Greenschists are metamorphic rocks that formed under the lowest temperatures and pressures produced by regional metamorphism 300–450 °C and 2–10 kilobars. Greenschists have an abundance of green minerals such as chlorite and epidote, platy minerals such as muscovite and platy serpentine; the platiness have schistosity. Other common minerals include quartz, talc, carbonate minerals and amphibole. Greenschist is a general field petrologic term for altered mafic volcanic rock. In Europe, the term prasinite is sometimes used. A greenstone is sometimes a greenschist but can be rock types without any schistosity metabasalt; the green is due to abundant green chlorite and epidote minerals that dominate the rock. However, basalts may remain quite black if primary pyroxene does not revert to chlorite or actinolite. To qualify for the name a rock must exhibit schistosity or some foliation or layering; the rock is derived from basalt, gabbro or similar rocks containing sodium-rich plagioclase feldspar, chlorite and quartz.
Greenschist, as a rock type, is defined by the presence of the minerals chlorite and actinolite and may contain albite or epidote. Greenschist has a lepidoblastic, nematoblastic or schistose texture defined by chlorite and actinolite. Greenschists have some foliation resulting in mineral alignment of chlorite and actinolite. Grain size is coarse, due to the mineral assemblage. Chlorite and to a lesser extent actinolite exhibit small, flat or acicular crystal habits. Greenschist facies is determined by the particular temperature and pressure conditions required to metamorphose basalt to form the typical greenschist facies minerals chlorite and albite. Greenschist facies results from moderate pressure metamorphism. Metamorphic conditions which create typical greenschist facies assemblages are called the Barrovian Facies Sequence, the lower-pressure Abukuma Facies Series. Temperatures of 400 to 500 °C and depths of about 8 to 50 kilometres are the typical envelope of greenschist facies rocks; the equilibrium mineral assemblage of rocks subjected to greenschist facies conditions depends on primary rock composition.
Basalt: chlorite + actinolite + albite +/- epidote Ultramafic: chlorite + serpentine +/- talc +/- tremolite +/- diopside +/- brucite Pelites: quartz +/- albite +/- k-feldspar +/- chlorite, garnet, pyrophyllite +/- graphite Calc-silicates: calcite +/- dolomite +/- quartz +/- micas, wollastonite, etc. In greater detail the greenschist facies is subdivided into subgreenschist and upper greenschist. Lower temperatures are transitional with and overlap the prehnite-pumpellyite facies and higher temperatures overlap with and include sub-amphibolite facies. If burial continues along Barrovian Sequence metamorphic trajectories, greenschist facies gives rise to amphibolite facies assemblages, dominated by amphibole and to granulite facies. Lower pressure contact metamorphism produces albite-epidote hornfels while higher pressures at great depth produces eclogite. Oceanic basalts in the vicinity of mid-ocean ridges exhibit sub-greenschist alteration; the greenstone belts of the various archean cratons are altered to the greenschist facies.
These ancient rocks are noted as host rocks for a variety of ore deposits in Australia and Canada. Greenschist-like rocks can be formed under blueschist facies conditions if the original rock contains enough magnesium; this explains the scarcity of blueschist preserved from before the Neoproterozoic Era 1000 Ma ago when the Earth's oceanic crust contained more magnesium than today's oceanic crust. In Minoan Crete and blueschist were used to pave streets and courtyards between 1650 and 1600 BC; these rocks were quarried in Agia Pelagia on the north coast of central Crete. Across Europe, greenschist rocks have been used to make axes. Several sites, including Great Langdale in England, have been identified. A form of chlorite schist was popular in prehistoric Native American communities for the production of axes and celts, as well as ornamental items. In the Middle Woodland period, greenschist was one of the many trade items that were part of the Hopewell culture exchange network, sometimes transported over thousands of kilometers.
