Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong
The Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong is the member institution of the Vocational Training Council which provides vocationally-oriented bachelor's degree programmes for HKDSE candidates. Programmes offered by the faculties of Design and Hospitality, Science and Technology feature a fine balance of theory and general education with a focus on real-life projects and industrial attachments to develop competent professionals for the industry. THEi began to offer career-oriented bachelor's degree programmes in 2012. Bachelor of Arts in Culinary Arts and Management Bachelor of Arts in Hotel Operations Management Bachelor of Arts in Professional Accounting Bachelor of Arts in Public Relations and Management Bachelor of Social Sciences in Sports and Recreation Management Bachelor of Arts in Advertising Bachelor of Arts in Fashion Design Bachelor of Arts in Horticulture and Landscape Management Bachelor of Arts in Landscape Architecture Bachelor of Arts in Product Design Bachelor of Landscape Architecture Professional Diploma in Horticulture and Landscape Management Bachelor of Engineering in Building Services Engineering Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Engineering Bachelor of Engineering in Environmental Engineering and Management Bachelor of Engineering in Food Science and Safety Bachelor of Engineering in Health Care * Bachelor of Science in Multimedia Technology and Innovation Professional Diploma in Plumbing Engineering for Building Services Main Campus: 133 Shing Tai Road, Chai Wan Tsing Yi Campus: 20A Tsing Yi Island, New Territories Education in Hong Kong Higher education in Hong Kong www.vtc.edu.hk/html/tc/institutions/thei.html Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong Vocational Training Council Hong Kong Design Institutes
University of California, Riverside
The University of California, Riverside, is a public research university in Riverside, California. It is one of the 10 general campuses of the University of California system; the main campus sits on 1,900 acres in a suburban district of Riverside with a branch campus of 20 acres in Palm Desert. In 1907 the predecessor to UCR was founded as the UC Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside which pioneered research in biological pest control and the use of growth regulators responsible for extending the citrus growing season in California from four to nine months; some of the world's most important research collections on citrus diversity and entomology, as well as science fiction and photography, are located at Riverside. UCR's undergraduate College of Letters and Science opened in 1954; the Regents of the University of California declared UCR a general campus of the system in 1959, graduate students were admitted in 1961. To accommodate an enrollment of 21,000 students by 2015, more than $730 million has been invested in new construction projects since 1999.
Preliminary accreditation of the UC Riverside School of Medicine granted in October 2012 and the first class of 50 students was enrolled in August 2013. It is the first new research-based public medical school in 40 years. UCR is ranked as one of the most ethnically and economically diverse universities in the United States; the 2019 U. S. News & World Report Best Colleges rankings places UCR tied for 35th among top public universities and ranks 85th nationwide. Over 27 of UCR's academic programs, including the Graduate School of Education and the Bourns College of Engineering, are ranked nationally based on peer assessment, student selectivity, financial resources, other factors. Washington Monthly ranked UCR 2nd in the United States in terms of social mobility and community service, while U. S. News ranks UCR as the fifth most ethnically diverse and, by the number of undergraduates receiving Pell Grants, the 15th most economically diverse student body in the nation. Over 70% of all UCR students graduate within six years without regard to economic disparity.
UCR's extensive outreach and retention programs have contributed to its reputation as a "university of choice" for minority students. In 2005, UCR became the first public university campus in the nation to offer a gender-neutral housing option. UCR's sports teams are known as the Highlanders and play in the Big West Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, their nickname was inspired by the high altitude of the campus, which lies on the foothills of Box Springs Mountain. The UCR women's basketball team won back-to-back Big West championships in 2006 and 2007. In 2007, the men's baseball team won its first conference championship and advanced to the regionals for the second time since the university moved to Division I in 2001. At the turn of the 20th century, Southern California was a major producer of citrus, the region's primary agricultural export; the industry developed from the country's first navel orange trees, planted in Riverside in 1873. Lobbied by the citrus industry, the UC Regents established the UC Citrus Experiment Station on February 14, 1907, on 23 acres of land on the east slope of Mount Rubidoux in Riverside.
