The West Australian
The West Australian known as The West is the only locally edited daily newspaper published in Perth, Western Australia, is owned by Seven West Media, as is the state's other major newspaper, The Sunday Times. The West is the second-oldest continuously produced newspaper in Australia, having been published since 1833; the West tends to have conservative leanings, has supported the Liberal–National Party Coalition. The West is Australia's fourth largest newspaper by circulation, is the only newspaper in the top 20 not owned by either News Limited or Nine Publishing; the tabloid newspaper publishes international and local news. As of 23 February 2015, newsgathering was integrated with the TV news and current-affairs operations of Seven News, which moved its news staff to the paper's Osborne Park premises. A "breaking news" and video news website are staffed in the same area, together with sales and other departments. In the 1990s, the newspaper introduced a weekly "Earth 2000" segment on environmental matters and an "Asia Desk" feature covering events in South East Asia.
Opinion columnists now include Zoltan Kovacs, Paul Murray and a variety of writers syndicated from Nine Publishing including Gerard Henderson, Danny Katz and Brian Toohey. The paper publishes a supplement titled WestWeekend Magazine, included as an insert in The Weekend West; the Saturday edition was rebranded as The Weekend West in October 2010. There is an enlarged classified-advertising section for motor vehicles each Wednesday. A digital archive subscription enables past editions to be accessed for $220 per month or $2,200 per year; the West has conservative leanings, has supported the Liberal–National Party Coalition throughout the political group's existence. At the state election held in March 2017, the newspaper's editorial endorsed the Australian Labor Party opposition, led by Mark McGowan, over the Coalition government led by Colin Barnett; as of January 2015, refraining from reporting reduced print circulation, the paper claimed "readership across print and online platforms" of 1.8 million per month.
Online readership is limited by requirement of paid subscription According to Roy Morgan Research, total cross-platform readership is less than 50,000 daily, having declined 4.5% in the year to September 2014. The West Australian was owned by the publicly listed company West Australian Newspapers Ltd from the 1920s. In 1969, the Melbourne-based The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd bought WAN and published the paper until 1987 when it was sold to Robert Holmes à Court's Bell Group in 1987 when the remainder of H&WT was bought by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation; the following year Alan Bond, through Bond Corporation, gained control of Bell Group and hence the paper. This ownership structure only survived for a few years until the collapse of Bond Corporation. A newly formed company, West Australian Newspapers Holdings purchased the paper from the receivers before being floated in an oversubscribed $185 million public offering. Chairman Trevor Eastwood announced in the annual report that the company was listed on the Australian Securities Exchange on 9 January 1992.
A management fee of $217,000 and underwriting/brokers handling fee of $1,981,136 were paid to companies associated with former short-term directors John Poynton and J. H. Nickson. After having acquired Seven Media Group in February 2011, West Australian Newspapers Holdings Limited became Seven West Media, Australia's largest diversified media business; the West Australian traces its origins to The Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal, the first edition of which appeared on 5 January 1833. Owned and edited by Perth postmaster Charles Macfaull, it was a four-page weekly, it was, at first, published on Saturdays, but changed to Fridays in 1864. From 7 October 1864 it was known as The Perth Gazette and Western Australian Times and was published by Arthur Shenton, until 24 March 1871, after which the publisher was Joseph Mitchell, until 29 September 1871; the new publisher, M. Shenton, remained in place until 26 June 1874; when it was bought by a syndicate who renamed it The Western Australian Times and who in September 1874 increased production to two editions a week.
