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South Beach

South Beach nicknamed SoBe, is a neighborhood in the city of Miami Beach, United States, located due east of Miami city proper between Biscayne Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. The area encompasses Miami Beach south of Dade Boulevard; this area was the first section of Miami Beach to be developed, starting in the 1910s, due to the development efforts of Carl G. Fisher, the Lummus Brothers, John S. Collins, the latter of whose construction of the Collins Bridge provided the first vital land link between mainland Miami and the beaches; the area has gone through numerous artificial and natural changes over the years, including a booming regional economy, increased tourism, the 1926 hurricane, which destroyed much of the area. As of 2010, 39,186 people lived in South Beach. South Beach started as farmland. In 1870, Henry and Charles Lum purchased 165 acres for coconut farming. Charles Lum built the first house on the beach in 1886. In 1894, the Lum brothers left the island, leaving control of the plantation to John Collins, who came to South Beach two years to survey the land.

He used the land for farming purposes, discovering fresh water and extending his parcel from 14th Street to 67th in 1907. In 1912, Miami businessmen the Lummus Brothers acquired 400 acres of Collins' land in an effort to build an oceanfront city of modest single family residences. In 1913 Collins started construction of a bridge from Miami to Miami Beach. Although some local residents invested in the bridge, Collins ran short of money before he could complete it. Carl G. Fisher, a successful entrepreneur who made millions in 1909 after selling a business to Union Carbide, came to the beach in 1913, his vision was to establish South Beach as a successful city independent of Miami. This was the same year. Fisher loaned $50,000 to Collins for his bridge, completed in June, 1913; the Collins Bridge was replaced by the Venetian Causeway. On March 26, 1915, Collins and Fisher consolidated their efforts and incorporated the Town of Miami Beach. In 1920 the County Causeway was completed; the Lummus brothers sold their oceanfront property, to the city.

To this day, this area is known as Lummus Park. In 1920, the Miami Beach land boom began. South Beach's main streets were all suitable for automobile traffic; the population was growing in the 1920s, several millionaires such as Harvey Firestone, J. C. Penney, Harry C. Stutz, Albert Champion, Frank Seiberling, Rockwell LaGorce built homes on Miami Beach. President Warren G. Harding stayed at the Flamingo Hotel during this time, increasing interest in the area. In the 1930s, an architectural revolution came to South Beach, bringing Art Deco, Streamline Moderne, Nautical Moderne architecture to the Beach. South Beach claims to be the world's largest collection of Streamline Moderne Art Deco architecture. Napier, New Zealand, another notable Art Deco city, is architecturally comparable to Miami Beach as it was rebuilt in the Ziggurat Art Deco style after being destroyed by an earthquake in 1931. By 1940, the beach had a population of 28,000. After the December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, the Army Air Corps took command over Miami Beach.

That year, tourism brought two million people to South Beach. In 1964, South Beach became more famous when Jackie Gleason brought his weekly variety series, The Jackie Gleason Show to the area for taping, a rarity in the industry. Beginning in the mid 1960s and continuing through the 1980s, South Beach was used as a retirement community with most of its ocean-front hotels and apartment buildings filled with elderly people living on small, fixed incomes; this period saw the introduction of the "cocaine cowboys," drug dealers who used the area as a base for their illicit drug activities. Scarface, released in 1983, typifies this activity. In addition, television show Miami Vice used South Beach as a backdrop for much of its filming. A somewhat recurring theme of early Miami Vice episodes was thugs and drug addicts barricading themselves in run-down or empty buildings. Only minor alterations had to be made for these scenes because some buildings in South Beach were in poor condition at the time.

While many of the unique Art Deco buildings, such as the New Yorker Hotel, were lost to developers in the years before 1980, the area was saved as a cohesive unit by Barbara Baer Capitman and a group of activists who spearheaded the movement to place one square mile of South Beach on the National Register of Historic Places. The Miami Beach Architectural District was designated in 1979. Before the days of Miami Vice, South Beach was considered a poor area with a high rate of crime. Today, it is considered one of most prosperous commercial areas on the beach. Despite this and crime still exist in some isolated places surrounding the area. In 2009, Natalie O'Neill of the Miami New Times said, "Until the 1980s, Miami Beach was a peculiar mix of criminals and little old ladies; the beautiful people moved in." In the late 1980s, a renaissance began in South Beach, with an influx of fashion industry professionals moving into the area. In 1989, Irene Marie purchased the Sun Ray Apartments located on Ocean Drive and opened Irene Marie Models.

