Parking is the act of stopping and disengaging a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied. Parking on one or both sides of a road is permitted, though sometimes with restrictions; some buildings have parking facilities for use of the buildings' users. Countries and local governments have rules for use of parking spaces. Facilities include indoor and outdoor private property belonging to a house, the side of the road where metered or laid out for such use, a parking lot or car park and outdoor multi-level structures, shared underground parking facilities and facilities for particular types of vehicle such as dedicated structures for cycle parking. In the U. S. after the first public parking garage for motor vehicles was opened in Boston, May 24, 1898, livery stables in urban centers began to be converted into garages. In cities of the Eastern US, many former livery stables, with lifts for carriages, continue to operate as garages today; the following terms give regional variations. All except carport refer to outdoor multi-level parking facilities.
In some regional dialects, some of these phrases refer to indoor or single-level facilities. Parking ramp. Elsewhere, the term "ramp" would apply to the inclines between floors of a parking garage, but not to the entire structure itself. Multi-storey car park Car park Parking structure Parking garage Parking building Carport Cycle park Parkade In addition to basic car parking/parking lots variations of serviced parking types exist. Common serviced parking types are: Park and ride Valet Parking Airport Parking Meet and Greet Parking Park and Fly Parking Peer-to-Peer Share ParkingParking spaces may be variously arranged. Parking lots for bicycles are becoming more prevalent in many countries; these may include bicycle parking racks and locks, as well as more modern technologies for security and convenience. For instance, one bicycle parking lot in Tokyo has an automated parking system. Urban parking spaces can have a high value. In Boston in 2009 a single parking space sold for $300,000. According to Parkopedia’s 2017 Global Parking Index, the cost for 2 hours of parking in USD$ for the top 25 cities is as follows: In congested urban areas parking of motor vehicles is time-consuming and expensive.
Urban planners who are in a position to override market forces must consider whether and how to accommodate or "demand manage" large numbers of motor vehicles in small geographic areas. The authorities set minimum, or more maximum, numbers of motor vehicle parking spaces for new housing and commercial developments, may plan their location and distribution to influence their convenience and accessibility; the costs or subsidies of such parking accommodations can become a heated point in local politics. For example, in 2006 the San Francisco Board of Supervisors considered a controversial zoning plan to limit the number of motor vehicle parking spaces available in new residential developments. In the graph to the right the value above the line represents the out-of-pocket cost per trip, per person for each mode of transportation; when cities charge market rates for on-street parking and municipal parking garages for motor vehicles, when bridges and tunnels are tolled for these modes, driving becomes less competitive in terms of out-of-pocket costs compared to other modes of transportation.
When municipal motor vehicle parking is underpriced and roads are not tolled, the shortfall in tax expenditures by drivers, through fuel tax and other taxes, might be regarded as a large subsidy for automobile use: much greater than common subsidies for the maintenance of infrastructure and discounted fares for public transportation. Where car parking spaces are a scarce commodity, owners have not made suitable arrangements for their own parking, ad hoc overspill parking takes place along sections of road where there is no planned scheme by a municipal authority to allocate roadspace. Heated social discourse sometimes revolves around the sense of "ownership". Many use parking chairs and other markers without approval of municipal authorities. For example, during the winter of 2005 in Boston, the practice of some people saving convenient roadway for themselves became controversial. At that time, many Boston districts had an informal convention that if a person shoveled the snow out of a roadspace, that person could claim ownership of that space with a marker.
However, city government cleared markers out of spaces. Festivals and sporting events spawn a cottage industry of parking. Homeowners and businesses make extra money by charging a flat-rate fee for all-day parking during the event. In some countries, such "cottage industry parking" has become large-scale business; the UK airport parking industry is estimated to be worth 1.3 billion GBP per year. According to the International Parking Institute, "parking is a $25 billion industry and plays a pivotal role in transportation, building design, quality of life and environmental issues". Annual parking revenue in the US alone is $10 billion; some airports charge more for parking cars than for parking aircraft. Parking control is an
Station Square is a 52-acre indoor and outdoor shopping and entertainment complex located in the South Shore neighborhood of Pittsburgh, United States across the Monongahela River from the Golden Triangle of downtown Pittsburgh. Station Square occupies the buildings and land occupied by the historic Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad Complex, including the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad Station, which are separately listed on the National Register of Historic Places. With 275,000 square feet of retail space, it features nearly 60 stores and entertainment venues, including Highmark Stadium and the 396-room Sheraton at Station Square; as one of Pittsburgh's largest tourist destinations, it attracts more than three million people annually, including many Pittsburgh natives. The retail development was built at the location of a former station on the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad, with many of the original structures such as the freight house building and the concourse being converted into restaurants and a shopping mall.