On 18 November 1879, it was relaunched as The West Australian. In October 1883, production was increased to three editions per week; the proprietors of the West Australian at that time inaugurated the Western Mail, in 1885. Delivery of the paper beyond settled areas was problematic, but the growth and development of the rural railway system in the early 1900s facilitated wider circulation. Newspaper House, the former office and publishing plant of The West on St Georges Terrace, across the road from the Palace Hotel, was a prominent landmark in the life of the city and state for over 50 years, it was vacated in the mid-1980s for the ill-fated "Westralia Square" redevelopment, completed in 2012 under the name Brookfield Place. The editorial staff was temporarily relocated in a nearby office building. Recognised as part of an important heritage precinct, Newspaper House was scheduled for preservation and refurbishment. In 1988, larger and more modern accommodation for the paper's printing presses was commissioned in Osborne Park.
Ten years the editorial operations moved to the Osborne Park complex. In September 2015 the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission approved the acquisition of The Sunday Times, which would give Seven West Media a monopoly over major newspapers in the state. Finalisation of the deal, which includes the website PerthNow, was announced by The West on 8 November
Sir Keith Arthur Murdoch was an Australian journalist and the father of Rupert Murdoch, the current CEO and Chairman of News Corp. Murdoch was born in Melbourne in 1885, the son of Annie and the Rev. Patrick John Murdoch, who had married in 1882 and migrated from Cruden, Scotland to Victoria, Australia with Patrick's family in 1884, his paternal grandfather was a minister with the Free Church of Scotland, his maternal grandfather was a Presbyterian minister. The family moved from West Melbourne to the affluent suburb of Camberwell in 1887. Keith was educated at his uncle Walter's short-lived school at Camberwell Grammar School, where he became dux in 1903, despite extreme shyness and stammering, he decided not to go straight to university but to try a career in journalism, so family friend David Syme of The Age agreed to employ him as district correspondent for nearby Malvern. Over the next four years, working long hours, he managed to create a significant increase in The Age's local circulation, to earn promotion, to save enough money for a ticket to England, where he hoped to gain further experience and find ways to master his stammer.
From 1908–9, in London, he took speech therapy, studied part-time at the London School of Economics, tried to find employment as a journalist, with the help of recommendations from more family friends, including Australia's Prime Minister Alfred Deakin. The stammer reduced, but remained a problem, shortly after it cost him a job with the Pall Mall Gazette in September 1909, Murdoch returned home to resume work for The Age, now as parliamentary reporter, in which capacity he strengthened the family's relationships with politicians such as Andrew Fisher, in some cases entertaining them at his aunt's country guest house. In 1912, he became Melbourne political correspondent for the Sydney Sun. Losing out to the more experienced Charles Bean for the position of official Australian correspondent covering World War I, he was appointed managing editor of the London cable service run by the Sun and the Melbourne Herald in 1915. Murdoch travelled to New Zealand in January 1915 with Prime Minister Andrew Fisher, two other MPs, the Hon. J. Boyd and the Hon. D. Hall, covering war talks between Fisher and the New Zealand Prime Minister, William Massey, just before the engagement of Australian and New Zealand troops in the Gallipoli campaign.
They travelled from Wellington aboard the Ulimaroa, arriving in Sydney on 2 February 1915. Andrew Fisher and Defence Minister George Pearce asked him to take time on his journey to London, to check on some matters of concern relating to supplies and mail for Australian troops in the conflict, so he stopped off in Egypt. While there in August, he was able to secure the permission of Sir Ian Hamilton, commander of the Dardanelles campaign in Turkey, to visit Australian troops in Gallipoli and write his impressions for the newspapers, subject to the usual military censorship; the agreement he signed specified that he was "not to attempt to correspond by any other route or by any other means than that sanctioned" and during the war he must not "impart to anyone military information of a confidential nature.... Unless first submitted to the Chief Field Censor."Murdoch visited Anzac Cove at the beginning of September moved to the headquarters on the island of Imbros. Discussing the situation with other journalists, he was befriended by the Daily Telegraph correspondent Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett, concerned that censorship was being used to suppress criticism of the Dardanelles campaign, which, as Murdoch had seen for himself, had serious problems.