Thomas Kramer is credited with starting the construction boom in South Beach, driving the gentrification of the area. It is now a popular living destination for the wealthy. Condominium units in the upscale high rises sell for millions. There are a number of vocal critics of the developments; the high-rise and high-density buildings are derided as a "concrete

Chris Stolle

Christopher Patrick Stolle is a former member of the Virginia House of Delegates representing 83rd district, which includes portions of the cities of Virginia Beach and Norfolk. A Republican, he first won election in 2009 by defeating Democratic incumbent Joseph Bouchard by an eighteen-point margin, he took the oath of office on January 2010 in Richmond, Virginia. Del. Stolle was re-elected on Nov. 9, 2011, securing 97% of all votes. Del. Stolle is an OB/GYN and Vice President of Medical Affairs at Riverside Regional Medical Center, he is the brother of former State Senator Ken Stolle. He lost re-election to Democrat Nancy Guy in 2019. Official member bio

Lebanon v Tunisia (1963 Arab Nations Cup)

Lebanon v Tunisia was the decisive match of group stage at the 1963 Arab Nations Cup. The match was played at Camille Chamoun Stadium in Beirut on 7 April 1963; the winner was determined by a final group stage, with the final five teams playing in round-robin format, instead of a knockout stage. In the 1963 Arab Nations Cup, the five participating teams played for the final round-robin group. In the fourth and final matches of the tournament, Tunisia and Syria had a chance to win the game; the Tunisians had a two point advantage. كأس العرب: مشاركات متفاوتة وانسحابات متكررة منذ انطلاق المسابقة عام 1963 - Elaph

Minuscule 468

Minuscule 468, Ο30, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on paper. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 13th century, it was labeled by 118a, 138p, 55r. The codex contains the text of the New Testament except Gospels on 200 paper leaves, with only one lacuna; the text is written in one column per 28 lines per page. It contains prolegomena and death of Paul, tables of the κεφαλαια before each book, numbers of the κεφαλαια at the margin, lectionary markings at the margin, αναγνωσεις, subscriptions at the end of each book, numbers of στιχοι, it has not much αναγνωσεις to the Acts and Apocalypse. The order of books: Acts of the Apostles, Catholic epistles, Pauline epistles, Book of Revelation. Kurt Aland did not place the Greek text of the codex in any Category, it is an important witness to the 13th century Byzantine text. The manuscript was examined and described by Scholz, Paulin Martin, C. R. Gregory. Herman C. Hoskier collated its text only in Book of Revelation, it was added to the list of New Testament manuscripts by Scholz.

It was labeled by 118a, 138p, 55r. In 1908 Gregory gave the number 468 to it. Gregory saw it in 1885, it is housed at the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris. List of New Testament minuscules Biblical manuscript Textual criticism Herman C. Hoskier, Concerning the Text of the Apocalypse, pp. 166–169. "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved April 15, 2013


Granulysin known as GNLY, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the GNLY gene. It is known as NK-lysin after NK cells. Granulysin is released by cytotoxic T cells and NK cells when they are attached to infected body cells, it destroy it. Granulysin is able to induce apoptosis in target cells and has antimicrobial action. Granulysin is broadly antimicrobial, killing microbes that cause, for example and malaria, can destroy some tumors. A series of peptides generated from the amino acid sequence of granulysin are potential antibiotics. Granulysin is a protein present in cytolytic granules of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells along with perforin and granzymes. Granulysin is a member of the saposin-like protein family and is released from cytotoxic T cells upon antigen stimulation. Granulysin has antimicrobial activity against other organisms. Granulysin is alternatively spliced, resulting in the 519 transcripts. Granulysin is a cytolytic and proinflammatory molecule first identified by a subtractive hybridization screen for genes expressed “late” after activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Granulysin is present in cytolytic granules of natural killer cells. Granulysin is made as a 15 kD molecule, a portion of it is cleaved at both the amino and carboxy termini into a 9 kD form; the 9 kD form is released by receptor-mediated granule exocytosis while the 15 kD form is constitutively secreted. Recombinant 9 kD granulysin is broadly cytolytic against tumors and microbes, including gram positive and gram negative bacteria, fungi/yeast and parasites. 9kD granulysin is a chemoattractant for T lymphocytes and other inflammatory cells and activates the expression of a number of cytokines, including RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1α, IL-10, IL-1, IL-6 and IFNα. Granulysin has been implicated in a myriad of diseases including infection, transplantation, autoimmunity and reproductive maladies. Granulysin has been implicated in the development of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. GNLY orthologs have been identified in multiple species, including pigs and cattle. Cattle has multiple copies of the gene with functional diversification.