The station conducted experiments in fertilization and crop improvement. In 1917, the station was moved to 475 acres near Box Springs Mountain; the 1944 passage of the GI Bill during World War II set in motion a rise in college enrollments that necessitated an expansion of the state university system in California. A local group of citrus growers and civic leaders, including many UC Berkeley alumni, lobbied aggressively for a UC-administered liberal arts college next to the CES. State Senator Nelson Dilworth, former Assemblyman Philip L. Boyd and Riverside State Assemblyman John Babbage were instrumental in shepherding the legislation through the State Legislature. Governor Earl Warren signed the bill in 1949. Gordon S. Watkins, dean of the College of Letters and Science at UCLA, became the first provost of the new college at Riverside. Conceived of as a small college devoted to the liberal arts, he ordered the campus built for a maximum of 1,500 students and recruited many young junior faculty to fill teaching positions.
He presided at its opening with 65 faculty and 127 students on February 14, 1954, remarking, "Never have so few been taught by so many."UCR's enrollment exceeded 1,000 students by the time Clark Kerr became president of the UC system in 1958. Anticipating a "tidal wave" in enrollment growth required by the baby boom generation, Kerr developed the California Master Plan for Higher Education and the Regents designated Riverside a general university campus in 1959. UCR's first chancellor, Herman Theodore Spieth, oversaw the beginnings of the school's transition to a full university and its expansion to a capacity of 5,000 students. UCR's second chancellor, Ivan Hinderaker led the campus through the era of the free speech movement and kept student protests peaceful in Riverside. According to a 1998 interview with Hinderaker, the city of Riverside received negative press coverage for smog after the mayor asked Governor Ronald Reagan to declare the South Coast Air Basin a disaster area in 1971. Hinderaker's development of innovative programs in business administration and biomedical sciences created incentive for enough students to enroll at Riverside to keep the campus open.
In the 1990s, the UC experienced a new surge of enrollment applications, now known as "Tidal Wave II". The Regents targeted UCR for an annual growth rate of 6.3%, the fastest in th
McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Canada. It was established in 1821 by royal charter, granted by King George IV; the university bears the name of James McGill, a Montreal merchant from Scotland whose bequest in 1813 formed the university's precursor, McGill College. McGill's main campus is at Mount Royal in downtown Montreal, with the second campus situated in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue on the Montreal Island, 30 kilometres west of the main campus; the university is one of two universities outside the United States who are members of the Association of American Universities and it is the only Canadian member of the Global University Leaders Forum within the World Economic Forum. McGill offers degrees and diplomas in over 300 fields of study, with the highest average admission requirements of any Canadian university. Most students are enrolled in the five largest faculties, namely Arts, Medicine and Management. McGill counts among its alumni 12 Nobel laureates and 145 Rhodes Scholars, both the most of any university in Canada, as well as five astronauts, the incumbent prime minister and two former prime ministers of Canada, the incumbent Governor General of Canada, 14 justices of the Canadian Supreme Court, at least eight foreign leaders, 28 foreign ambassadors, over eight dozen members of the Canadian Parliament, United States Congress, British Parliament, other national legislatures, several billionaires, nine Academy Award winners, 11 Grammy Award winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners, two Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients, at least 16 Emmy Award winners, 28 Olympic medalists, all of varying nationalities.
McGill alumni were instrumental in inventing or organizing football and ice hockey. McGill University or its alumni founded several major universities and colleges, including the Universities of British Columbia and Alberta, the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Dawson College; the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning was created in 1801 under an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, An Act for the establishment of Free Schools and the Advancement of Learning in this Province. In 1816 the RIAL was authorized to operate two new Royal Grammar Schools, in Quebec City and in Montreal; this was a turning point for public education in Lower Canada as the schools were created by legislation, the District Public Schools Act of 1807, which showed the government's willingness to support the costs of education and the salary of a schoolmaster. This was an important first step in the creation of nondenominational schools; when James McGill died in 1813 his bequest was administered by the RIAL.
