydrated and rinsed to reduce bitterness stewed with onions, walnuts and bulgur wheat or lentils, sometimes sour plums. Escalope de saumon à l'oseille, invented in 1962 by the Troisgros brothers, is an emblematic dish of the French nouvelle cuisine. Rumex acetosella, sheep's sorrel Rumex scutatus, French sorrel Oxalis, wood sorrel Oxalis enneaphylla, scurvy-grass sorrel Sorrel soup

Mohamed Sherif Pasha

Mohamed Sherif Pasha GCSI was an Egyptian statesman of Turkish origin. He served as Prime Minister of Egypt three times during his career, his first term was between April 7, 1879 and August 18, 1879. His second term was served from September 14, 1881 to February 4, 1882, his final term was served between August 21, 1882 and January 7, 1884. Sherif, from Kavala in northern Greece, filled numerous administrative posts under Sa'id Pasha and Isma'il Pasha, he was better educated than most of his contemporaries, had married a daughter of Colonel Sèves, the French non-commissioned officer who became Suleiman Pasha under Mehmet Ali. They were the maternal grandparents of Queen consort Nazli of Egypt and Regent Sherif Sabri PashaAs minister of foreign affairs he was useful to Ismail, who used Sherif's bluff bonhomie to veil many of his most insidious proposals. Of singularly lazy disposition, he yet possessed considerable tact. Sherif's favorite argument against any reform was to appeal to the Pyramids as an immutable proof of the solidity of Egypt financially and politically.

His fatal optimism rendered him responsible for the collapse of Egyptian credit which brought about the fall of Ismail. Upon the military insurrection of September 1881 under Urabi Pasha, Sherif was summoned by the khedive Tawfiq to form a new ministry; the impossibility of reconciling the financial requirements of the national party with the demands of the British and French controllers of the public debt, compelled him to resign in the following February. After the suppression of the Urabi Revolt he was again installed in office by Tawfiq, but in January 1884 he resigned rather than sanction the evacuation of the Sudan; as to the strength of the Mahdist movement he had no conception. When urged by Sir Evelyn Baring early in 1883 to abandon some of the more distant parts of the Sudan, he replied with characteristic light-heartedness: "Nous en causerons plus tard. Hicks Pasha's expedition was at the time preparing to march on El Obeid. Sherif died in Graz, Austria-Hungary, on April 20, 1887

Osmotic coefficient

An osmotic coefficient φ is a quantity which characterises the deviation of a solvent from ideal behaviour, referenced to Raoult's law. It can be applied to solutes, its definition depends on the ways of expressing chemical composition of mixtures. The osmotic coefficient based on molality b is defined by: φ = μ A ∗ − μ A R T M A ∑ i b i and on a mole fraction basis by: φ = − μ A ∗ − μ A R T ln ⁡ x A where μ A ∗ is the chemical potential of the pure solvent and μ A is the chemical potential of the solvent in a solution, MA is its molar mass, xA its mole fraction, R the gas constant and T the temperature in kelvins; the latter osmotic coefficient is sometimes called the rational osmotic coefficient. The values for the two definitions are different, but since ln ⁡ x A = − ln ⁡ ≈ − M A ∑ i b i, the two definitions are similar, in fact both approach 1 as the concentration goes to zero. In a single solute solution, the osmotic coefficient and the solute activity coefficient are related to the excess Gibbs free energy G E by the relations: R T b = G E − b d G E d b R T ln ⁡ γ = d G E d b and there is thus a differential relationship between them: d = b d In ionic solutions, Debye–Hückel theory implies that ∑ i b i is asymptotic to − 2 3 A I 3 / 2, where I is ionic strength and A is the Debye–Hückel constant.

This means that, at least at low concentrations, the vapor pressure of the solvent will be greater than that predicted by Raoult's law. For instance, for solutions of magnesium chloride, the vapor pressure is greater than that predicted by Raoult's law up to a concentration of 0.7 mol/kg, after which the vapor pressure is lower than Raoult's law predicts. For aqueous solutions, the osmotic coefficients can be calculated theoretically by Pitzer equations or TCPC model. Bromley equation Pitzer equation Davies equation van't Hoff factor Law of dilution Thermodynamic activity Ion transport number

Cog's ladder

Cog's ladder of group development is based on the work, "Cog's Ladder: A Model of Group Growth", by George O. Charrier, an employee of Procter and Gamble, published in a company newsletter in 1972; the original document was written to help group managers at Procter and Gamble better understand the dynamics of group work, thus improving efficiency. It is now used by the United States Naval Academy, the United States Air Force Academy, other businesses – to help in understanding group development; the basic idea of Cog's ladder is that there are five steps necessary for a small group of people to be able to work efficiently together. These stages are the polite stage, the why we're here stage, the power stage, the cooperation stage and the esprit stage. Groups can only move forward after completing the current stage as in Jean Piaget's stage model. An introductory phase where members strive to get acquainted or reacquainted with one another. During this phase, the basis for the group structure is established and is characterized by polite social interaction.