Proximity to a stop on the Port Authority of Allegheny County'T' Pittsburgh Light Railsystem, the dock for the Gateway Clipper Fleet of local river cruise boats makes Station Square a major parking and jumping-off point for activities and events around the city. The property is operated by Brookfield Asset Management. In 1979, the Station Square complex was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the "Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad Complex." Station Square was conceptualized by Arthur P. Ziegler, Jr. one of the founding national leaders of historic preservation in the United States, President of the Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation, or Landmarks. Landmarks developed the site in 1976 as a mixed-use historic adaptive reuse development that gave the foundation the opportunity to put its urban planning principles into practice. Aided by an initial gift from the Allegheny Foundation in 1976, Landmarks adapted five historic Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad buildings for new uses and added a hotel, a dock for the Gateway Clipper Fleet, parking areas.
Now shops, offices and entertainment anchor the historic riverfront site on the south shore of the Monongahela River, opposite the Golden Triangle. It reflects a $100 million investment from all sources, with the lowest public cost and highest taxpayer return of any major renewal project in the Pittsburgh region since the 1950s. In 1994, Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation sold Station Square to Forest City Realty Trust which created an endowment to help support its restoration efforts and educational programs; each year the staff and docents of Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation introduce more than 10,000 people — teachers, students and visitors — to the architectural heritage of the Pittsburgh region and to the value of historic preservation. Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad Station Station Square website Post Gazette article on possible sale
Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1900 by Andrew Carnegie as the Carnegie Technical Schools, the university became the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1912 and began granting four-year degrees. In 1967, the Carnegie Institute of Technology merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research to form Carnegie Mellon University. With its main campus located 3 miles from Downtown Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon has grown into an international university with over a dozen degree-granting locations in six continents, including campuses in Qatar and Silicon Valley, more than 20 research partnerships; the university has seven colleges and independent schools which all offer interdisciplinary programs: the College of Engineering, College of Fine Arts, Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Mellon College of Science, Tepper School of Business, H. John Heinz III College of Information Systems and Public Policy, the School of Computer Science.
Carnegie Mellon counts 13,961 students from 109 countries, over 105,000 living alumni, over 5,000 faculty and staff. Past and present faculty and alumni include 20 Nobel Prize laureates, 13 Turing Award winners, 23 Members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 22 Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 79 Members of the National Academies, 124 Emmy Award winners, 47 Tony Award laureates, 10 Academy Award winners; the Carnegie Technical Schools were founded in 1900 in Pittsburgh by the Scottish American industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, who wrote the time-honored words "My heart is in the work", when he donated the funds to create the institution. Carnegie's vision was to open a vocational training school for the sons and daughters of working-class Pittsburghers. Carnegie was inspired for the design of his school by the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York founded by industrialist Charles Pratt in 1887. In 1912, the institution changed its name to Carnegie Institute of Technology and began offering four-year degrees.
During this time, CIT consisted of four constituent schools: the School of Fine and Applied Arts, the School of Apprentices and Journeymen, the School of Science and Technology, the Margaret Morrison Carnegie School for Women. The Mellon Institute of Industrial Research was founded in 1913 by a banker and industrialist brothers Andrew and Richard B. Mellon in honor of their father, Thomas Mellon, the patriarch of the Mellon family; the Institute began as a research organization which performed work for government and industry on a contract and was established as a department within the University of Pittsburgh. In 1927, the Mellon Institute incorporated as an independent nonprofit. In 1938, the Mellon Institute's iconic building was completed and it moved to its new, current, location on Fifth Avenue. In 1967, with support from Paul Mellon, Carnegie Tech merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research to become Carnegie Mellon University. Carnegie Mellon's coordinate women's college, the Margaret Morrison Carnegie College closed in 1973 and merged its academic programs with the rest of the university.
The industrial research mission of the Mellon Institute survived the merger as the Carnegie Mellon Research Institute and continued doing work on contract to industry and government. CMRI closed in 2001 and its programs were subsumed by other parts of the university or spun off into autonomous entities. Carnegie Mellon's 140-acre main campus is three miles from downtown Pittsburgh, between Schenley Park and the Squirrel Hill and Oakland neighborhoods. Carnegie Mellon is bordered to the west by the campus of the University of Pittsburgh. Carnegie Mellon owns 81 buildings in the Squirrel Hill neighborhoods of Pittsburgh. For decades the center of student life on campus was the University's student union. Built in the 1950s, Skibo Hall's design was typical of Mid-Century Modern architecture, but was poorly equipped to deal with advances in computer and internet connectivity; the original Skibo was razed in the summer of 1994 and replaced by a new student union, wi-fi enabled. Known as University Center, the building was dedicated in 1996.