Of the original two Royal Grammar Schools, in 1846 one closed and the other merged with the High School of Montreal. By the mid-19th century the RIAL had lost control of the other eighty-two grammar schools it had administered. However, in 1853 it took over the High School of Montreal from the school's board of directors and continued to operate it until 1870. Thereafter, its sole remaining purpose was to administer the McGill bequest on behalf of the private college; the RIAL continues to exist today. Since the revised Royal Charter of 1852, The Trustees of the RIAL comprise the Board of Governors of McGill University. James McGill, born in Glasgow, Scotland on 6 October 1744, was a successful merchant in Quebec, having matriculated into the University of Glasgow in 1756. Soon afterwards, McGill left for North America to explore the business opportunities there. Between 1811 and 1813, he drew up a will leaving his "Burnside estate", a 19-hectare tract of rural land and 10,000 pounds to the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning.
On McGill's death in December 1813, the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, established in 1801 by an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, added the establishing of a University pursuant to the conditions of McGill's will to its original function of administering elementary education in Lower Canada. As a condition of the bequest, the land and funds had to be used for the establishment of a "University or College, for the purposes of Education and the Advancement of Learning in the said Province." The will specified a private, constituent college bearing his name would have to be established within 10 years of his death. On March 31, 1821, after protracted legal battles with the Desrivières family, McGill College received a royal charter from King George IV; the Charter provided the College should be deemed and taken as a University, with the power of conferring degrees. Although McGill College received its Royal Charter in 1821, it was inactive until 1829 when the Montreal Medical Institution, founded in 1823, became the college's first academic unit and Canada's first medical school.
The Faculty of Medicine granted its first degree, a Doctorate of Medicine and Surgery, in 1833. The Faculty of Medicine remained the school's only functioning faculty until 1843, when the Faculty of Arts commenced teaching in the newly constructed Arts Building and East Wing; the university historically has strong links with the Canadian Grenadier Guards, a military regiment in which James McGill served as Lieutenant-Colonel. This title is m
Pennsylvania State University
The Pennsylvania State University is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania. Founded in 1855 as the Farmers’ High School of Pennsylvania, known as the University of State College, Penn State conducts teaching and public service, its instructional mission includes undergraduate, graduate and continuing education offered through resident instruction and online delivery. Its University Park campus, the flagship campus, lies within the Borough of State College and College Township, it has two law schools: Penn State Law, on the school's University Park campus, Dickinson Law, located in Carlisle, 90 miles south of State College. The College of Medicine is located in Hershey. Penn State has another 19 commonwealth campuses and 5 special mission campuses located across the state. Penn State has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies," a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
Annual enrollment at the University Park campus totals more than 46,800 graduate and undergraduate students, making it one of the largest universities in the United States. It has the world's largest dues-paying alumni association; the university's total enrollment in 2015–16 was 97,500 across its 24 campuses and online through its World Campus. The university offers more than 160 majors among all its campuses and administers $3.62 billion in endowment and similar funds. The university's research expenditures totaled $836 million during the 2016 fiscal year. Annually, the university hosts the Penn State IFC/Panhellenic Dance Marathon, the world's largest student-run philanthropy; this event is held at the Bryce Jordan Center on the University Park campus. In 2014, THON raised a program record of $13.3 million. The university's athletics teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Penn State Nittany Lions, they compete in the Big Ten Conference for most sports. The school was founded as a degree-granting institution on February 22, 1855, by Pennsylvania's state legislature as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania.