All ideas are simple, controversy is avoided and all members limit self-disclosure. Judgements of other members are formed, this sets the tone for the rest of the group's time. Group members will want to know; the specific agenda for each planning session will be communicated by the leader. In this phase, individual need for approval begins to diminish as the members examine their group's purpose and begin to set goals. Social cliques will begin to form as members begin to feel as though they "fit in." Bids for power begin between group members in an effort to convince each other that their position on an issue is correct. The field of candidates vying for leadership narrows, as fewer members strive to establish power; some of those who contributed to the group discussion in earlier stages now remain silent, wishing not to engage in a power struggle. It is noted that interactions arising out of this phase do not result in optimum solutions. Hence, there is a great need for structure and patience in this stage.* Members not only begin to accept that others have an opinion worth expressing, but a team spirit replaces vested interests.

New levels of creativity are achieved, the group's productivity soars. If new individuals are introduced into the membership at this point, they will be viewed as outsiders or intruders, the group will have to evolve again, much as it did initially. Esprit de corps: a golden rule by Henri Fayol is associated with this stage of Cog's, which says that nothing has higher pinnacles to reach than spirit of corps. Mutual acceptance with high cohesiveness and a general feeling of esprit. Charrier states that the planning team can do its finest work and be most productive in this final stage in the model, it is noted that this stage will not always be achieved. Cog's ladder is similar to Tuckman's stages, another stage model of groups, which lacks the "Why We're Here" stage, calls the remaining four stages "Forming", "Storming", "Norming", "Performing". There are other similar models, some of which are cyclic rather than reaching an end state. – An article discussing Cog's ladder - Guide to implementing Cog's ladder in your group Charrier, G. O..

Cog’s ladder: A model of group growth. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 37, 30. - Cog's Ladder Greenberg, J. Behavior in organizations. New York, NY: Prentice Hall Publishers. - Tuckman's Model

The Passionate Pursuits of Angela Bowen

The Passionate Pursuits of Angela Bowen is a 2016 biographical documentary film by Jennifer Abod and Mary Duprey, depicting the life of Angela Bowen. Bowen grew up in Boston during the Jim Crow era, grew up to become a classical ballerina, a noted dance teacher, a black lesbian feminist activist, a writer and a professor at Cal State Long Beach; the film looks into the life of Angela Bowen, a black lesbian feminist activist, a classical ballerina and renowned dance teacher, a professor in the California State University system. Her activism was strong in all aspects of her life – she was as impassioned in her advocacy for the arts as she was for LGBTQI rights, which she championed as as she did black women's rights; the Passionate Pursuits follows Bowen's life from her childhood as a black girl in inner-city Boston during the Jim Crow era across the decades, until she became a legendary figure in her pursuits as a teacher, writer and activist. The film includes historic footage and interviews with key people from her past, such as her dance mentor, her dance partner, her former husband, her children and scholars.

Interwoven throughout the film's narrative is the recognition of how race, class and sexuality influenced her, played into her choices and her survival strategies. Director Jennifer Abod, a radio personality, feminist activist and journalist, first met Angela Bowen in 1979; the two became life partners marrying in 2013, after more than 30 years together. Abod began making The Passionate Pursuits in 2000, at the onset of Bowen's Alzheimer's disease, in an effort to capture and share the extraordinary life of a woman whose passion and brilliance had pushed beyond the oppressive barriers of sexism and racism. In 2014, Abod launched a crowdfunding project on Indiegogo, donations drive project to fund the film, fueled by orders of her film and book, The Old Women’s Project; the Passionate Pursuits of Angela Bowen met with positive reviews, garnered several awards. Beverly Guy-Sheftall, Professor of Women’s Studies at Spelman College, wrote in a review of the film: "'Passionate Pursuits' is a compelling portrait of an important figure in the evolution of contemporary Black feminist history in the United States.

The extraordinary life of Angela Bowen—dancer, scholar, professor—provides a window on important aspects of 20th century African American history, women's history and LGBTQ history." Dee Jay Cox, in a review for CV Weekly, opined that "The Passionate Pursuits of Angela Bowen will inspire audiences to pursue their dreams with tenacity and courage." London Feminist Film Festival Arts & Ideas Festival New Haven International Film Festival The Roxbury International Film Festival Outside the Frame: Radical Queer Film Festival Mix Film Festival, Milan North Carolina Gay/Lesbian Film Festival GayLesbioco E Queer Culture Green Salon Short Film Festival Official website The Passionate Pursuits of Angela Bowen on IMDb

