SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

South Bank

South Bank is an entertainment and commercial district in central London, next to the River Thames opposite the City of Westminster. It forms a narrow strip of riverside land within the London Borough of Lambeth and the London Borough of Southwark; as such, South Bank may be regarded as somewhat akin to the riverside part of an area known as Lambeth Marsh and North Lambeth. While South Bank is not formally defined, it is understood to bounded by Westminster Bridge and Blackfriars Bridge, to be centred half a mile south-east of Charing Cross; the name South Bank was first used in 1951 during the Festival of Britain. The area's long list of attractions includes the County Hall complex, the Sea Life London Aquarium, the London Dungeon, Jubilee Gardens and the London Eye, the Southbank Centre, Royal Festival Hall, National Theatre, BFI Southbank. In addition to their official and business functions, both the County Hall and the Shell Centre have major residential components. Due to it being waterlogged in winter, the area was slower to develop than the "North Bank" of the Thames.

Throughout its history, it has twice functioned as an entertainment district, interspersed by around a hundred years of wharfs, domestic industry and manufacturing being its dominant use. Restoration began in 1917 with the construction of County Hall at Lambeth replacing the Lion Brewery, its Coade stone symbol was retained and placed on a pedestal at Westminster Bridge and is known as the South Bank Lion. The pedestrianised embankment is The Queen's Walk, part of the Albert Embankment built not only for public drainage but to raise the whole tract of land to prevent flooding. In 1951 the Festival of Britain redefined the area as a place for arts and entertainment, it now forms a significant tourist district in central London, stretching from Blackfriars Bridge in the east to Westminster Bridge in the west. A series of central London bridges connect the area to the northern bank of the Thames Golden Jubilee and Waterloo Bridge. During the Middle Ages this area developed as a place of entertainment outside the formal regulation of the City of London on the north bank.

By the 18th century the more genteel entertainment of the pleasure gardens had developed. The shallow bank and mud flats were ideal locations for industry and docks and went on to develop as an industrial location in a patchwork of private ownership. There was a shift in use when the London County Council required a new County Hall, built between 1917 and 1922 on the south bank near North Lambeth's Lower Marsh; the construction of County Hall returned the first section of river frontage to public use. This was extended eastwards in 1951 when the Festival of Britain caused a considerable area to be redeveloped, it was renamed'South Bank' as part of promoting the Festival. The legacy of the festival was mixed, with buildings and exhibits demolished to make way for Jubilee Gardens, whilst the Royal Festival Hall and The Queen's Walk were retained as part of the Southbank Centre. During the years following the festival the arts and entertainment complex grew with additional facilities, including the Queen Elizabeth Hall, other arts venues opened along the river such as the Royal National Theatre.

The South Bank stretches two square miles along the southern bank of the River Thames. The western section is in the Bishops ward of the London Borough of Lambeth, the eastern section is in the London Borough of Southwark where it joins Bankside. There is a significant amount of public open space along the riverside. Between the London Studios and the Oxo Tower lies Bernie Spain Gardens, named after Bernadette Spain, a local community activist, part of the Coin Street Action Group; the South Bank is a significant arts and entertainment district. The Southbank Centre comprises the Royal Festival Hall, the Queen Elizabeth Hall and The Hayward Gallery; the Royal National Theatre, the London IMAX super cinema and BFI Southbank adjoin to the east, but are not part of the centre. County Hall is non-administrative and has been converted into The London Marriott Hotel County Hall, Sea Life London Aquarium and the London Dungeon; the OXO Tower Wharf is towards the eastern end of South Bank, houses Gallery@Oxo and boutiques, the OXO Tower Restaurant run by Harvey Nichols.

Gabriel's Wharf is a redeveloped wharf on the South Bank, located at London. It has been converted into a shopping area. Nearby places include Bernie Spain Gardens; the London Studios, the former home of ITV faces the Thames and Rambert Dance Company have their new studios on Upper Ground. The Old Vic and Young Vic theatres are nearby; the Florence Nightingale Museum to nursing and the Crimean War adjoins the'district'. Part of the Southbank Centre under the Queen Elizabeth Hall is known as the undercroft, has been used by the skateboarding community since the early 1970s. An architectural dead-spot, it has become a landmark of British skateboarding culture; the size of the under-croft has been reduced in recent years and was supposed to be returned to original size. This now seems unlikely and the future of the whole space is unsure at present with campaigns for its future survival being fought by the Long Live Southbank campaign. Part of the Southbank Centre has been turned into shops looking out over the river.

The South Bank was the main scene of the 1952 comedy film The Happy Family, set around the Festival of Britain. Part of the success of the area as a visitor attraction is attributed to the high levels of public transport access. Several maj

K√łge Bugt

Køge Bugt or Køge Bay is an 500 km2-shallow Danish bay in the southern part of Øresund, between Greater Copenhagen area in the North and Stevns Klint in the South, as a part of Zealand. It is name after the Danish town Køge, located towards its southern part; the area around the bay's shores are built-up from Copenhagen to Køge, including Copenhagen suburban areas like Brøndby Strand, Vallensbæk, Ishøj, Hundige and others. The seafloor is not located deeper than 10 meters anywhere inside the bay. Due to its closeness to the Baltic Sea, the average surface salinity is lower than elsewhere in Øresund when compared to the northern parts of this sound; the landing approaches to Copenhagen Airport runways 04L and 04R goes over the bay, it is used for 30% of all landings. In 1427, a Kalmar Union fleet was resoundingly victorious in a sea battle against the Hanseatic League. 1 July 1677, a sea battle between a Dano-Norwegian and a larger Swedish fleet occurred in the bay. The outcome was a Dano-Norwegian victory.