During the time of the Mississippian culture, the polity of Moundville had some control over the production and distribution of greenschist. The Moundville source has been shown to be from two localities in the Hillabee Formation of central and eastern Alabama. Metamorphism List of rock types List of minerals Pounamu, another type of rock called greenstone Blatt and Robert J. Tracy. Petrology. ISBN 0-7167-2438-3. Gall, Daniel G. and Vincas P. Steponaitis, "Composition and Provenance of Greenstone Artifacts from Moundville," Southeastern Archaeology 20:99–117 ). Steponaitis, Vincas P. Prehistoric Archaeology in the Southeastern United States, 1970–1985. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 15. Pp. 363–404
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Battle Mountain (Virginia)
Battle Mountain is an igneous mountain in Rappahannock County, Virginia. The eastern slope is considered to reside in the unincorporated town of Amissville, Virginia while the western slope is considered to be within Castleton, Virginia; the entire mountain including the summit lies within private property at an elevation of 1,162 ft. It is an extinct volcano dating to the Neoproterozoic and is 704 million years old as dated using the U-Pb zircon crystal geochronology method, it is a unit of the Robertson River Igneous Suite and is located within the Blue Ridge anticlinorium. This volcanic formation was a result of crustal extensional rifting of the eastern Laurentian margin of the supercontinent Rodinia; this was the beginning of a chain of events that gave birth to the precursor Atlantic, the Iapetus Ocean at 550 Ma during the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition. The volcano is composed of alkali feldspar granitic rock of the Robertson River Igneous Suite; this includes felsic complex material such as biotite, hornblende-biotite and alkali granitic rock including rhyolite on the eastern slopes of Battle Mountain and the adjacent Little Battle Mountain.
A unique geological feature of Battle Mountain is that the western slope outcrops are composed of alkalai feldspar granite, while the eastern slope up to and including the summit is rhyolitic. This provides strong evidence of a theorized lateral explosive eruption event centered on the eastern slope at 704 Ma as proposed by Woolman. Further mathematical geology evidence which supports this theory includes a paleaogeographic reconstruction of the mountain by Woolman utilizing artificial neural networks and Markov chain geostatistical models including period climate condition-based soil erosion rates, Kirkby's hillslope movement evolution equations and recursive biogeochemical soil erosion rates in felsic granitic conditions; the result was the digital reconstruction image shown on the left, indicating what Battle Mountain may have looked like 704 million years ago on the western slope. Battle Mountain and Little Battle Mountain are the only mountains in Rappahannock County which are known to be volcanic in origin, are among the oldest visibly intact extinct volcanoes in Virginia.
White quartz boulders and smaller fragments are common on and around Battle Mountain, a result of molten silica, contained in the rhyolite lava and granitic magma that formed the volcano. As quartz is hard relative to feldspar granite and rhyolite, it tends to remain present on the surface while the softer granite it was embedded in wears away into the soil; the nearest unincorporated town is Amissville, Virginia at 4 miles away. Access to the mountain and the summit must be negotiated with local landowners first as the mountain, including all portions of the July 1863 battlefield exists on private property
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
Montpelier (Orange, Virginia)
James Madison's Montpelier, located in Orange County, was the plantation house of the Madison family, including fourth President of the United States, James Madison, his wife Dolley. The 2,650-acre property is open seven days a week with the mission of engaging the public with the enduring legacy of Madison's most powerful idea: government by the people. Montpelier was declared a National Historic Landmark and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966, it was included in the Madison-Barbour Rural Historic District in 1991. In 1983, the last private owner of Montpelier, Marion duPont Scott, bequeathed the estate to the National Trust for Historic Preservation; the National Trust for Historic Preservation has owned and operated the estate since 1984. In 2000, The Montpelier Foundation formed with the goal of transforming James Madison's historic estate into a dynamic cultural institution. From 2003–2008 the NTHP carried out a major restoration, in part to return the mansion to its original size of 22 rooms as it was during the years when it was occupied by James and Dolley Madison.