In 2014, Carnegie Mellon re-dedicated the University Center as the Cohon University Center in recognition of the eighth president of the university, Jared Cohon. A large grassy area known as "the Cut" forms the backbone of the campus, with a separate grassy area known as "the Mall" running perpendicular; the Cut was formed by filling in a ravine with soil from a nearby hill, leveled to build the College of Fine Arts building. The northwestern part of the campus was acquired from the United States Bureau of Mines in the 1980s. In 2006, Carnegie Mellon Trustee Jill Gansman Kraus donated the 80-foot -tall sculpture Walking to the Sky, placed on the lawn facing Forbes Ave between the Cohon University Center and Warner Hall; the sculpture was controversial for its placement, the general lack of input that the campus community had, its aesthetic appeal. In April 2015, Carnegie Mellon University, in collaboration with Jones Lang LaSalle, announced the planning of a second office space structure, alongside the Robert Mehrabian Collaborative Innovation Center, an upscale and full-service hotel, retail and dining development along Forbes Avenue.
This complex will connect to the Tepper Quadrangle, the Heinz College, the Tata Consultancy Services Building, the Gates-Hillman Center to create an innovation corridor on the university campus. The eff
South Side Slopes, Pittsburgh
South Side Slopes is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's South Side area. The neighborhood comprises the hills from the South Side Flats neighborhood along the Monongahela River from the Liberty Bridge to beyond Josephine Street. In many parts of the South Side Slopes, homes offer panoramic views of the city skyline that span the distance from beyond McKees Rocks, PA to Homestead, PA. Many homes are perched well above the city skyline; this neighborhood provides access to the South Side Flats by various means including the many public staircases. Every autumn the South Side Slopes Neighborhood Association hosts its annual "StepTrek", where participants travel over the various public step streets. Pittsburgh, like many cities in the United States built on hillsides, classifies public staircases as streets; the hills being steep, staircases allowed access to the different parts of the slopes neighborhood. The SSSNA hopes to maintain the staircases as a legacy of its history as a mining town.
The Mission Street steps between Oakley Street and Barry Street in addition to the top of Yard Way off Pius St. offer views of the South Side Flats neighborhood and downtown Pittsburgh. These public staircases are sometimes called paper streets, being pedestrian streets shown on City maps but not accessible by vehicles; the neighborhood has representation on the Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 3. The Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire houses 24 Engine and 24 Truck on the South Side, it is located on Mary Street just off of Carson Street. The South Side Slopes area is served by Engine Co 22, located in the neighborhood on Arlington Avenue adjoining South Side Park. South Side Park is a City Park with hiking trails, a small orchard patch and views of the City of Pittsburgh skyline, it is home to many species of small animals and deer. It contains a small wetlands area, complete with many species of wildlife. Black locust trees form a mature canopy over the park, it includes a community garden at the former Bandi Schaum baseball field on the lower plateau off Mission Street across from the Mission Street water pumping station.
Several times each summer, college groups gather en masse, start a bonfire on the bluff, get loudly wasted. Neighbors always notify the authorities and the fire department and police show up and chase the revelers away - once. July 4 is another thing entirely. Amateur fireworks for several days at random hours. Other than that, the park is a green oasis in a landscape of metal and red brick. A cor-ten sculpture representing the neighborhood's topography and buildings is on display in the garden of Paul of the Cross Monastery. In 1763, King George III of England granted John Ormsby, a soldier in the French and Indian War as well as the alleged first settler of Pittsburgh, 2,400 acres of land along the southern banks of the Monongahela River for his service in the capture of Fort Duquesne. Ormsby divided the land into four boroughs - South Pittsburgh, Birmingham and East Birmingham, present day South Side Slopes. South Side expanded and grew in order to keep up with Pittsburgh's industrial boom, adopting the nickname "Workshop of the World".
