The Southern Alps / Kā Tiritiri o te Moana is a mountain range extending along much of the length of New Zealand's South Island, reaching its greatest elevations near the range's western side. The name "Southern Alps" refers to the entire range, although separate names are given to many of the smaller ranges that form part of it; the range includes the South Island's Main Divide, which separates the water catchments of the more populated eastern side of the island from those on the west coast. Politically, the Main Divide forms the boundary between the Marlborough and Otago regions to the southeast and the Tasman and West Coast regions to the northwest; the Southern Alps run 500 km northeast to southwest. Its tallest peak is the highest point in New Zealand at 3,724 metres; the Southern Alps include sixteen other points. The mountain ranges are bisected by glacial valleys, many of which are infilled with glacial lakes on the eastern side including Lake Coleridge in the north to Lake Wakatipu in Otago in the south.
According to an inventory conducted in the late 1970s, the Southern Alps contained over 3,000 glaciers larger than one hectare, the longest of which – the Tasman Glacier – is 23.5 kilometres in length which has retreated from a recent maximum of 29 kilometres in the 1960s. Settlements include Maruia Springs, a spa near Lewis Pass, the town of Arthur's Pass, Mount Cook Village. Major crossings of the Southern Alps in the New Zealand road network include Lewis Pass, Arthur's Pass, Haast Pass, the road to Milford Sound; the Southern Alps were named by Captain Cook on 23 March 1770, who described their "prodigious height". They had been noted by Abel Tasman in 1642, whose description of the South Island's west coast is translated as "a land uplifted high". Following the passage of the Ngai Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998, the name of the range was altered to Southern Alps / Kā Tiritiri o te Moana. New Zealand has a humid maritime, temperate climate with the Southern Alps lying perpendicular to the prevailing westerly flow of air.
Annual precipitation varies across the range, from 3,000 millimetres at the West Coast, 15,000 millimetres close to the Main Divide, to 1,000 millimetres 30 kilometres east of the Main Divide. This high precipitation aids the growth of glaciers above the Snow line. Large glaciers and snowfields can be found west of or on the Main Divide, with smaller glaciers farther east; because of its orientation perpendicular to the prevailing westerly winds, the range creates excellent wave soaring conditions for glider pilots. The town of Omarama, in the lee of the mountains, has gained an international reputation for its gliding conditions; the prevailing westerlies create a weather pattern known as the Nor'west arch, in which moist air is pushed up over the mountains, forming an arch of cloud in an otherwise blue sky. This weather pattern is visible in summer across Canterbury and North Otago. The'Nor'wester' is a foehn wind similar to the Chinook of Canada, where mountain ranges in the path of prevailing moisture laden winds force air upwards, thus cooling the air and condensing the moisture to rain, producing hot dry winds in the descending air lee of the mountains.
The Southern Alps lie along a geological plate boundary, part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, with the Pacific Plate to the southeast pushing westward and colliding with the northward-moving Indo-Australian Plate to the northwest. Over the last 45 million years, the collision has pushed up a 20 km thickness of rocks on the Pacific Plate to form the Alps, although much of this has been eroded away. Uplift has been most rapid during the last 5 million years, the mountains continue to be raised today by tectonic pressure, causing earthquakes on the Alpine Fault and other nearby faults. Despite the substantial uplift, most of the relative motion along the Alpine Fault is transverse, not vertical. However, significant dip-slip occurs on the plate boundary to the north and east of the North Island, in the Hikurangi Trench and Kermadec Trench; the transfer of motion from strike-slip on the Alpine Fault to dip-slip motion at these subduction zones to the north creates the Marlborough Fault System, which has resulted in significant uplift in the region.