Extensive interior and exterior work was done during the restoration. Archeological investigations in the 21st century revealed new information about African-American life at the plantation, a gift from philanthropist David Rubenstein enabled the National Trust to restore the slave quarters in the South Yard and open a slavery exhibition, The Mere Distinction of Colour, in 2017. In 1723, James Madison's grandfather, Ambrose Madison, his brother-in-law, Thomas Chew, received a patent for 4,675 acres of land in the Piedmont of Virginia. Ambrose, his wife Frances Madison, their three children moved to the plantation in 1732, naming it Mount Pleasant. Ambrose died six months later. At the time, Ambrose Madison held close to 4,000 acres. After his death, Frances managed the estate with the help of their son, Colonel James Madison, Sr. Madison, Sr. expanded the plantation to include building services and blacksmithing in the 1740s, bought additional slaves to cultivate tobacco and other crops. He had 12 children.
James Madison, Sr.'s first-born son named James, was born on March 16, 1751 at Belle Grove, his mother's family estate in Port Conway, where she had returned for his birth. James Madison spent his early years at Mount Pleasant. In the early 1760s, Madison, Sr. built a new house half a mile away, which structure forms the heart of the main house at Montpelier today. Built around 1764, it has two stories of brick laid in a Flemish bond pattern, a low, hipped roof with chimney stacks at both ends, his son James Madison stated that he remembered helping move furniture to the new home. The building of Montpelier represents Phase 1 of the construction. Upon completion, the Madisons owned one of the largest brick dwellings in Orange County. Phase 2 of construction began in 1797, after son James returned to Montpelier with his new wife Dolley Madison, he was 39 and she was a young widow with a child. At this time Madison added a Tuscan portico to the house. Madison's widowed mother, still resided in the house following the death of her husband, James, Sr. in 1801.
In the last period of construction, Phase 3, Madison had a large drawing room added, as well as one-story wings at each end of the house and he directed construction of single-story flat-roofed extensions at either end of the house. After his second term as president, in 1817 Madison retired there full-time with his wife Dolley. James Madison is buried in the family cemetery at Montpelier, his widow Dolley Madison moved back to Washington, D. C. in 1837 after his death. In 1844 she sold the plantation to Henry W. Moncure. After Dolley Madison died in 1849, she was buried in Washington, D. C. and re-interred at Montpelier near her husband James. After Dolley Madison sold the estate to Henry W. Moncure in 1844, the property was held by a total of six additional owners before the du Ponts bought Montpelier in 1901; the various owners and the dates associated with the site include: Benjamin Thornton, William H. Macfarland, Alfred V. Scott, Thomas J. Carson and Frank Carson, Louis F. Detrick and William L. Bradley and Charles King Lennig.
The origins of the name Montpelier are uncertain, but the first recorded use of the name comes from a 1781 James Madison letter. Madison liked the French spelling of the name Montpellier; the city of Montpellier, was a famous resort. Clues from letters and visitor descriptions suggest these origins of the plantation's name; the work of Montpelier was done by its about 100 enslaved African slaves during James Madison's tenure as owner. Slaves served in a variety of roles: field workers, domestic servants in charge of cleaning and care of clothing. During the time that the Madisons owned the estate, "five and seven generations of African Americans were born into slavery at Montpelier."The most well-known slave from Montpelier was Paul Jennings, Madison's body servant from 1817-1835. When Jennings went to the White House at age 10, he did other work. Daniel Webster purchased Jennings and allowed him to work to pay off his freedom, but this was unrelated to the death of James or Dolley Madison. Born in 1799, J
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Holston Mountain is a mountain ridge in Upper East Tennessee and southwest Virginia, in the United States. It is in the Blue Ridge Mountains part of the Appalachian Mountains. Holston Mountain is a prominent ridge-type mountain in Tennessee's Ridge and Valley Region, about 28 miles long, running from southwest to northeast, covering about 268 square miles, its highest summit is Holston High Point, on which a Federal Aviation Administration aircraft navigational beacon is located, at an elevation of 4,280 feet above mean sea level. The second highest point is Rye Patch Knob, at 4,260 feet above mean sea level; the third highest point is Holston High Knob where an old dismantled Cherokee National Forest fire tower marks the elevation at 4,136 feet above mean sea level. Holston Mountain is located in the Piegan National Forest, it is bounded on the northwest by South Holston Lake. The southern portion of Holston Mountain marks the boundary between Sullivan County and Carter County; the small northernmost portion extends into Virginia.