Charlene Tilton

Charlene L. Tilton is an American actress and singer, she is best known for playing Lucy Ewing, the saucy niece of J. R. Ewing, on the television series Dallas. Tilton had early roles on such television series Eight Is Enough, she made her first film appearance alongside Jodie Foster in Freaky Friday. In 1978, Tilton made a cameo appearance in the John Milius film Big Wednesday; the following year, she made her big break by landing the role of Lucy Ewing, the sly, vixenish frustrated granddaughter of John "Jock" Ewing Sr. and the former Eleanor "Ellie" Southworth on the television series Dallas, alongside actors Jim Davis, Barbara Bel Geddes, Larry Hagman, from 1978 to 1985 and from 1988 to 1990. She appeared on one episode of the series' spin-off Knots Landing in 1980. At the height of her Dallas fame, she received a $50,000 salary per episode, appeared on 500 magazine covers, drew 65 million viewers for her 1981 TV wedding. Tilton is a singer, lending her vocal ability to a 1978 episode of Dallas titled "Runaway", in which Greg Evigan guest-starred.

In 1984, she released the dance-pop single "C'est La Vie", which became a hit in several European countries, though not in the United States. She appeared on Circus of the Stars in 1979 and 1991, on one occasion acting as a knife thrower's target girl while dressed in a gold bikini. Tilton appeared on game shows, such as Family Feud, Battle of the Network Stars, Hollywood Squares, Pyramid, 1 vs. 100 and Catch 21 including being a panelist on the 1979–1982 syndicated version of Match Game. She hosted the unsold pilot for a potential revival of the show in syndication as MG2 in 1996. Tilton was the guest host on an episode of Saturday Night Live on February 21, 1981, which featured a parody of the famed "Who shot J. R.?" Episode of Dallas. In the episode, cast member Charles Rocket was shot in the chest by a sniper while doing a sketch about a sexy couple bathing a dog and spouting innuendo. At the end of the show, during the "goodbyes", Tilton asked Rocket. In character, Rocket improvised, "Oh, man, it’s the first time I've been shot in my life.

I'd like to know who the fuck did it." The improvisation by Rocket, which violated FCC broadcast standards, led to his dismissal from the show's cast. Tilton appeared in a number of commercials for the Abdominizer line of direct-market workout equipment in the 1990s, she appeared as herself in an episode of Married... with Children titled "Tis Time to Smell the Roses" which sent up her involvement with the Abdominizer. In addition, she has appeared in several send-up comedies, such as The Silence of the Hams, Superhero Movie, Paranormal Calamity. In 2005, she appeared. In 2001, Tilton was honored by the Young Artist Foundation with its Former Child Star "Lifetime Achievement" Award for her role as Lucy Ewing on the original Dallas television series. In January 2012, Tilton was a contestant on the British ice-skating show Dancing on Ice in its seventh season, in which she was paired with American figure skater Matthew Gonzalez. Tilton was voted out of the competition, though, in week five of a 12-week run.

In 2012, Tilton joined the cast of TNT’s Dallas revival series, reprised her role as Lucy Ewing in a number of episodes. Tilton was born on December 1, 1958, in San Diego, the daughter of Katherine Thacker, a secretary. Tilton is 4'11". Tilton was married to country singer Johnny Lee from 1982 to 1984, she has one daughter, Cherish Lee, born in 1982, one grandson, born in 2016. In 2001, Tilton began dating cinematographer Cheddy Hart; the couple lived together in a modest home in Oxnard, California. In December 2009, Hart died of heart failure at age 54. Tilton is a strong advocate for autism awareness in the media, she is the ambassador for Actors for Autism, an organization that leads improv and acting workshops for children and adults with autism. She approached AFA in 2010 with the desire to volunteer and has been affiliated with them since; when she was in high school, while her mother was mentally ill and was raised without a father, the young, unknown actress met Larry Hagman, whom she regarded as a surrogate father.

A few years at age 17, she auditioned and won the role of Hagman's confused niece, Lucy Ewing, on Dallas. The two had a remarkable on- and off-screen chemistry, for the show's first eight seasons, they danced together, off-camera; when she left the show, at the end of the eighth season, her contract had expired, Hagman was disappointed about her departure. She said of Hagman, in 1988, "He called me and said, ‘You’re a good actress—we never realized.’ I think Larry went to bat for me to come back on the show." That same year, she came back to the show, stayed on for two more seasons, until her departure in 1990, a year before the series' finale. After Dallas, Tilton remained on good terms with Hagman, cared about her TV uncle's failing health, when in 1995, Hagman needed a liver transplant, after being diagnosed with liver cancer, survived, she did not appear in any of the Dallas TV reunion movies, but appeared in the Dallas Reunion: The Return to Southfork, in late 2004, to reminisce the show's history.

Before this, in September 2001, she was the only Dallas member to attend her TV's uncle's 70th birthday. This was prior to her acting mentor undergoing therapy for his cancer