A sound card is an internal expansion card that provides input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs. The term sound card is applied to external audio interfaces used for professional audio applications. Sound functionality can be integrated onto the motherboard, using components similar to those found on plug-in cards; the integrated sound system is still referred to as a sound card. Sound processing hardware is present on modern video cards with HDMI to output sound along with the video using that connector. Typical uses of sound cards or sound card functionality include providing the audio component for multimedia applications such as music composition, editing video or audio, presentation and entertainment and video projection. Sound cards are used for computer-based communication such as voice over IP and teleconferencing. Sound cards use a digital-to-analog converter, which converts recorded or generated digital signal data into an analog format.
The output signal is connected to an amplifier, headphones, or external device using standard interconnects, such as a TRS phone connector. A common external connector is the microphone connector. Input through a microphone connector can be used, for example, by speech recognition or voice over IP applications. Most sound cards have a line in connector for an analog input from a sound source that has higher voltage levels than a microphone. In either case, the sound card uses an analog-to-digital converter to digitize this signal; some cards include a sound chip to support production of synthesized sounds for real-time generation of music and sound effects using minimal data and CPU time. The card may use direct memory access to transfer the samples to and from main memory, from where a recording and playback software may read and write it to the hard disk for storage, editing, or further processing. An important sound card characteristic is polyphony, which refers to its ability to process and output multiple independent voices or sounds simultaneously.
These distinct channels are seen as the number of audio outputs, which may correspond to a speaker configuration such as 2.0, 2.1, 5.1, or other configuration. Sometimes, the terms voice and channel are used interchangeably to indicate the degree of polyphony, not the output speaker configuration. For example, many older sound chips could accommodate three voices, but only one output audio channel, requiring all voices to be mixed together. Cards, such as the AdLib sound card, had a 9-voice polyphony combined in 1 mono output channel. For some years, most PC sound cards have had multiple FM synthesis voices which were used for MIDI music; the full capabilities of advanced cards are not used. Modern low-cost integrated sound cards such as audio codecs like those meeting the AC'97 standard and some lower-cost expansion sound cards still work this way; these devices may provide more than two sound output channels, but they have no actual hardware polyphony for either sound effects or MIDI reproduction – these tasks are performed in software.
This is similar to the way inexpensive softmodems perform modem tasks in software rather than in hardware. In the early days of'wavetable' sample-based synthesis, some sound card manufacturers advertised polyphony on the MIDI capabilities alone. In this case, the card's output channel is irrelevant. Instead, the polyphony measurement applies to the number of MIDI instruments the sound card is capable of producing at one given time. Today, a sound card providing actual hardware polyphony, regardless of the number of output channels, is referred to as a "hardware audio accelerator", although actual voice polyphony is not the sole prerequisite, with other aspects such as hardware acceleration of 3D sound, positional audio and real-time DSP effects being more important. Since digital sound playback has become available and single and provided better performance than synthesis, modern sound cards with hardware polyphony do not use DACs with as many channels as voices; the final playback stage is performed by an external DAC with fewer channels than voices.
Note 1 - The Tandy 1000 and the PCjr used the same soundchip, but the Tandy 1000 utilized the Audio IN pin, whereas the PCjr did not. This allowed the Tandy to produce the speaker sound at the same time as the SN74689 Connectors on the sound cards are color-coded as per the PC System Design Guide, they will have symbols with arrows and soundwaves that are associated with each jack position, the meaning of each is given below: Sound cards for IBM PC compatible computers were uncommon until 1988. For the majority IBM PC users, the internal PC speaker was the only way for early PC software to produce sound and music; the speaker hardware was limited to square waves
Shree Thaker Bhojanalay is a Mumbai eating house that serves a Gujarati thali. It is located in Kalbadevi, it was established in 1945 by Maganlal Purohit. It is owned by Gautam Purohit, the head chef; the Bhojanalay is. Food critic Meera Sodhi mentions barefoot waiters who coax the patrons to eat more, which she says reminded her of her mother. Kunal Vijaykar characterises the "unlimited thali" meal here as "royal", that includes bottomless glass of buttermilk, an assortment of various types of farsan and other starters, dhoklas in different colours, bhajis made from potato, fenugreek and more, sweet and hot chutneys, rotlas and bhakras, puris and puran polis, with vegetable and pulse preparations made from bottle gourd, ivy gourd, cow peas, green gram, both dry and with gravy, sweet or raw, sweet dal, lackho dal rice, pulao khichdi, pickle and a minimum of two sweets. Rahul Akrekar describes the food as honest; the offerings have been called so numerous. Another writes that the thali includes "unlimited quantities of farsan, rotis, dal, kadhi and creamy shrikhand."
