South Carolina House of Representatives
The South Carolina House of Representatives is the lower house of the South Carolina General Assembly, the upper house being the South Carolina Senate. It consists of 124 Representatives elected to two year terms at the same time as US Congressional elections. Unlike many legislatures, seating on the floor is not divided by party, but is arranged by county delegation; this is a legacy of the original apportionment of the chamber. Until 1964, each county was a legislative district, with the number of representatives determined by the county's population. Representatives are considered part-time citizen legislators. Representatives are elected at-large by their district, there are no term limits. Representatives must be 21 years of age. 21 were members of the Union Reform Party of South Carolina and the other 3 were Independents from Anderson. Two of the Union Reform members from Chesterfield were replaced by Republicans from a resolution passed in the House. All 33 were members of the Conservative Party of South Carolina.
All 17 were Independent Democrats. Kalk, Bruce H.. The origins of the southern strategy: two-party competition in South Carolina, 1950–1972. Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0242-7. Reynolds, John S.. Reconstruction in South Carolina. Negro University Press. ISBN 0-8371-1638-4; the Post and Courier The State South Carolina House of Representatives 2007 seating chart Project Vote Smart – State House of South Carolina links to each Representative e e e e
South Carolina General Assembly
The South Carolina General Assembly called the South Carolina Legislature, is the state legislature of the U. S. state of South Carolina. The legislature is bicameral and consists of the lower South Carolina House of Representatives and the upper South Carolina Senate. Altogether, the General Assembly consists of 170 members; the legislature convenes at the State House in Columbia. Prior to the 1964 federal Reynolds v. Sims decision by the U. S. Supreme Court, the House of Representatives was apportioned so that each county had a number of representatives based on population, with each county guaranteed at least one Representative, while each county had one Senator. Moreover, each county's General Assembly delegation doubled as its county council, as the state constitution made no provision for local government. Reynolds v. Sims caused district lines to cross county lines, causing legislators to be on multiple county councils; this led to the passage of the Home Rule Act of 1975, which created county councils that were independent of the General Assembly.
However, some functions that in many other states are performed by county governments are still handled by county legislative delegations in South Carolina. There are 124 members of the South Carolina House of Representatives, who are elected every two years, the South Carolina Senate has 46 members, elected every four years concurrent to the Presidential election. For both houses, there are no term limits; the General Assembly meets in joint session to elect judges, with all 170 members having an equal vote in such elections. South Carolina State House South Carolina House of Representatives South Carolina Senate South Carolina Code of Laws South Carolina Legislature Online
Lancaster, South Carolina
The city of Lancaster is the county seat of Lancaster County, South Carolina, United States, located in the Charlotte Metropolitan Area. As of the United States Census of 2010, the city population was 9,134 but due to South Carolina's strict annexation laws its actual population is well over twenty thousand people; the city was named after the famous House of Lancaster. The Robert Barnwell Allison House, Craig House, Cureton House, Thomas Walker Huey House, Lancaster Cotton Oil Company, Lancaster County Courthouse, Lancaster County Jail, Lancaster Downtown Historic District, Lancaster Presbyterian Church, Mount Carmel A. M. E. Zion Campground, North Carolina-South Carolina Cornerstone, Perry-McIlwain-McDow House, Leroy Springs House, Wade-Beckham House, Waxhaw Presbyterian Church Cemetery are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Lancaster is located at 34°43′16″N 80°46′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.9 square miles, of which 5.8 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 10,160 people, 5,396 households, 3,115 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,406.2 people per square mile. There were 3,778 housing units at an average density of 649.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 49.49% African American, 47.54% White, 0.12% Native American, 0.88% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.15% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.25% of the population. There were 3,396 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.5% were married couples living together, 22.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.7% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,650, the median income for a family was $33,380. Males had a median income of $27,090 versus $22,382 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,828. About 18.0% of families and 23.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.2% of those under age 18 and 17.8% of those age 65 or over. Lancaster is home to the Lancaster County School District, SC which has around 11 elementary schools, 5 middle schools, 4 high schools. In 2008 South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford named Andrew Jackson Middle School, located in nearby Kershaw, as the recipient of the state's Best Special Education School Award; the city of Lancaster is home to the University of South Carolina at Lancaster known as USCL. Public Schools Located in Lancaster: Lancaster High School Andrew Jackson High School Andrew Jackson Middle School A.