The industry of glass-making was predominant in the early 1800s, the banks of the Monongahela River became home to the iron and steel operations run by the company J&L Steel. J&L became South Side's largest employer as by 1910 it employed 15,000 workers; the majority of these workers came as immigrants from European nations such as Germany, Poland, the Ukraine, the Slavic nations and settled into homes in the present day South Side Slopes. The houses built for them were traditionally one room wide, two rooms deep, up to four stories high; the houses are built into the hillside with narrow walkways between them. Most of the structures and houses in both South Side Slopes are balloon-framed whereas many of those on the South Side Flats were built from brick, in a rectangular fashion. Many of them were ornamented in the popular style of the 1900s - Romanesque and Second Empire, they are fashioned in a classical Victorian style row home way with carved doorways, corbelling, cast iron ornaments and geometric slate patterns.
The Slopes is rich in culture as many immigrants wanted to preserve their native cultures and languages. South Side Slopes is located at 40.42 N and 79.97 W. The area South Side Slopes covers is 0.716 square miles or 460.632 acres. It is made up of many slopes with elevations ranging from 791 feet to 1,174 feet. There are some areas that are too steep for automobile navigation so the numerous staircases located throughout South Side Slopes serve as the "streets". There have been 70 sets of staircases found in the neighborhood. South Side Slopes is part of District 3 in Allegheny County. 18th Street, Arlington Avenue, Josephine Street are two of the main roads that run through the neighborhood. It is 2.8 miles from the Monongahela River and the historic Birmingham Bridge. The Slopes neighborhood is close to the diverse East Carson Street and the SouthSide Works shopping center. South Side Slopes has an overall cold climate, meaning it has about 5,400 heating degree days and fewer than 9,000 heating degree days based on a temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit.
It can experience temperatures that range from 90 degrees Fahrenheit to negative 10 degrees Fahrenheit. The area accumulates an average of 30 to 40 inches of precipitation per year. Allegheny County can get anywhere from zero to twenty inches of snow per month during th
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria, called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until in Victoria's reign; the styles included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it followed Georgian architecture and Regency architecture, was succeeded by Edwardian architecture. During the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to incorporate steel as a building component.
Paxton continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance styles. New methods of construction were developed in this era of prosperity, but the architectural styles, as developed by such architects as Augustus Pugin, were retrospective. In Scotland, the architect Alexander Thomson who practiced in Glasgow was a pioneer of the use of cast iron and steel for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and oriental themes to produce many original structures. Other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen. While Scottish architects pioneered this style it soon spread right across the United Kingdom and remained popular for another 40 years, its architectural value in preserving and reinventing the past is significant. Its influences were diverse but the Scottish architects who practiced it were inspired by unique ways to blend architecture and everyday life in a meaningful way.
Jacobethan Renaissance Revival Neo-Grec Romanesque Revival Second Empire Queen Anne Revival Scots Baronial British Arts and Crafts movement While not uniquely Victorian, part of revivals that began before the era, these styles are associated with the 19th century owing to the large number of examples that were erected during that period. Victorian architecture has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae. Gothic Revival Italianate Neoclassicism During the 18th century, a few English architects emigrated to the colonies, but as the British Empire became established during the 19th century, many architects emigrated at the start of their careers; some chose the United States, others went to Canada and New Zealand. They applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England. By the latter half of the century, improving transport and communications meant that remote parts of the Empire had access to publications such as the magazine The Builder, which helped colonial architects keep informed about current fashion.
Thus, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield and Jacob Wrey Mould; the Victorian period flourished in Australia and is recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated: The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, from 1890 to 1915. During the British colonial period of British Ceylon: Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology and the Galle Face Hotel. In the United States,'Victorian' architecture describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900. A list of these styles most includes Second Empire, Stick-Eastlake, Folk Victorian, Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, Shingle; as in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, are therefore sometimes called Victorian.
Some historians classify the years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick and Queen Anne, is sometimes considered a distinct style. On the other hand, terms such as "Painted Ladies" or "gingerbread" may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style; the names of architectural styles varied between countries. Many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not distinguishable as one particular style or another. In the United States of America, notable cities which developed or were rebuilt during this era include Alameda, Albany, Troy, Boston, the Brooklyn Heights and Victorian Flatbush sections of New York City, Rochester, Columbus, Eureka, Galveston, Grand Rapids, Jersey City/Hoboken, Cape May, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Richmond, Saint Paul, Midtown in Sacramento, Angelino Heigh
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
American Eagle Outfitters
American Eagle Outfitters, Inc. now known as American Eagle, is an American lifestyle clothing and accessories retailer, headquartered in the Southside Works Neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1977 by brothers Jerry and Mark Silverman as a subsidiary of Retail Ventures, Inc. a company which owned and operated Silverman's Menswear. The Silvermans sold their ownership interests in 1991 to Jacob Price of Tennessee. American Eagle Outfitters is the parent company of Aerie; the brand targets male and female university students, although older adults and teenagers wear the brand, with 933 American Eagle Outfitters stores, 109 Aerie stand-alone stores, 4 Tailgate stand-alone stores. In 1977, the first American Eagle Outfitters store opened in Twelve Oaks Mall in Michigan; some of the brand's popular products are jeans, polo shirts, graphic T-shirts, henley shirts, vanity boxers, boxer briefs and briefs and swimwear. American Eagle's beginning was with the Silverman family, which owned and operated Silvermans Menswear.
