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South West England

South West England is one of nine official regions of England. It is the largest in area, covering 9,200 square miles, consists of the counties of Bristol, Dorset, Gloucestershire and Wiltshire, as well as the Isles of Scilly. Five million people live in South West England; the region includes much of the ancient kingdom of Wessex. The largest city is Bristol. Other major urban centres include Plymouth, Gloucester, Exeter, Bath and the South East Dorset conurbation which includes Bournemouth and Christchurch. There are eight cities: Salisbury, Wells, Gloucester, Exeter and Truro, it includes two entire national parks and Exmoor. The northern part of Gloucestershire, near Chipping Campden, is as close to the Scottish border as it is to the tip of Cornwall; the region has by far the longest coastline of any English region. The region is at the first level of NUTS for Eurostat purposes. Key data and facts about the region are produced by the South West Observatory. Following the abolition of the South West Regional Assembly and Government Office, local government coordination across the region is now undertaken by South West Councils.

The region is known for its rich folklore, including the legend of King Arthur and Glastonbury Tor, as well as its traditions and customs. Cornwall has its own language and some regard it as a Celtic nation; the South West is known for Cheddar cheese. It is home to the Eden Project, Aardman Animations, the Glastonbury Festival, the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, trip hop music and Cornwall's surfing beaches; the region has been home to some of Britain's most renowned writers, including Daphne du Maurier and Agatha Christie, both of whom set many of their works here, the South West is the location of Thomas Hardy's Wessex, the setting for many of his best-known novels. Most of the region is located on the South West Peninsula, between the English Channel and Bristol Channel, it has the longest coastline of all the English regions, totalling over 700 miles. Much of the coast is now protected from further substantial development because of its environmental importance, which contributes to the region's attractiveness to tourists and residents.

Geologically the region is divided into the igneous and metamorphic west and sedimentary east, the dividing line to the west of the River Exe. Cornwall and West Devon's landscape is of rocky coastline and high moorland, notably at Bodmin Moor and Dartmoor; these are due to the slate that underlie the area. The highest point of the region is High Willhays, at 2,038 feet, on Dartmoor. In North Devon the slates of the west and limestones of the east meet at Exmoor National Park; the variety of rocks of similar ages seen here have led to the county's name being lent to that of the Devonian period. The east of the region is characterised by limestone downland; the vales, with good irrigation, are home to the region's dairy agriculture. The Blackmore Vale was Thomas Hardy's "Vale of the Little Dairies"; the Southern England Chalk Formation extends into the region, creating a series of high, sparsely populated and archaeologically rich downs, most famously Salisbury Plain, but Cranborne Chase, the Dorset Downs and the Purbeck Hills.

These downs are the principal area of arable agriculture in the region. Limestone is found in the region, at the Cotswolds, Quantock Hills and Mendip Hills, where they support sheep farming. All of the principal rock types can be seen on the Jurassic Coast of Dorset and East Devon, where they document the entire Mesozoic era from west to east; the climate of South West England is classed as oceanic according to the Köppen climate classification. The oceanic climate experiences cool winters with warmer summers and precipitation all year round, with more experienced in winter. Annual rainfall is up to 2,000 millimetres on higher ground. Summer maxima averages range from 18 °C to 22 °C and winter minimum averages range from 1 °C to 4 °C across the south-west, it is the second windiest area of the United Kingdom, the majority of winds coming from the south-west and north-east. Government organisations predict the region to rise in temperature and become the hottest region in the United Kingdom. Inland areas of low altitude experience the least amount of precipitation.

They experience the highest summer maxima temperatures. Snowfalls are less so in comparison to higher ground, it experiences the lowest wind speeds and sunshine total in between that of the moors. The climate of inland areas is more noticeable the further north-east into the region. In comparison to inland areas, the coast experiences high minimum temperatures in winter, it experiences lower maximum temperatures during the summer. Rainfall is the lowest at the coast and snowfall is rarer than the rest of the region. Coastal areas are the windiest parts of the peninsula and they receive the most sunshine; the general coastal climate is more typical the further south-west into the region. Areas of moorland inland such as: Bodmin Moor and Exmoor experience lower temperatures and more pr

The Soldier's Song (novel)

The Soldier's Song is the debut novel from Alan Monaghan and the first in the Soldier's Song Trilogy. Set during World War I, the novel follows the fortunes of Stephen Ryan, a gifted young maths scholar, as he enlists in the British army and leaves his native Ireland to fight in Europe, he finds his loyalties tested, when he returns from the front in 1916 to find Ireland in the midst of an uprising. The harsh realities of war combined with the strain of having to reflect on his own identity and allegiances take their toll as Stephen is pushed closer to his breaking point; the novel was positively received upon its release and gained, for its author, a nomination at the 2010 Irish Book Awards for best newcomer. It has been longlisted for the 2010/2011 Waverton Good Read Award. Pan Macmillan: The Soldier's Song The Marsh Agency: The Soldier's Song The View arts show reviews The Soldier's Song Interview with author Irish Times review The Guardian review

Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Macrosiphum euphorbiae, the potato aphid, is a sap-sucking pest insect in the family Aphididae. It infests a number of other commercially important crops. Macrosiphum euphorbiae originated in North America but it has spread to the temperate parts of Europe and Asia and is found in all areas in which potatoes are grown; the wingless female potato aphid is green or pink with a darker dorsal stripe. It has a pear-shaped body reaching about four millimetres long; the antennae are longer than the body. They are set on outward facing tubercles; the legs are longer than in other aphids, pale green but darker at the apices. The siphunculi are pale coloured, cylindrical with dark tips and operculi, are about one third the length of the body; the tail bears 6 to 12 hairs and is much shorter than the siphunculi. The winged female has a green abdomen; the nymphs are like miniature versions of the adults and go through several moults in the course of about ten days. The green biotype is most found on the lower, older leaves of potato plants whereas the pink biotype had no such preference.

The numerical predominance of the green biotype was greater on older plants. Female potato aphids overwinter as eggs on weeds, the sprouts of potatoes in storage and on lettuce under glass, they emerge in April and begin feeding on perennial weeds, preferring plants in the family Chenopodiaceae. In May or early June, they migrate to potato, cabbage and others crops where they feed on shoots, the lower side of leaves and flowers on the lower parts of the plant, they are polyphagous, feeding on over two hundred species in more than twenty plant families, but their preference is for plants in the family Solanaceae. The female produces up to seventy young by parthenogenesis over the course of three to six weeks and there may be ten generations over the summer; the optimum temperature for population increase is 68 °F. When populations build up, winged individuals fly off to infest new host plants; the production of winged individuals is dependent on the day length, the temperature, the parent type and the generation.

The aphids overwinter as eggs on weeds. In North America they are parasitized by the braconid wasp Aphidius nigripes, which lays its eggs in the aphid nymphs, these are killed by the wasp larvae developing inside them. Various factors influence aphid populations. High temperatures or heavy rainfall may reduce infestations and the numbers are controlled by predators and pathogens; some plant varieties are more resistant to attack than others. In a study on tomatoes, it was shown that the aphids preferred smooth to hairy leaves and that susceptible tomato plants had higher sucrose, lower quinic acid and higher alanine and tyrosine levels. In lettuce, butterhead varieties are moderately to resistant to the aphid whereas crisphead varieties are susceptible. If numbers of aphids are sufficiently high, chemical control can be attempted using insecticidal soaps; this is not always effective because the aphids congregate on the underside of lower leaves where they are difficult to reach with sprays. A number of virus diseases are spread by Macrosiphum euphorbiae.

These include lettuce mosaic virus, bearded iris mosaic virus, narcissus yellow stripe virus, tulip breaking virus, potato leaf roll virus, potato virus Y, beet mild yellowing virus and beet yellows virus

Norton Parish, New Brunswick

Norton is a Canadian parish in Kings County, New Brunswick. Norton Parish was created in 1795 from Sussex Parish and Kingston Parish: named for Norton, near Taunton, in southern Massachusetts, the original home of many of the first settlers to this area. Writer Emily Elizabeth Shaw Beavan worked in the parish as a young teacher. Norton Parish is defined in the Territorial Division Act as being bounded: East by Sussex and Studholm Parishes. Parish population total does not include incorporated municipalities: Highways and numbered routes that run through the parish, including external routes that start or finish at the parish limits: List of parishes in New Brunswick

Worshipful Company of Founders

The Worshipful Company of Founders is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London, England. The Founders, or workers in brass and bronze, were incorporated under a Royal Charter in 1614. However, with the development of technology, the ancient craft grew obsolete. Now, the Company exists, along with a majority of Livery Companies, as a charitable foundation, it supports the foundry industry by awarding research grants and scholarships. The Founders' Company ranks thirty-third in the order of precedence of Livery Companies, its motto is The Only Founder. It had an early association with Saint Clement, having either been named the Fraternity of St Clement, or having had that organization as part of its body; the Founders' Company

1983 Seville City Council election

The 1983 Seville City Council election the 1983 Seville municipal election, was held on Sunday, 8 May 1983, to elect the 2nd City Council of the municipality of Seville. All 31 seats in the City Council were up for election; the election was held with regional elections in thirteen autonomous communities and local elections all throughout Spain. The City Council of Seville was the top-tier administrative and governing body of the municipality of Seville, composed of the mayor, the government council and the elected plenary assembly. Voting for the local assembly was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen, registered in the municipality of Seville and in full enjoyment of their civil and political rights. Local councillors were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 5 percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution.

Councillors were allocated to municipal councils based on the following scale: The mayor was indirectly elected by the plenary assembly. A legal clause required that mayoral candidates earned the vote of an absolute majority of councillors, or else the candidate of the most-voted party in the assembly was to be automatically appointed to the post. In case of a tie, the eldest would be elected; the electoral law provided that parties, federations and groupings of electors were allowed to present lists of candidates. However, groupings of electors were required to secure the signature of at least 0.1 percent of the electors registered in the municipality for which they sought election—needing to secure, in any case, the signature of 500 electors—. Electors were barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election being called