Centre County, became the home of the new school when James Irvin of Bellefonte, donated 200 acres of land – the first of 10,101 acres the school would acquire. In 1862, the school's name was changed to the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, with the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, Pennsylvania selected the school in 1863 to be the state's sole land-grant college; the school's name changed to the Pennsylvania State College in 1874. George W. Atherton became president of the school in 1882, broadened the curriculum. Shortly after he introduced engineering studies, Penn State became one of the ten largest engineering schools in the nation. Atherton expanded the liberal arts and agriculture programs, for which the school began receiving regular appropriations from the state in 1887. A major road in State College has been named in Atherton's honor. Additionally, Penn State's Atherton Hall, a well-furnished and centrally located residence hall, is named not after George Atherton himself, but after his wife, Frances Washburn Atherton.
His grave is in front of Schwab Auditorium near Old Main, marked by an engraved marble block in front of his statue. In the years that followed, Penn State grew becoming the state's largest grantor of baccalaureate degrees and reaching an enrollment of 5,000 in 1936. Around that time, a system of commonwealth campuses was started by President Ralph Dorn Hetzel to provide an alternative for Depression-era students who were economically unable to leave home to attend college. In 1953, President Milton S. Eisenhower, brother of then-U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and won permission to elevate the school to university status as The Pennsylvania State University. Under his successor Eric A. Walker, the university acquired hundreds of acres of surrounding land, enrollment nearly tripled. In addition, in 1967, the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, a college of medicine and hospital, was established in Hershey with a $50 million gift from the Hershey Trust Company. In the 1970s, the university became a state-related institution.
As such, it now belongs to the Commonwealth System of Higher Education. In 1975, the lyrics in Penn State's alma mater song were revised to be gender-neutral in honor of International Women's Year. In 1989, the Pennsylvania College of Technology in Williamsport joined ranks with the university, in 2000, so did the Dickinson School of Law; the university is now the largest in Pennsylvania, in 2003, it was credited with having the second-largest impact on the state economy of any organization, generating an economic effect of over $17 billion on a budget of $2.5 billion. To offset the lack of funding due to the limited growth in state appropriations to Penn State, the university has concentrated its efforts on philanthropy. In 2011, the university and its football team garnered major international media attention and criticism due to a sex abuse scandal in which university officials were alleged to have covered up incidents of child sexual abuse by former football team
Tianhe District is one of the eleven districts of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province. In Chinese, the name Tianhe means "a river in the sky/heavens", a Chinese name for the Milky Way, it is bordered by Yuexiu District on the west, Baiyun District on the north and Huangpu District on the east. Haizhu District is on its south. Tianhe became a district in the 1980s. Back it was east of Dongshan District and it was more suburban like if not rural like. Though a majority of colleges and universities in the city were located in the district, the rest of the district was composed of rice fields. Symbolic landmarks of Guangzhou located in Tianhe District are: Citic Plaza, Guangzhou International Finance Center, Guangzhou Opera House, the Guangdong Museum; the 6th and 9th of The National Games of the People's Republic of China, the 2010 Asian Games were held in Tianhe District, Guangzhou. Prehistoric population settled in. Eastern Han tombs were discovered in Tianhe. During the Song Dynasty, Tianhe area was called Dashuixu.
The area of modern Tianhe District was part of Panyu County for more than two thousand years. The area was put under Guangzhou's administration between 1937 and 1958. By the liberation of Guangzhou, there were two districts in Tianhe area, namely Shipai. In 1951 both districts were merged into the newly established Baiyun District, while five years Baiyun was further merged with Huangpu and Xinjiao Districts to form suburban district. In 1960 Jiaoqu was dissolved and the area consisting of modern Tianhe became Huangpu District, however it was reestablished two years later. In 1985 part of Jiaoqu was split, Tianhe District was established then. In 1987 Tonghe Town was put into Baiyun District. In 1992 Yangji Cun was put into Dongshan District. By 1994, Kemulang and Fenghuang Farms along with Shadongcun and Erduicun were placed under Tianhe's jurisdiction. In 2000, former Xintang, Mubei and Yushu Farms were placed under Tianhe and the farms became subdistricts; the first big project built in the district during the 1980s was the Tianhe Sports Center when the city was selected to host the Sixth National Games in 1986.