R. Rucker Middle School Erwin Elementary School South Middle School North Elementary School McDonald Green Elementary School Brooklyn Springs Elementary School Clinton Elementary School Discovery Elementary School Southside Pre-SchoolPrivate Schools Carolina Christian AcademyUniversities: USC Lancaster Andrew Jackson, 7th President of the United States. J. Marion Sims, controversial founder of gynecology; the J. Marion Sims Foundation is located in Lancaster. Cathy Smith Bowers and professor. Julie Roberts, country music singer Aaron Robinson, was a professional Baseball Player with the Yankees and Detroit. Shawn Crawford, from nearby Van Wyck, won gold at the 2004 Summer Olympics and silver at the 2008 Summer Olympics in the 200 meters. Maurice Williams & the Zodiacs, singer Maurice Williams Tom Addison, former professional football player and team captain of the Boston Patriots 1960-1968 Sindarius Thornwell, basketball player. Jim Hodges, former Governor of South Carolina Angelica Cebanu, former singer,and beauty queen of South Carolina.
Official website Lancaster Police Department
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Laurens, South Carolina
Laurens is a city in Laurens County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 9,139 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Laurens County. Located in the Upstate region of South Carolina, the city of Laurens is named after John Laurens of Revolutionary War fame, it is part of the Greenville–Mauldin–Easley Metropolitan Statistical Area. The town of Laurens was established by an act of the General Assembly on March 15, 1785 as a location for commercial activities, it was one of the six counties created from the Old Ninety-Six District of South Carolina. Laurens was named Laurensville. On December 15, 1845, a charter was issued with the name of Laurensville; the first appearance of the town named. The town of Laurens was chartered in 1900 and in 1916; the town was named in the honor of the South Carolina statesman. The first inhabitants of Laurens were the Cherokee Indians, they used the land as their fighting ground. There has been evidence of broken potsherds, a mound found linked to Cherokee culture on land now called Laurens.
There were many treaties made with the Cherokee Indians over the land known as Laurens County dating back to 1721. Before the America Revolution thousands of immigrants from Scotland and Ireland, settled in Laurens County. Laurens developed into a major intersection of commerce in the colonial America. In the Battle of Musgrove Mill, Laurens witnessed intense fighting. In 1790, after the Revolutionary War, Laurens was elected as the county seat. Like other southern towns, cotton was the major crop being produced; the high amount of cotton production led to an economic boom and a substantial increase in the African American population. The economic boom attracted wealthy businessmen to Laurens. Andrew Johnson, 17th President of the United States, worked as a tailor in downtown Laurens from 1824 until 1826. Before the beginning of the Civil War, Laurens provided a great deal of political leaders to the state government; the state’s decision to secede from the Union was influenced by many of those political leaders.
The fighting of the Civil War never neared Laurens. But Laurens was affected by the influx of refugees that fled Charleston to avoid the progressing Union Army and Navy. Several of the refugees settled in Laurens after the Civil War. In the years after the Civil War, the economy of Laurens evolved to include industry; the recovery of Laurens' economy was dependent upon the creation of the textiles and manufacturing industry after the civil war. In 1895, Lauren Cotton Mill was founded, Watts Mill was started in 1902. Laurens Glass Company was established 1910, one of the largest glass plants in the southeast for over eighty years; the Laurens Railroad Company was chartered in 1847. The Columbia-Newberry-Laurens Railroad and the Charleston-Western Carolina Railroad are the two major intersections provided by the railroad. Laurens and Laurens County is part of the Old 96 District, which includes Abbeville County, Greenwood County, McCormick County, Edgefield County; the textile and glass industries were at one point a major source of employment.
Although many of the textile plants and the glass production facilities have closed over the last 30 years, a variety of industries exist within the county, including corporations like CeramTec, International Paper, Milliken & Co. and others. Walmart operates a distribution center outside of the city near Interstate 385, which serves as a major employer; the area has seen several recent economic retail developments, is seeing new capital investment in heavy industry, including a major new transmission production facility for German ZF Group. The unemployment rate, as of February 2012, sat at 9.6%. Laurens was the town chosen for a makeover in the second season of Town Haul. Laurens is home to Gary Davis and Pink Anderson, acoustic blues musicians who were born in the city, as well as Redtop Davis, lightweight boxer of the 1940s and 1950s. J. T. Taylor, the lead singer of the funk/R&B band Kool & The Gang, grew up in Laurens; the Courthouse Square consists of four acres, purchased in 1792 for two guineas, around $21,000.
The Laurens County Courthouse is placed in the center of the square. The current courthouse is the third courthouse; the first courthouse was constructed of wood. It was used as a church and courthouse; the second courthouse was made of brick. Dr. John Wells Simpson built the third courthouse in 1838; the courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Laurens' church district has two historic churches. Bethel AME Church is one of the historic churches in the district. Columbus White, a former slave and builder, designed the church in 1910, but the first church structure was built in 1868. In 1877, Saint Paul First Baptist, which neighbors Bethel AME Church, was established. Columbus White built Saint Paul First Baptist in 1912; the church is styled in Gothic Revival. The church served as the county’s first African American public school until 1937; the Church of the Epiphany is Lauren’s oldest church building still operating. The church was constructed in 1846; the First United Methodist Church represents Romanesque Revival architecture.