Christien Manfield finds the ambience "modest", like that of a "worker's canteen", where "friendly staff insist on refilling plates," and an unmatched choice of bhakris and rotis, with main and side dishes like corn dhokla, aloo rasawala and vegetable pulao. The Penguin Food guide to India tells readers that the place is "tough to find' and the entrance "dingy", but the food good, the early winter thali had undhiyu, a vegetable salad, rice slow cooked with spices, bhakris of corn and millet and chaas. Christine Manfield finds the Bhojanalay "city's hidden gem" serving what is considered one of Mumbai's best vegetarian thali. Elle writes that the Bhojanalay is a must visit eatery for vegetarians in Mumbai, one of the world's 8 most vegetarian cities. Ashwin Sanghi calls Mumbai's best Gujarati thali. Rachel Goenka mentions the Bhojanalay as one, a defining part of Mumbai's diverse food culture; the Bhojanalay was short listed amongst the top three for TripAdvisor 2016 Travellers’ Choice Awards in local cuisine category.
The Bhojanalay finds mention in The Penguin food guide to India. The Bhojanalay features on various must "best in Mumbai" lists, such as "11 Places You Have To Eat At In Mumbai If Sunday Brunch Is What You're After" "7 must visit Gujarati – Rajasthani Thali Restaurants" "Kunal Vijayakar picks the best places to savour an unlimited thali in Mumbai" "Here Are The 22 Best Thalis In Mumbai For The Ultimate Feast!" "Food: 5 restaurants in Mumbai that serve lip smacking Gujarati thalis" The Bhojanalay featured in ABP Majha's programme "Chavdar Chavistha"
Albatros D. IX was a German prototype single-seat fighter built in early 1918, it differed from previous marks by using a simplified fuselage with slab sides. The wings and tail were similar to those of the Albatros D. VII. Power was provided by a 130 kW Mercedes D. IIIa engine; the D. IX was armed with twin synchronised 7.92 mm LMG 08/15 machine guns. The prototype exhibited the project was discontinued. Data from The Complete Book of FightersGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 6.65 m Wingspan: 10.4 m Empty weight: 677 kg Gross weight: 897 kg Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D. IIIa, 130 kW Performance Maximum speed: 154 km/h Endurance: 1.5 hours Time to altitude: 1,000 m in 4 minutesArmament 2x 7.92 mm LMG 08/15 machine guns synchronised to fire through the propeller Green, W. & Swanborough, G.. The Complete Book of Fighters. London: Salamander Books. ISBN 1-85833-777-1
Canblaster is the pseudonym of French DJ and producer Cédric Steffens, one fourth of French dance music clique Club cheval. Since his first major release in 2010, Steffens has remixed tracks by Erol Alkan, Drop the Lime and Rusko. Steffens grew up in the North of France, he began his music career as a teenager, by producing tracks for the In The Groove video game series. Steffens' breakthrough as a dance music producer came through with his first release called "Jetpack". Jetpack was supported by British DJ Sinden, of whom Steffens would go to remix, his second EP, "Master of Complication", was released on Nightshifters in 2011, with a third EP - "Totem" - on Marble. Two Years in 2013, his fourth EP called "Infinite" was released on Marble. In April 2015, he collaborated with Lido to produce a six track EP called "Superspeed", released on Pelican Fly. In October 2015, he released the Continue? EP on Pelican Fly as well. Continue? Superspeed with Lido Jetpack Master of Complication Totem Infinite Charli XCX - Superlove Crystal Fighters - In The Summer Wolf In a Spacesuit - Wake The Shadow Audrey Katz - Drugs Lorenzo Vektor - Turn It Up Spoek Mathambo - Mshini Wam Wafa - Popup Myd - Train to Bamako Dooze Jackers - We Love Moogie Style of Eye & Slagsmålsklubben: Homeless Drop the Lime - Hot as Hell Yeahwoho - Pushit Teki Latex - Dinosaurs With Guns O.
Children - Fault Imperial Tiger Orchestra: Djemeregne Twist-it - Funky Monkey French Fries – Charlotte The Count & Sinden – Future Funkin Matt & Teki Latex – Get Loose Erol Alkan & Boys Noize - Avalanche feat. Jarvis Cocker Rusko - Feels so Real Johnny Moog - Dope Love Birdy Nam Nam – Big City Knights Canblaster Diclonius Kid Nightmare Hi-G V-Band Selecta Nu-Prophet Select Club Jack-In-The-Box
Israel competed at the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics, in Buenos Aires, Argentina from 6 October to 18 October 2018. Israel qualified three athletes. Boys Track & road eventsField EventsGirls Field Events The ranks of the Israelis cyclists at the 2017 men junior XCO mountain bike world championships place Israel at the 7th place; this position qualified two cyclists for Israel. Team Israel qualified a mixed pair based on its performance at the 2018 Acrobatic Gymnastics World Championship. Pairs Israel qualified one gymnast based on Uri Zeiadel performance at the European qualification event as part of the 2018 European Junior Championship. Zeiadel finish at the 23rd place on the individual all-around event with 73.265 points. This score place Israel at the 15th place. Boys Israel qualified one rhythmic gymnast based on Valeriia Sotskova performance at the European qualification event. Sotskova finish at the 5th place on the individual all-around event. Individual Israel qualified one athlete based on its position at the IJF cadet WRL.
