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South China Morning Post

The South China Morning Post, with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is a Hong Kong English-language newspaper founded in 1903. It is Hong Kong's newspaper of record, owned by Alibaba Group; the journal was founded by Australian-born anti-Qing dynasty revolutionary Tse Tsan-tai and British journalist Alfred Cunningham, with the first edition of the paper published on 6 November 1903. The journal's circulation has been stable for years—the average daily circulation stood at 100,000 in 2016, it was owned by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation until it was acquired by Malaysian real estate tycoon Robert Kuok in 1993. On 5 April 2016, Alibaba Group acquired the media properties of the SCMP Group, including the South China Morning Post. In January 2017, Gary Liu joined SCMP as chief executive officer. South China Morning Post Ltd was founded by Tse Tsan-tai and Alfred Cunningham in 1903; the first edition of the paper was published on 6 November 1903. From its founding, during the Qing dynasty until 1913, one year after the establishment of the Republic of China, it was known, in Chinese, as 《南清早報》.

In 1913, its Chinese name was changed to 《南華早報》 following the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 which overthrew imperial rule in China and has remained as such since then. The Chinese name of Sunday Morning Post is 《星期日南華早報》. In November 1971, it was listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, it was taken back into private ownership by News Corporation, owned by Rupert Murdoch, in 1987, but relisted in 1990. Malaysian tycoon Robert Kuok's Kerry Media bought the controlling interest – a 34.9 per cent stake – from News Corp in October 1993 for US$375 million. His son, Kuok Khoon Ean, took over as chairman at the end of 1997. Kuok Khoon Ean's sister, Kuok Hui Kwong, was named chief executive officer on 1 January 2009. Kuok launched a general offer for the remaining shares in September 2007, increased his stake to 74 per cent at a total cost of HK$1.63 billion. It was delisted in 2013 when the shares' free float fell below the required 25%. On 11 December 2015, it was announced that Alibaba Group would acquire the media assets of the SCMP Group, including the South China Morning Post.

The consideration is reported to be HK$2.06 billion. The consideration – similar to the amount Jeff Bezos paid for the Washington Post – represents 10 times earnings before interest, taxes and amortization, compared to 17 times for the Washington Post. On 5 April 2016 Alibaba Group completed the acquisition and SCMP announced it had taken down the paywall of its online version. Readers are able to have free access to all content on SCMP mobile apps. According to a 2016 public survey conducted by the Centre for Communication and Public Opinion Survey at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, the Post received a credibility rating of 6.54, the highest credibility score among the various paid newspapers in Hong Kong. The paper's average audited circulation for the first half of 2007 stood at 106,054. In 2012, the readership of the SCMP and the Sunday Morning Post was estimated at 396,000, its readership outside Hong Kong remains at some 6,825 copies for the same period, again unchanged. It had the position as the most profitable newspaper in the world on a per reader basis, profit declined since peaking in 1997 at HK$805 million.

Its average audited circulation for the first half of 2015 stood at 101,652 copies, with the print edition representing 75 percent of the number of copies. The Group reported net profit of HK$338 million for the year 2006, the operating profit of HK$419m was attributable to the newspaper operation; the selling price of the paper is HK$9 each from Monday to Saturday, HK$10 for the Sunday Morning Post. A discounted student subscription is available, it was increased 14.5% and 25% in August 2011. As of 26 August 2010, SCMP Group posted a profit of $52.3 million in the first half of 2010. The printed version of the Post is in a broadsheet format, in sections: Main, Sport, Classifieds, Racing, Education, Style magazine. On 26 March 2007, the Post was given a facelift, with new presentation and fonts. Another redesign in 2011 changed the typefaces to Farnham and Amplitude for headlines, Utopia for text, Freight for headers. SCMP.com had started out as a subscription-only service, which allows the retrieval of archive articles dating back from 1993.

It was launched online in December 1996. On 30 May 2007, SCMP.com relaunched with a new look and multimedia content. Headlines and the introduction to stories are now free to view, while the full articles are available to subscribers. Archive photos and articles are available for purchase. On 16 July 2007, SCMP.com launched its first-ever viral video marketing campaign targeting a global audience and highlighting the new multimedia features of the website. At present, the SCMP provides free subscription to "The South China Morning Post iPad edition" for the Apple iPad. SCMP.com

√Čtienne Charles de Lom√©nie de Brienne

Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne was a French churchman and finance minister of Louis XVI. He was born in Paris, of a Limousin family traceable back to the 15th century. After a brilliant career as a student, he entered the Church, this being the best way to attain a distinguished position. In 1751 he became a doctor of theology. In 1752 he was appointed grand vicar to the Archbishop of Rouen. After visiting Rome, he was made Bishop of Condom, in 1763 was translated to the archbishopric of Toulouse, his many famous friends included A. R. J. Turgot, André Morellet and Voltaire, in 1770 he was elected to the Académie française, he was three times head of the bureau de jurisdiction at the general assembly of the clergy. He took an interest in political and social questions of the day, addressed to Turgot a number of memoires on these subjects, one of them, treating of pauperism, being remarkable. In 1787, in the Assembly of Notables, he led the opposition to the fiscal policy of Calonne, he was appointed head of the conseil des finances in April.