Murdoch agreed to carry a letter from Ashmead-Bartlett to the British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith in London, written on 8 September, presenting his uncensored report of the situation. Hamilton learned about the existence of this letter. Reaching France on his route to London, Murdoch was arrested by Military Police in Marseille and the letter was confiscated. Arriving in London on 21 September, he spent some time at the Australian High Commission composing his own letter to his Prime Minister, Andrew Fisher, in a similar vein to the Ashmead-Bartlett letter and critical of the British general and administrative staff: The conceit and self complacency of the red feather men are equalled only by their incapacity. Along the line of communications at Moudros, are countless high officers and conceited young cubs who are plainly only playing at war....appointments to the general staff are made from motives of friendship and social influence. After sending the letter to Australia, he supplied two copies to the British Munitions Minister David Lloyd George, with his letter of introduction from Andrew Fisher.
Murdoch's letter reached Asquith and was circulated to senior ministers of the British government. Ashmead-Bartlett, expelled from the Dardanelles, reached London about this time and soon, thanks to the influence of Lord Northcliffe, proprietor of The Times, The Daily Mirror and other national newspapers, his version of events began to be published. Murdoch alarmed that Northcliffe's staff had obtained a copy of his private letter, soon became a friend of the newspaper tycoon. Although his letter, written from memory, contained many mistakes and exaggerations, the main points were supported by other evidence and Hamilton was relieved of command, the subsequent operation to evacuate the troops from Gallipoli in December being accomplished with perfect effectiveness. In 1917, while visiting the Western Front as an unofficial war correspondent, Murdoch attempted to conduct negotiations with F
Margaret Stevenson was an English Australian, she was well known as a satirist and columnist in Adelaide where she wrote under the pseudonym'A Colonist' for the South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register. She married George Stevenson in 1836. Leith G. MacGillivray, Margaret, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Supplementary Volume, Melbourne University Press, 2005, p. 371.http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/208173215
Robert Thomas (newspaper proprietor)
Robert Thomas was a Welsh newspaper proprietor and early settler of South Australia, born on a farm'Rhantregynwen', at Llanymynech, Wales. In 1836, Thomas migrated to the new colony with his wife Mary and family on the Africaine, arriving at Holdfast Bay on 8 November, he printed Governor Hindmarsh's proclamation of the new colony. On 27 and 28 March 1837 he purchased from the South Australian Company, at auction, numerous plots of land as surveyed by Colonel Light in the new capital: Town Acres Nos. 41 on the north side of Rundle Street. Town Acre No. 56 would be the site of his first printery, where the first issue of the South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register was printed on 3 June 1837. By 1838, the Register was a weekly newspaper, he published the weekly Adelaide Chronicle and South Australian Literary Record. Thomas printed copies of the South Australian Church Hymn Book for the Rev. Charles Howard, the Royal South Australian Almanac and from 1839, the Port Lincoln Herald and South Australian Commercial Advertiser.
The Register had a fierce policy of independence and this resulted in conflict with Governor George Gawler, who it criticised for his economic policies. Gawler was attacked in September 1840 over his ordering of the execution of two Ngarrindjeri men as a reprisal for the killing and dismembering of the survivors of the Maria shipwreck on the Coorong the previous July; as a result, the Government ceased to use the services of Robert Thomas & Co. from 11 November 1840 as Government printer of the Government Gazette – a loss to the company of ₤1650 a year. After an unsuccessful trip to London to protest the loss of business from the Government, he returned to Adelaide, where he continued to be involved in further printing and publishing, he died on 1 July 1860 at his home in Hindley Street. His wife Mary Thomas, née Harris was a poet and diarist, who published The Diary of Mary Thomas, considered a valuable history of her voyage on the Africaine and the early days of the colony. Children aboard Africaine were: Frances Amelia Thomas married solicitor and artist John Michael Skipper on 28 December 1840.