An indecisive battle between a Dano-Norwegian fleet and Sweden was fought in 1710. In August 2017, Swedish journalist Kim Wall was murdered in the bay by entrepeuner Peter Madsen on board his submarine UC3 Nautilus

The Idiot (album)

The Idiot is the debut solo album by American musician Iggy Pop, released on March 18, 1977 by RCA Records. It was the first of two albums that Pop wrote and recorded in collaboration with David Bowie, credited as producer; the sessions for the album began before the recording of Bowie's 1977 album Low. Described by Pop as "a cross between James Brown and Kraftwerk," The Idiot marked a departure from the guitar-based proto-punk of his former band the Stooges, has been compared with Bowie's "Berlin Trilogy" of albums in its electronic sounds and introspective atmosphere, its title was taken from Fyodor Dostoevsky's novel of the same title, three of the participants in the recording — Bowie and Tony Visconti — being familiar with the book. The Idiot received critical acclaim upon its release, is regarded by many as one of Pop's best works; the album has been characterized as a major influence on subsequent post-punk and gothic artists. The album's opening track, "Sister Midnight", was written by Bowie and guitarist Carlos Alomar, performed live on the Station to Station tour in early 1976.

In July that year, following the end of the tour and Pop holed up in Château d'Hérouville, the same locale where Bowie recorded Pin Ups and would soon record much of Low, began putting together the rest of the songs that became The Idiot. At the Château they were augmented by Laurent Thibault on bass and Michel Santangeli on drums, who were required, with minimal guidance, to add to rough music tracks taped by Bowie, their first takes becoming part of the final mix. Recording continued in August at Musicland in Munich, Germany with guitarist Phil Palmer, who found the creative collaboration with Pop and Bowie stimulating but disquieting, never seeing them around during the day. Overdubs by Bowie's regular rhythm section of Carlos Alomar, Dennis Davis and George Murray, plus a final mix by Tony Visconti, took place in Berlin at Hansa Studio 1. Given the demo quality of the tapes, the post-production work was, in Visconti's words, "more of a salvage job than a creative mixing"; because of its ambiguous and in some cases non-existent credits, misconceptions have arisen over the years as to who contributed what to the album.

Although the common belief that Pop wrote the lyrics while Bowie composed the music is accurate, their approach saw the positions change, with some music being Pop's and some lyrics being Bowie's. The album's cover photo, inspired by Erich Heckel's Roquairol, is assumed to be by Bowie but was in fact taken by Andy Kent. No instrumental credits were included on the sleeve, causing some speculation as to the musicians involved. At the time of its release, Pop described The Idiot as a cross between James Kraftwerk. Bowie biographer David Buckley has called it "a funky, robotic Hellhole of an album"; the funk influence was most pronounced on "Sister Midnight", based on a riff by Carlos Alomar and laced with Pop's oedipal dream imagery. Its lack of overtly electronic instrumentation belied what critic Dave Thompson has described as a "defiantly futuristic ambience". Pop, speaking of Bowie, described the Krautrock-influenced "Nightclubbing" as "my comment on what it was like hanging out with him every night".

The track was recorded one night after the other musicians had left, Bowie playing the melody on piano with an old rhythm machine for backing. When Pop pronounced himself happy with the result, Bowie protested that they needed real drums to finish it off. Pop insisted on keeping the rhythm machine, saying "it kicks ass, it's better than a drummer". Pop wrote the lyrics on the spot "in ten minutes", Bowie suggesting that he write about "walking through the night like ghosts"; the riff has been described as a mischievous quote of Gary Glitter's "Rock and Roll"."China Girl" called "Borderline", was a tale of unrequited love inspired by Kuelan Nguyen, partner of French actor-singer Jacques Higelin, recording at Château d'Hérouville at the time. The protagonist's "Shhh..." was a direct quote from Nguyen after Pop confessed his feelings for her one night. Production-wise it was raw and unpolished compared to Bowie's hit remake in 1983. Other songs included "Funtime", a proto-gothic number that Bowie advised Pop to sing "like Mae West".

Although the bulk of The Idiot was recorded before Low, the initial installment of the "Berlin Trilogy", Bowie's album was released first in January 1977, while Pop's was held over until March. Laurent Thibault opined that "David didn't want people to think he'd been inspired by Iggy's album, when in fact it was all the same thing". In 1981, NME editors Roy Carr and Charles Shaar Murray suggested that The Idiot's electronic sound had been "pioneered" on Low, whereas by 2000, Nicholas Pegg would describe it as "a stepping stone between Station to Station and Low; the Idiot peaked at number 72 on the Billboard Top 200 Albums Chart, reached number 30 on the UK Albums Chart, marking the first time an Iggy Pop album had cracked the top 40. "Sister Midnight" and "China Girl" wer