In 2017 a large international team of scientists reported they had discovered beneath Whataroa, a small township on the Alpine Fault, "extreme" hydrothermal activity which "could be commercially significant". The mountains are rich in flora with about 25% of the country's plant species being found above the treeline in alpine plant habitats and grassland with mountain beech forest at lower elevations; the cold windswept slopes above the treeline are covered with areas of fellfield. To the east, the Alps descend to the high grasslands of Otago. Plants adapted to the alpine conditions include woody shrubs like Hebe and Coprosma, the conifer snow totara and Carex sedge grasses. Wildlife of the mountains includes the endemic rock wren. There are a number of endemic insects adapted to these high altitudes flies, moths and bees; the beech forests of the lower elevations are important habitat for two birds. The Kea can be found in the forested foothills as well as colder elevations, it is the world's only alpine parrot, was once hunted as a pest.
The mountains are inaccessible and retain their na
Alle tijd is a Dutch film directed by Job Gosschalk and starring Paul de Leeuw and Karina Smulders. The film is based on the original screenplay by Job Gosschalk; the film was a modest success with 81,500 tickets sold. It received a mixed critical reception; the performances were praised. Many critics felt. Maarten, a gay music teacher, his sister Molly have a special relationship with each other; when their parents died, Maarten took over the upbringing of his little sister. He is supported by his best friend Reina; because Maarten spent so much time caring for Molly, he effaced himself at the time. One day, Molly announces. Maarten is confronted with empty nest syndrome. Maarten meets Arthur. Teun cheats, so Molly cheats with veterinarian Melvin, she becomes pregnant, but she doesn't know, the father and doesn't want to know. Teun doesn't want any more contact with her. Molly gets incurable breast cancer, goes back to live with Maarten again. Melvin is with her. Molly gives birth to Finn. Maarten promises her he will raise Finn.
Teun only comes along after Molly's death. The film was shot on locations in The Hague, including the Appeltheater, Den Haag Hollands Spoor railway station and the Hofvijver. Paul de Leeuw: Maarten Karina Smulders: Molly Lineke Rijxman: Reina Teun Luijkx: Teun Alwin Pulinckx: Arthur Christopher Parren: Melvin Years before making Alle tijd, Job Gosschalk worked as a producer for Kemna, the most influential audition agency in the Netherlands, was involved in many Dutch feature films, he became the owner of Kemna, but he was most attracted to the artistic aspect of filmmaking, so he began to produce films and television series. He had a lot of success with the film Alles is Liefde and the television series't Schaep met de 5 pooten, he switched to directing and made the television series S1NGLE and the play Verre vrienden. His film directing debut came with Alle tijd, for which he wrote the screenplay. For Alle tijd. While Job Gosschalk was making Alle tijd, he saw a few videos of Dutch singer Elske DeWall on YouTube.
He was impressed by her talent and when he heard a demo version of her single Chasing The Impossible, he thought that it should be the title song of the film. Lead actor Paul de Leeuw was with him, so Elske DeWall's song became the title song of Alle tijd. At the 2011 Netherlands Film Festival, Lineke Rijxman was nominated for a Golden Calf in the category Best Supporting Actress. At the 2012 Lesbisch Schwule Filmtage Hamburg, the film won the "GLOBOLA" award for best feature film. Official website Alle tijd on IMDb
Thomas Foley was the eldest son of the ironmaster Thomas Foley. He succeeded his father to the Great Witley estate, including Witley Court, in 1677, he was the seventh great-grandfather to Queen Elizabeth II via the Queen Mother Elizabeth, his daughter Elizabeth. He was educated at Pembroke College, being admitted in 1657 aged 16, graduating B. A. 1660, was admitted to the Inner Temple in 1657. He was appointed High Sheriff of Worcestershire for 1673–74, he served as a member of Parliament for Worcestershire from 1679 to 1685. He was an active member. Like several members of his family, he was concerned in the iron industry, but only at Tintern, he married daughter of Edward Ashe of Heytesbury, Wiltshire. Edward Foley, twice MP for Droitwich Richard Foley, MP for Droitwich in 1711–1732 John Foley Elizabeth Foley, sixth great-grandmother to Queen Elizabeth II, who married Robert Harley Lord Treasurer and Earl of Oxford Anne Foley who married Salwey Winnington Sarah Foley who married Robert Harley's brother, Edward Harley MP.
Mary Foley who married Sir Blundel Charlton M. B. Rowlands,'Foley family', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004.