He married again, to Mary Thomas on 28 April 1856. Spencer John Skipper, journalist remembered as "Hugh Kalyptus" of the Register. William Kyffin Thomas, became a proprietor of the South Australian Register. Mary Thomas married her sister's widower John Michael Skipper on 28 April 1856 Helen Thomas married Swiss pianist Alfredo Placido "Alfred" Mantegani on 25 June 1855. Teresa Victoria Mantegani married Miles Horatio Beevor in 1878 Alfred Victor Mantegani married Ellen Deveny in 1898Another son, Robert George Thomas, arrived with G. S. Kingston, aboard Cygnet in 1836, worked as a surveyor in 1846 returned to England, he was back in Adelaide in 1861 and served for a time as Government Architect before reverting to private practice. Robert Thomas at the Australian Dictionary of Biography Mennell, Philip. "Thomas, Robert". The Dictionary of Australasian Biography. London: Hutchinson & Co – via Wikisource
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Edward William Andrews
Edward William Andrews was a newspaper editor in the early days of the Colony of South Australia. He was born the eldest son of Rev. Edward Andrews, LL. D. A Congregationalist minister of Walworth and started life as a merchant becoming a member of the London Stock Exchange, he and his family migrated to South Australia on the Anna Robertson, arriving in Adelaide on 20 September 1839. In December 1830 he helped found the South Australian Insurance Joint Stock Company, early in 1840 founded the firm of Gorton & Andrews, merchants, he had a close personal and business relationship with James Frew of Frew & Co. Andrews was declared insolvent in 1843 and the company was declared insolvent in 1846. In 1841 Andrews became a Director of the Marine Life Insurance Company. In 1850 or thereabouts, Andrews joined the staff of the South Australian newspaper joined the staff of the Register shortly after the death of John Stephens. After having been run for some time by John Taylor, the Register and its weekly sister publication, the Adelaide Observer, were purchased in May 1853 by a consortium of Andrews, William Kyffin Thomas, Anthony Forster and Joseph Fisher.
From that date to the time of his death he took an active part in the management of that journal. In January 1840, Andrews was elected a member of the first Adelaide City Council, serving for two years. In April 1840 was appointed a member of the Committee for the Protection of Religious Freedom, whose object was to secure the abolition of the Colonial Chaplaincy, thus putting all denominations on an equal footing free from State control. In 1841, with Sir George Kingston and others, Andrews was chosen by the Royal Statistical Society to collect information on the financial condition of the colony. In 1864 he was made a Justice of the Peace. In 1867 he was elected Mayor of Glenelg, it was as mayor that he was the first person to welcome the Duke of Edinburgh on his arrival in South Australia on 30 October 1867. He was an active member of the Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society, in 1860 was elected President, he edited, the Society's short-lived journal Farm and Garden. He was for some time one of the Governors of the Botanic Gardens.
Shortly after Andrews' arrival in the colony, he became a member of the Masonic Order. He was initiated in the Lodge of Friendship in the year 1840, for many years was an active member and for a considerable time Master of the Lodge of Harmony, on his retiring from the chair in 1853 he was presented with a handsome Past Master's jewel by the members of the Lodge. In 1848 he was appointed Secretary of the Provincial Grand Lodge of the English Constitution, which office he filled until 1854. On resigning he was presented with a valuable gold watch and chain by the members of the Provincial Grand Lodge in recognition of his services, he was for many years a prominent member of the Society of Oddfellows. Andrews' brother Frederick George Andrews was an insurance broker in Melbourne who came to Adelaide in 1840 on the Countess of Durham, he married Jane Fullarton Frew on 14 February 1849. She was a sister of James Frew jun.. His sister Emily Augusta was married to Coventry Patmore and author of Angel in the House.