Once in power, he succeeded in making the parlement register edicts dealing with internal free trade, the establishment of provincial assemblies and the redemption of the corvée. In May 1788 the process of tax collection was faulting and the loyalty of the army was slipping; as a result, Louis XVI created 47 courts. When the parlement refused to register edicts on the stamp duty and the proposed new general land-tax, he persuaded Louis XVI to hold a lit de justice, to enforce their registration. To crush the opposition to these measures, he persuaded Louis to exile the parlement to Troyes; when the parlement agreed to prolong the direct tax on all kinds of income, he recalled the councillors to Paris. A further attempt to force the parlement to register an edict for raising a loan of 120 million livres met with determined opposition; the struggle of the parlement against the incapacity of Brienne ended on 8 May in its consenting to an edict for its own abolition, with the proviso that the Estates-General should be summoned to remedy the disorders of the state.

He resigned as finance minister on 25 August 1788. Brienne, who had in the meantime been made Archbishop of Sens, now faced universal opposition, he was forced to suspend the Cour plenière, set up to take the place of the parlement, to promise that the States-General should be summoned. These concessions were not enough to keep him in power, on 29 August he had to retire, leaving the treasury empty. On 15 December following, he was made a cardinal, went to Italy, where he spent two years. After the outbreak of the French Revolution he returned to France, took the oath of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in 1790, he was repudiated by Pope Pius VI, in 1791 had to give up the biretta. He was one of the few prelates of the old regime to swear the civic oath required by the revolutionary civil constitution, he retired to an abbey confiscated in the Revolution. He repudiated Catholicism in 1793, at the height of the French Revolution. Both his past and present conduct made him an object of suspicion to the revolutionaries.

The chief works published by Brienne are: Oraison funébre du Dauphin Compte-rendu au roi Le Conciliateur, in collaboration with Turgot kubectl Celery This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Loménie de Brienne, Étienne Charles de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 936. Hardman, John. Overture to Revolution: The 1787 Assembly of French Notables. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Perrin, Joseph. Le cardinal de Loménie de Brienne, archevèque de Sens: ses dernières années. Episodes de la révolution. Sens: Impr. de P. Duchemin. Schama, Simon. Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Vintage. ISBN 0-679-72610-1

Sandra Sdraulig

Sandra Sdraulig is an executive coach and owner of Through the Roof offering executive coaching tailored for women. She is the chairman of the Adelaide Film Festival, chair of the Adelaide Festival of Ideas, a board member of both the Adelaide Festival of the Arts and the South Australian Art Gallery, a former creative and executive director of the Melbourne International Film Festival, a former chief executive of Film Victoria. In 2012, she was awarded an Order of Australia for leadership in film and TV. Sandra Sdraulig is the daughter of Irene Trusgnach, she was born in Melbourne on 13 November 1963. After studies at Toorak College and Monash University she earned a Bachelor of Arts, with a major in Film Studies, a Bachelor of Law, she has been admitted to practice in the Supreme Court of Victoria. Sdraulig was the distribution manager for the Australian Film Institute from 1988 to 1992, she was the film distribution & marketing manager for Palace Entertainment from 1992 to 1996. Sdraulig was the creative and executive director of the Melbourne International Film Festival from 1996 to 2000.

During Sdraulig's term as the Director of Melbourne International Film Festival the Festival experienced a "staggering phase of expansion. Admissions soared from 55,000 in 1997 to 140,000 in 2000, box office earnings jumped 167%, total cash in kind sponsorship syrocketed 333%" as reported on How the Golden Fest was Won by Lawrie Zion in The Weekend Australian, 17–18 July 2004, she directed the 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 Festivals. She became CEO of Film Victoria in 2002 and held that position until 2011. Sdraulig was a board member with the Art Gallery of South Australia from 2008 to 2014. From 2011 to 2013, Sdraulig was the host and interviewer of radio show, Friday On My Mind, a program of Australian Film and Radio School; the weekly program was held at the Australian Centre for the Moving Image, Federation Square, where practitioners across film, new media, the performing arts discussed their work and ideas. She has been chair of the Adelaide Festival of Ideas since 2012, she is an executive coach with Through the Roof.

Sdraulig was appointed chairman of the Adelaide Film Festival in 2015. During Sdraulig's time at Film Victoria, Victoria secured unprecedented levels of production. Sydney based companies and projects controversially moved to Melbourne with producers claiming that they were spurred by Victorian government funding and infrastructure which got behind its producers; the feature film The Tender Hook described as an iconic Sydney period drama, based on some of Sydney's more colourful identities, was shot in Melbourne. Key Sydney based producers and businesses started relocating to Melbourne. Crews and facilities were stretched to a limit with some productions relying on interstate crews to meet demand; the boom was the result of Film Victoria's aggressive marketing of Melbourne as a film destination as well as extensive development work of local projects. Despite the fact that, during her leadership of Film Victoria, annual film production in that state increased from $90 million to over $260 million, the eight-year tenure ended in controversy when it was revealed that her send-off party, organised by the Board cost $45,000.

$30,000 went on food and wine, over $10,000 on a surprise "Tribute DVD" by the industry for Ms Sdraulig. Sdraulig was not involved in the organisation of her farewell nor has that been claimed. Producer Robert Galinsky wrote that after having brought "millions of dollars and tens of thousands of jobs into the state during her tenure that to complain about a farewell party after a decade of tireless effort was a shameless act". Sandra Sdraulig on IMDb Official LinkedIn Official website SBS Video Melbourne Film Festival: Sandra Sdraulig