The complex includes a stadium of a gymnasium and an indoor swimming pool. Its construction had a lasting impact on the development of the district. Soon other projects followed and rice fields gave away to residential complexes called "xiaoqu"; the construction of xiaoqu began in the mid and late eighties and most of them had residential buildings of no more than 10 stories. Each floor was kept to no more than four units due to the lack of elevators since they would increase the construction cost. Due to the sheer number of residential buildings – some xiaoqu had more than 20 residential buildings – a lot of land was needed and thus converted; the building of Guangzhou East Railway Station in 1990 further contributed to the growth of the district. The old Guangzhou Railway Station is 10 km to the west and was the terminus for trains to and from Beijing and Hong Kong. To relieve the traffic, the East Railroad Station was built and is now the terminus for trains to and from Hong Kong and Shenzhen.
As the district developed, the size of xiaoqu became smaller since land became more valuable and expensive. Most of the new xiaoqu now only consist of four to six residential buildings but each can contain 30 floors or more since the growth of district attracted big developers where the cost of construction was no longer an issue. Taller residential buildings gave rise to taller office buildings. South of the Sports Center and north of the Zhujiang River is Zhujiang New Town, an area desolate a decade ago but, now one of the fastest-developing areas of Guangzhou. Many of Guangzhou's newest and most iconic buildings are found in this part of the district. Several venues used for the 2010 Asian Games are located in Tianhe District. Guangzhou Science City Kung Fu restaurants has its headquarters in the district Jinyi Cinemas has its headquarters in the district Chow Sang Sang's Mainland division, Chow Sang Sang Company Limited Google has its Guangzhou office in Teemtower of Teem Plaza. All Nippon Airways operates its Guangzhou Office in the district.
Since May 3, 2011 it has been located in Tower A of Victory Plaza. On May 2, 2011 and prior, it was located in the 2605 CITIC Plaza. Renren.com has its Guangzhou office in China Shine Plaza. 56.com was headquartered in Huajingyuan in Tianhe Software Park. The Consulate General of the United States, Guangzhou is in Tianhe District. Many of the city's colleges and universities are located in the district, they include: Guangzhou Sport University PLA Institute of Physical Education, Guangzhou Jinan University Guangdong University of Technology South China Agricultural University South China University of Technology South China Normal UniversityInternational schools in the district include: Japanese School of Guangzhou Huamei-Bond International College Guangzhou Nanfang International SchoolFormer international schools: American International School of Guangzhou in The Greenery École Française Internationale de Canton in Favorview Besides the Guangzhou East Railway Station, Tianhe is the terminus for several Guangzhou Metro lines, one line goes through it: Ti
Guangzhou known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities. Guangzhou is at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China that extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on the planet. Administratively, the city holds sub-provincial status and is one of China's nine National Central Cities. In 2018 year end, the city's expansive administrative area is estimated at 14,904,400 by city authorities, up 3.8% year on year. Guangzhou is ranked as an Alpha global city. There is a increasing number of foreign temporary residents and immigrants from Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Africa.
This has led to it being dubbed the "Capital of the Third World". The domestic migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40% of the city's total population in 2008. Together with Shanghai and Shenzhen, Guangzhou has one of the most expensive real estate markets in China. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, nationals of sub-Saharan Africa who had settled in the Middle East and other parts of Southeast Asia moved in unprecedented numbers to Guangzhou, China in response to the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis. Long the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, Guangzhou fell to the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major entrepôt. In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, the oldest and largest trade fair in China. For three consecutive years, Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city in mainland China.