Mice do not have a granulysin homolog, but transgenic mice expressing human granulysin have been engineered

International response to the Beslan school siege

The international reactions to the Beslan school hostage crisis was: United Nations - Secretary-General Kofi Annan further condemned the attack as a "brutal and senseless slaughter of children" and "terrorism and simple". UN Security Council – The UN Security Council in a Presidential Statement condemned the attack in the strongest terms and urged states to cooperate with the Russian authorities in efforts to bring the perpetrators to justice. European UnionRomano Prodi on behalf of the European Commission responded by calling the attack a: "Killing of these innocent people is an evil, despicable act of barbarism." Dutch Foreign Minister Ben Bot stated on behalf of the European Union that "We have been confronted with a deep human tragedy Beslan shows once again that we have to do everything in our power to confront terrorism." UNESCO - Director-General Koichiro Matsuura of UNESCO concluded that “I am appalled that a school and its pupils are being used for political ends" and further that “Schools are where children learn to live together.

The safety of schools must never be threatened. I condemn these actions in the strongest possible terms." At least the following countries has expressed their concern: Denmark - Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen said that no aim or situation could justify taking children hostage. France - French Foreign Ministry, in a statement concluded that "Everyone must mobilize in the fight against terrorism." Germany - German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder stated "This is a new dimension of terrorism" and German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer said that "There are no reasons imaginable that could justify taking children, toddlers and their mothers hostages." Israel - The Israeli government offered help in rehabilitating freed hostages. After, an experienced Israeli trauma team was sent to Beslan and Russian psychologists working with the victims of the massacre received help on training by Israeli experts in Israel. Italy - The Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi responded saying ""The international community has to unite against terrorism that denies common human values to all the world's civilizations There is no reason that could justify such inhuman violence."

Jordan - Government spokesman Asma Khader "condemns such acts the kidnapping of civilians and to scare them in such a heinous way more, when most are children" saying "no cause can be achieved by such criminal means." Lebanon - Lebanese President Émile Lahoud said in Beirut "denounces all forms of terror that which threatens the lives of children and innocents." Pakistan — Pakistan condemns brutal crimes committed by terrorists in Beslan. In separate messages directed to Russian President Vladimir Putin and the Russian Premier Mikhail Fradkov, Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf and the Pakistani Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz expressed their confidence that those responsible for this despicable act of terrorism would be brought to justice soon. A message relayed to Russian President, Pakistani President and Prime Minister expressed "their heartfelt condolences on behalf of the government and people of Pakistan and on their own behalf to the government, the people of Russia and to the bereaved families".

South Africa - Nelson Mandela called the attack an "inhumane and barbaric act of terrorism”, saying that "in no way can the victimisation and killing of innocent children be justified in any circumstances, not for political reasons." United States - President Bush of the United States in a speech to the UN General Assembly said of the terrorists at Beslan that they: "measure their success - in the death of the innocent, in the pain of grieving families." And further in a speech called it "the terrorist massacre of schoolchildren in Beslan." Sweden - Prime Minister of Sweden Göran Persson commented that "The evil deed of targeting children makes the world understand what times we are living in, how vulnerable our communities are and what types of crimes and terror we have to deal with." Holy See - At the Vatican City, Pope John Paul II condemned the attack as a "vile and ruthless aggression on defenceless children and families." Egypt - Grand Shaikh Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy, Egypt's top cleric asked: "What is the guilt of those children?

Why should they be responsible for your conflict with the government? You are taking Islam as a cover and it is a deceptive cover. A group of international human rights organizations, including Amnesty International, condemned it as an “abhorrent action” and a “displays callous disregard for civilian life" and further that it was “an attack on the most fundamental right - the right to life. International reaction to the Peshawar school crises, 2014. Arab and Muslim reactions