By the mid-1970s, two of the Silverman brothers—from the third generation of Silvermans in the family business—were running the family business. Jerry Silverman was the president and CEO, while his brother, Mark Silverman, served as executive vice-president and COO; the Silverman brothers were convinced they needed to diversify their product offerings in order to continue growing their company. They recognized that the addition of new family-owned chains would enable them to operate more than one store in the same mall, their first attempt was to open American Eagle Outfitters in 1977, positioning it as a proprietor of brand-name leisure apparel, footwear, as well as accessories for men and women, emphasizing merchandise suited for outdoor sports, such as hiking, mountain climbing, camping. Stores were set up in shopping malls and a catalog was established; the chain grew for much of the 1980s. In 1989, the owners decided to refocus their business on American Eagle Outfitters, selling their other retail chains.
At that time, there were 137 American Eagle Outfitters stores in 36 different states. Despite the plans for quick growth after the reorganization, American Eagle Outfitters opened only 16 new stores by 1991 and the company was losing money. At this point, the Schottensteins, 50% owners of the chain since 1980, bought out the founding Silverman family's interest; this change in leadership resulted in American Eagle finding its present niche: casual clothing for men and women selling private label clothes. When the company began trading on the NASDAQ stock exchange in the second quarter of 1994, it had 167 stores and a healthy cash flow. With the cash infusion from the IPO, the company opened more than 90 new stores within the next year. Several new executives joined the company in 1995 and'96, leading to another change in the target demographic. Over the next five years, revenues quintupled to $1 billion by 2000. AE opened the first Canadian store in 2000; as of January 30, 2016, the company operated 949 AEO brand stores, 97 stand-alone and 67 side-by-side Aerie stores located in shopping malls, lifestyle centers, street locations in the United States, Mexico, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, internationally.
The company had 21 franchised stores operated by franchise partners in 10 countries. On January 22, 2014, then-CEO Robert Hanson stepped down and Jay Schottenstein became interim CEO. On March 15, 2005, the company adjusted its accounting of rent expenses and construction allowances after the Securities and Exchange Commission noted that a number of companies had been improperly logging these items. Due to "disappointing product execution in the women's category", American Eagle posted only a 3% gain in the 2013 second quarter profits and the stock price dropped. In mid-2007, American Eagle moved its headquarters from Warrendale, Pennsylvania, to a more urban location at the SouthSide Works complex in Pittsburgh; the cost of the buildings and adjacent property was $21 million. The addresses of the buildings are "19 Hot Metal Street" and "77 Hot Metal Street", with the numbers symbolizing the first store opening in 1977; the facilities of the Southside Works Campus include a Private Garage, a Lab Store for each brand, Photo Studio and in-house Cafeteria.
Other offices are located in New York. In June 2009, the company signed the franchisee agreement with M. H. Alshaya, one of the leading retailers of the Middle East; the agreement will see the introduction of the first stores outside the North American market, with the first two opening in Dubai and Kuwait on March 16 and 25, 2010 and a store which opened on October 15, 2011 in Kaslik near Beirut, another store opening followed in June 2012 in Hamra Street, Beirut. Followed by another store located in Beirut City Centre, Hazmieh; the company maintains distribution centers in Hazleton, Pennsylvania, as well as Ottawa and Mississauga, Ontario. Items are placed on tables, or clothes racks; the clothes in AEO Factory stores are hung on basic black hangers, AEO stores have wooden hangers. There is a flat screen television hanging in the back of the store or behind the cash wrap; the floors are wood or concrete. The theme and displays change based on seasonal promotions. In February 2006, American Eagle launched the aerie lingerie sub-brand, targeting the American 15- to 22-year-old female demographic segment.
In addition to lingerie such as a wide variety of bras and other undergarments, the aerie line sells dormwear, active apparel, loungewear and sleepwear. What st