Guǎngzhōu is the pinyin romanisation of the Chinese name 廣州, simplified in mainland China to 广州 in the 1950s. The name of the city is taken from the ancient Guang Province, after it had become the prefecture's seat of government, how some other Chinese cities, including Hangzhou and Fuzhou got their names; the character 廣 or 广—which appears in the names of the provinces Guangdong and Guangxi, together called the Liangguang—means "broad" or "expansive" and refers to the intention to dispense imperial grace broadly in the region with the founding of county of Guangxin in Han Dynasty. Before acquiring its current name, the town was known as Panyu, a name still borne by one of Guangzhou's districts not far from the main city; the origin of the name is still uncertain, with 11 various explanations being offered, including that it may have referred to two local mountains. The city has sometimes been known as Guangzhou Fu or Guangfu after its status as the capital of a prefecture. From this latter name, Guangzhou was known to medieval Persians such as Al-Masudi and Ibn Khordadbeh as Khanfu.
Under the Southern Han, the city was renamed Xingwang. The Chinese abbreviation for Guangzhou is "穗", after its nickname "Rice City"; the city has long borne the nickname City of Rams or City of the Five Rams from the five stones at the old Temple of the Five Immortals said to have been the sheep or goats ridden by the Taoist culture heroes credited with introducing rice cultivation to the area around the time of the city's foundation. The former name "City of the Immortals" came from the same story; the more recent City of Flowers is taken as a simple reference to the area's fine greenery. The English name "Canton" derived from Portuguese Cantão or Cidade de Cantão, a muddling of dialectical pronunciations of "Guangdong". Although it and chiefly applied to the walled city, it was conflated with Guangdong by some authors, it was adopted as the Postal Map Romanization of Guangzhou and remained in common use until the gradual adoption of pinyin. As an adjective, it is still used in describing the people, language and culture of Guangzhou and the surrounding Liangguang region.
The 19th-century name "Kwang-chow foo" derived from Nanjing dialect of Mandarin and the town's status as a prefectural capital. A settlement now known as Nanwucheng was present in the area by 1100 BC; some traditional Chinese histories placed Nanwucheng's founding during the reign of Ji Yan, king of Zhou from 314–256 BC. It was said to have consisted of little more than a stockade of mud. Panyu was established on the east bank of the Pearl River in 214 BC to serve as a base for the Qin Empire's first failed invasion of the Baiyue lands in southern China. Legendary accounts claimed the soldiers at Panyu were so vigilant that they did not remove their armor for three years. Upon the fall of the Qin, General Zhao Tuo established his own kingdom of Nanyue and made Panyu its capital in 204 BC, it remained independent through the Chu-Han Contention, although Zhao negotiated recognition of his independence in exchange for his nominal submission to the Han in 196 BC. Archaeological evidence shows that Panyu was an expansive commercial centre: in addition to items from central China, archaeologists have found remains originating from Southeast Asia and Africa.
Zhao Tuo was succeeded by Zhao Mo and Zhao Yingqi. Upon Zhao Yingqi's death in
The Guangzhou Metro is the rapid transit system of the city of Guangzhou in Guangdong Province of China. It is operated by the state-owned Guangzhou Metro Corporation and was the fourth metro system to be built in mainland China, after those of Beijing and Shanghai; the earliest efforts to build an underground rapid transit system in Guangzhou date back to 1960. In the two decades that followed, the project was brought into the agenda five times, but ended up abandoned each time due to financial and technical difficulties. Preparation of what would lead to today's Guangzhou Metro did not start until the 1980s, it was not until 1993 that construction of the first line, Line 1 began. Line 1 opened four years in 1997 with five stations in operation; as of December 2017 Guangzhou Metro has 13 lines in operation, namely Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 5, Line 6, Line 7, Line 8, Line 9, Line 13, Line 14, Line 21, Guangfo Line, Zhujiang New Town APM reaching both the urban core and surrounding suburbs.