The church was built in 1897. In 1834, the First Baptist Church was built; the name of the original church was Laurensville Baptist Church. In 1850, the first sanctuary was built. In 1893, the second church was constructed; the present sanctuary was built in 1958. The First Presbyterian Church was organized on April 1, 1832, but the present church structure was built in 1891; the first preacher of the church was Samuel B. Lewers, he served
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Greenwood, South Carolina
Greenwood is a city in and the county seat of Greenwood County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 23,222 at the 2010 census; the city is home to Lander University. Greenwood is located northwest of the center of Greenwood County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.3 square miles, of which 16.2 square miles are land and 0.1 square miles, or 0.72%, are water. U. S. Routes 25, 178 and 221 pass through the eastern side of the city. US 25 leads north 51 miles to Greenville and south 63 miles to Augusta, Georgia, US 178 leads northwest 42 miles to Anderson and southeast 29 miles to Saluda, US 221 leads northeast 26 miles to Laurens and southwest 23 miles to McCormick. Lake Greenwood, a reservoir on the Saluda River, is 8 miles northeast of the city at its nearest point; the lake has 212 miles of shoreline, covers 11,000 acres, is 20 miles long. Lake Greenwood State Park, built in the 1930s by the Civilian Conservation Corps, is 14 miles east of the city on the south shore of Lake Greenwood and includes two boat ramps, a campground and playgrounds, many picnic areas.
The area around Greenwood is locally billed as the "Lakelands", due to several lakes for recreational fishing and diverse terrain for hiking trails. As of the census 2000, there were 22,071 people, 8,496 households, 5,174 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,612.1 people per square mile. There were 9,373 housing units at an average density of 684.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 50.10% White, 45.51% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 2.41% from other races, 0.85% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.52% of the population. There were 8,496 households out of which 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.5% were married couples living together, 21.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.1% were non-families. 32.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.05.
In the city, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 15.2% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 17.6% from 45 to 64, 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,284, the median income for a family was $32,573. Males had a median income of $26,477 versus $21,476 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,347. About 22.2% of families and 40.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.4% of those under age 18 and 18.0% of those age 65 or over. Greenwood County experienced the sharpest economic decline in 2007, according to the poverty rates, of any county in the United States. One of the contributing factors to this decline was the de-industrialization of the textile mills which were supporting the economy of Greenwood. According to the Greenwood School District, the workforce in the city was reduced 47%, which impacted programs and supports.
Median household income plunged by 28 percent over the same period. Following nearly 5 years of public and private investment totaling over $20 million, Uptown Greenwood is ripe with new businesses, retail shops, locally owned restaurants. Uptown offers a rich history, appealing architecture, beautiful landscape, progressive business climate, high traffic count. Numerous award winning festivals and outdoor events are held throughout the year that attract large crowds. Households in Greenwood, SC have a median annual income of $24,593, less than the median annual income in the United States; the most common employment sectors for those who live in Greenwood, SC, are Manufacturing, Retail trade, Healthcare & Social Assistance. In 2015, the Greenwood, SC institution with the largest number of graduating students was Lander University with 494 graduates. In 2015, the median property value in Greenwood, SC grew to $87,800 from the previous year's value of $86,800.67.4% of the city population over 16 is in the civilian labor force.
Unemployment rate in Greenwood County, SC was 4.0% as of Sept 2017. Greenwood's first South Carolina Festival of Flowers was held in the summer of 1968 to coincide with the 100th anniversary celebration of George W. Park Seed Company; the festival was the brainchild of what was known as the Tourist and Conventions Committee of the Greenwood Chamber of Commerce. Chamber Director Al Parker and committee members recognized that Park Seed Company hosted "grower days" each year and that hundreds of professional flower growers would come to Greenwood to meander through Park Seed's famous trial gardens; the committee thought it would be a good idea to capitalize on having those visitors see other venues in Greenwood. Dick Stowe, chair of the Tourist and Conventions Committee, served as the first Festival Chairman, Judy Funderburk of Bennettsville was crowned Princess of Flowers. During the festival's early years, admission was free to most events, including the Park Seed gardens and open house and craft show, photo exhibit, military band concerts and other popular attractions.
Since the festival has grown to include a wide array of activities, many added under the leadership of Frank Cuda, Festival Director from 1992 to 2006. In 2007, the festival celebrated its 40th anniversary and welcomed Kay Self as the new Executive Dire