Andrews married Emily Annette Bray. He married again, to Margaret Elizabeth Hunter on 8 January 1861, he had a son and two daughters by his first wife: Eliza Annette Hargrave Edward, Helen Johnstone married Frederic Law of Penola on 22 December 1869. She remarried, to James Frew jun. on 20 July 1876. There is no record of her having married a third time. In the hope of recovering his failing health, he journeyed to Port Elliot, but died shortly after from a disease of the liver. John Howard Clark, in the persona of "Geoffry Crabthorn" wrote a moving tribute to his friend and colleague: It will not I imagine be expected for a moment that my accustomed column of fun and satire should this week make its appearance when the whole of the Register staff are mourning the loss of one, respected and beloved by all who knew him. Let the writer of these lines lay aside for a time his wonted garb of motley, record with regretful reverence the breaking of a bond of union which has grown and strengthened with the lapse of years.
I have known Edward William Andrews, now so taken from among us, for more than half my life. I have to look back a long way now to fix the time when pleasant acquaintance ripened into firm and lasting friendship — a friendship which I am glad and proud to think was mutual. In all those years of acquaintance and of friendship I have met a man more estimable. With a tact and judgment which proved invaluable to those who were privileged to profit by his counsel, with a facile pen which has — despite an inconquerable diffidence — enriched this column of mine, indeed not this alone, with graceful verse, with a devotion to duty which spared no toil and defied the inroads of weakness and physical suffering, he combined a tender heartedness which shrank from giving pain, a wide sympathy always on the alert to succour in secret the humble and the needy, to share and alleviate the sorrows of a friend, or to contribute to the happiness of those around him, a thoughtful kindness which shrewdly anticipated the wants of those he wished to help, above all a devout and reverent spirit which lifted him above the din and turmoil of this restless world towards that purer atmosphere where it is our solace to belie
The Beehive Corner is a landmark in the Adelaide city centre, on the north-eastern corner of King William Street and Rundle Street, centrally placed between the railway station and the city's shopping precinct. The name gained currency from "The Beehive", a draper's shop opened by Brewer and Robertson from October 1849 J. V. B. Ryley from 1850 to 1858, followed by Israel Simmons who ran the shop until 1886, when his business, with many others, failed. According to one reference it had a beehive motif on the glass door portrayed in gold leaf. Nearby tenants included Edmund Wright the well-known architect, William Ekins the gunsmith and James Allen's printing shop; the name is older – archivist G. H. Pitt found the name was chosen by the original owners to denote a busy trading centre, it had been a well-known landmark for fifty years in 1895 when what is the present Beehive Buildings were built for the owner, Henry Martin to replace the antiquated structure. In the new design by George Klewitz Soward, four shops had frontages on King William Street and three facing Rundle Street, each 8 ft. high, with jarrah floors and plastered walls and rear access and one shop 14 ft. high, all having large plate-glass windows and nickel-plated columns.
It was built three storeys above the pavement, was Gothic in character, each gable finishing with crockets and a finial, with open balustrades between them. At the main angle an ornamental turret was corbelled out, surmounted by a gilded beehive and bee and on the shaft of the turret the words'Beehive Corner 1895' among foliage; the piers dividing the shopfronts were of Palmer granite. Sliding shutters were fitted to the windows facing King William Street, with a handsome iron verandah made by Fulton & Co; the sills of the windows facing Rundle Street were fitted with a small iron railing. The architects were Soward. In 1950 the prime corner section of the complex was sold to confectioner C. A. Haigh for his iconic shop after his leasing it for some 35 years; the neo-Gothic facade and prominent tourelle were refurbished in 1998 by the firm of Harrold and Kite. For over a century, "Meet you at the Beehive Corner" has been a common phrase among Adelaideans when nominating a meeting-place in the city.
Forgotten today, but once a familiar landmark, "Stump's Corner", directly across King William Street from the Beehive Corner, was an earlier rendezvous, named for Alfred Stump, a photographer who had a prominent sign on his studio. "Muirhead's Corner", site of Emanuel Cohen's "Monster Clothing Palace", was diagonally opposite. I. Simmons's "The Bee Hive" ca. 1873 Haigh's Chocolates 34°55′22″S 138°35′59″E