Guangfo Line connects Guangzhou and Foshan and is the first metro line between two cities in the country. Daily service hours start at 6:00 am and end at midnight, daily ridership averages over 7 million. Having delivered 2.568 billion rides in 2016 is the fourth busiest metro system in the world, after the metro systems of Beijing and Seoul. Guangzhou Metro operates 257 stations, including 32 interchange stations, 476.26 km of lines. Extensive development of the metro network has been planned for the decade of 2011–2020. With construction started on Line 10, Line 11, Line 12, Line 18, Line 21, Line 22 and extensions of Line 3, Line 5, Line 8, Line 13, Line 14 and Guangfo Line and an extension of Line 7 into Shunde, Foshan. Total operational capacity is scheduled to exceed 600 km by 2020; the Guangzhou Metro is constructing connections to neighboring cities. Foshan is connected via the Guangfo Metro with connections via Line 7 and Foshan Metro Line 2 under construction. Dongguan city is proposing connections with the Dongguan Metro.
Neighboring Huizhou city proposed in 2016 that Guangzhou Metro Line 16 be extended into Longmen County, achieving the integration of Huizhou and Guangzhou. In January 2018, Huizhou's mayor Mai Jiaomeng revealed that Huizhou was studying two connections with the Guangzhou Metro with Line 16 heading to Yonghan Town, Longmen County and Line 21 extended to Mount Luofu in Boluo County. In 2018, Guangzhou and neighboring Zhongshan city are studying the feasibility of extending Line 18 into Zhongshan. Chen Yu, Governor of Guangdong in 1957–1967, was the first to have proposed an underground metro system for Guangzhou. In the summer of 1960, he ordered a secret geological survey of groundwater levels of Guangzhou. Six holes with an accumulated depth of 1980 m were drilled in the plateaus and alluvial plains in the city; the geological conditions of Guangzhou, despite their complexity, did not preclude the possibility of an underground metro system. Analysis of the survey data resulted in a confidential report titled Geological Survey for Guangzhou Underground Railway Project dated July 1961, the earliest one of such reports.
In 1965, Chen Yu along with Tao Zhu, the Governor of Guangdong and First Secretary of Guangdong Committee of the Communist Party of China, proposed in the wake of the Gulf of Tonkin incident that a tunnel be built in Guangzhou for wartime evacuations and post-war metro development. Approved by the central government, the project started in the spring of 1965. Due to its confidentiality in the context of intensification of the Vietnam War, the project adopted the obscure name of "Project Nine", where "Nine" was the number of strokes in "地下", the Chinese word for "underground"; as envisaged by Chen Yu, the metro system of Guangzhou would consist of two lines: a north-south line that would connect Nanfang Building to Sanyuanli via Renmin Lu and Jiefang Beilu, an east-west line that would run from Xichang to Dongshan along today's Dongfeng Lu. The two lines parallelled Line 2 and Line 1 of the modern days, respectively; the east-west line was never built. Over ten teams of miners were recruited for a project filled with perils.
Constrained by extreme scarcity of time and material resources, the ambition to build a tunnel for metro operation was scaled back—capability to run trolleybuses was deemed acceptable. At a cost of ¥13 million, an 8 km long tunnel was completed in 1966; the tunnel was ready for use as an air-raid shelter. In the two decades that followed, four attempts were made to revive and expand Project Nine, first in 1970, next in 1971 in 1974, last in 1979. None of these efforts materialized; the metro project of Guangzhou was launched for the sixth time in 1984 as the Preparation Office of Guangzhou Metro, established back in 1979 as part of the last attempt to resurrect Project Nine, was moved out of the civil air defence system and became a subordinate body of the Construction Commission of Guangzhou, bringing Guangzhou Metro into the scope of urban infrastructure development. Prior to the 1980s, war preparedness was the dominant tenet of underground infrastructure projects in mainland China; the construction of Guangzhou Metro marked the first deviation from the old doctrine as traffic itself became the prim