IndividualTeam Israel qualified two boats based on its performance at the 2017 World Techno 293+ Championships. Naama Gazit finished at the 4th place and earned one quota places for the Israeli delegation in the girls’ event. Bar Navri finished at the 9th place and earned one quota places for the Israeli delegation in the boys’ event. Israel qualified four athlete based on its performance at the 17th FINA World Championships in Budapest. BoysGirlsMixed The 2018 World Youth Championship in Taekwondo took place in April in Tunisia. In contrast to the Olympic Charter, Israeli athletes were prevented from entering Tunisia and their ability to achieve the Olympic criterion was impaired. In light of this, after the demand of the Olympic Committee of Israel, two Israeli athletes Abishag Semberg and Tom Pashcovsky received a free ticket to the Youth Olympics, but Daniel Goichman was received the free ticket in Pashcovsky place. BoysGirls Itamar Levanon finished at the 8th place with a total time of 55:44 minutes at the 2018 European Youth Olympic Games Qualifier held in Banyoles, Spain.
Israel qualified one athlete based on Levanon's performance. IndividualRelay
Alexandra Bridge Provincial Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, located in the Fraser Canyon two kilometres north of Spuzzum and 40 kilometres north of Hope. The small 55 ha park is centred on the site of the original Cariboo Wagon Road bridge over the Fraser River; the park was established in 1984 because of its historical qualifications. It has picnic tables but no camping. Public access is via a trail from a parking lot on the east side of the Fraser, as the old portion of the pre-modernization Cariboo Highway, which used the bridge, is no longer open to the public; the Nlaka'pamux and Sto:lo First Nations have inhabited the area for over 9000 years. The first persons of European descent known to have visited the site were Simon Fraser and his crew during their expedition down the Fraser Canyon in 1808. Situated at a narrows in the canyon, with room for the necessary abutments, the site was an important fishing site for the Sto:lo and Nlaka'pamux First Nations peoples. Like all such locations in the Fraser Canyon, there was a large aboriginal village on the west bank just downstream from the bridge site in pre-railway times.
Fish-drying racks can still be seen at the location today, were visible in historic photographs from early times. A difficult and costly trail, intended to link Fort Langley with New Caledonia because of the loss of the old route in the wake of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, began on the east bank of the river and switchbacked up the mountainside, with "staircases" made for the mules and other pack animals. Dangerous and beset with difficult snows, the trail was abandoned after only a few uses and superseded by trails connecting inland farther south. There is mention of a pole-bridge built by aboriginal people at the site, torn down to make way for the "new" one of the 1860s, but a ferry operated in this area connecting with Kequaloose on the east bank, where the Brigade Trail begins its climb over the Cascade Mountains before descending back to the Fraser via the Anderson River at Boston Bar. During the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush in 1858, a ferry service was established here in a monopoly situation, as J.
W. Hicks, the magistrate at Yale, had his "fingers in the pie," as with many other businesses under his official purview; the original road bridge was constructed in 1861 by Joseph Trutch, Commissioner of Public Works for the Colony of British Columbia, as part of the development of the Cariboo Road using aboriginal and Chinese labour. He named the bridge after Princess Alexandra of Wales. Trutch's bridge was rebuilt by the Royal Engineers as construction of the Cariboo Road progressed, with the newer span opening in 1863. Just above the bridge on the east bank is Alexandra Lodge, on the site of one of the more important roadhouses of the many on the Cariboo Road, situated at the base of the arduous climb up the next hill northwards and at the end of the torturous journey connected Yale to Spuzzum. Nearby is the Alexandra Tunnel, one of many on the route of the Canadian National Railway through the Fraser Canyon; the original bridge was destroyed by the rising waters of the Fraser Flood of 1894 and its remains dismantled in 1912 due to hazards during railway construction, the long abandonment of the Cariboo Road, itself a casualty of CPR construction in the 1880s.
After World War I, the dawn of the automotive era saw a reinvestment in roads in the province including the re-opening of the Fraser Canyon to road traffic in the form of the new Cariboo Highway in the 1920s, a new suspension bridge was built upon the footings of the original structure in 1926. This second Alexandra Suspension Bridge still exists today, though it ceased to be used for automobile traffic in 1964; the new Alexandra Bridge, constructed by the B. C. Ministry of Highways in 1960-64, is two kilometres downstream and uses a high truss-arch span to cross the canyon; the site of the bridge, like most similar spots along the Fraser Canyon, is a traditional fishing spot because of the way the river is forced through narrow, steep banks, offering fishermen a chance to reach salmon struggling through the stronger current through the narrowed gorge. Millions of Spring, Chum and Sockeye salmon pass through the park on their way to spawning grounds every year; as well, the park contains many large tree species such as Western hemlock, Western redcedar and Douglas-fir.
Rising steeply on the east bank of the Fraser River, the site contains two well-defined glacio-fluvial benches. List of crossings of the Fraser River List of bridges in Canada Hells Gate Siska, British Columbia Bridge River Rapids "Alexandra Bridge Provincial Park". BC Geographical Names. Lidar-based 3D model of the Alexandra Bridge