Panhandle Road is located off State Highway 91 in Carter County and ascends Holston Mountain for three miles from the eastern side and ends four miles along the ridge southwest of Holston High Point. During periods of heavy snow and ice, hunting season, or nesting season, the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency closes off Panhandle Road with an iron gate. Located near the Cherokee National Forest boundary and to the left of Panhandle Road is a parking area and foot trail that leads down the slope to the Blue Hole Falls; the iron gate referred to above is there and maintained by the Cherokee National Forest, Unaka District. No matter, though.. The last three miles of Panhandle Road along the top of the ridge are filled with washouts, steep drop-offs, no turnarounds. Vehicle travel on those last three miles is at the driver's risk. U. S. Route 421 crosses Holston Mountain at Low Gap, connecting the community of Shady Valley, with the city of Bristol, Tennessee. Holston Mountain is named after the Holston River, named for Stephen Holston, a descendant of a Swede of New Sweden.
Stephen Holston in 1746 built a cabin near the headwaters of a little creek. When surveyors were working in the area the next year they gave the creek the name "Holston's Creek", because Stephen Holston lived on it. Pioneers followed the creek downstream where, after receiving many tributaries, it was wide enough to become a river and so it became known as the Holston River. George R. Stewart, describing this placename history, notes, "Thus one of the largest streams of that region came to bear the name of a common settler". Stewart goes on to note that the nearby Clinch River is named for a "common settler". Unlike Holston, the identity of Clinch is unknown, except that Dr. Walker wrote of a stream called "Clinch's River, from one Clinch a hunter". October 4, 1976 Kingsport, Tennessee Daily News staff writer, Mark Aldeen, in an article entitled "Investigation Into Cause Of Plane Crash Continues", reported the crash landing of a USAF reconnaissance plane on Holston Mountain, 13.2 miles from the Tri-cites airport.
The RF-4C "Phantom" carried two Airmen. September 1, 2007 The FAA says five Jehovah's Witnesses ministers from East Tennessee were killed when their small plane crashed in the Cherokee National Forest on Holston Mountain shortly after takeoff. A passing airplane spotted the smoldering wreckage around 7:00 p.m. Saturday about a mile and a half down the southern side of the mountain, from the Holston High Point broadcasting antenna farm; the Appalachian Trail crosses over from Iron Mountain from the southeast side runs along the upper northeast end of Holston Mountain. The trail descends on the northeast end, sloping down the mountain into Virginia, the town of Damascus, continues to Mount Rogers, the highest point in Virginia. Early broadcasters in the 1950s and 1960s realized Holston Mountain as a prime radio-television transmission location because it is the highest visible point that faces most of the major cities in Upper East Tennessee and Southwest Virginia in the surrounding valley between Knoxville, Tennessee, to southwest of Roanoke, Virginia.
As a result, the Holston Mountain ridge is the transmitting site for five television stations in the Tri-Cities, Tennessee Television Designated Market Area. The digital broadcasting antenna for WCYB, PSIP Channel 5, Virginia is on Rye Patch Knob, with the top of the antenna 341 feet above ground, 2,431 feet above the surrounding valley floor, 4,533 feet above mean sea level; the single tower that antenna sits on, is the highest and tallest man-made structure on the mountain, allowing the Virginia station to transmit from the highest broadcasting point in Tennessee and Kentucky. The television towers for WJHL, PSIP Channel 11, Johnson City, WKPT, PSIP Channel 19, Tennessee, are standing side by side in a common broadcasting antenna farm on the southwest slope of Holston High Point, one mile southwest of Rye Patch Knob; the antenna for WJHL stands 200 feet above ground, 2,319 feet above the surrounding valley floor, 4,370 feet above mean sea level. The antenna for WKPT next door stands 193 feet above ground 2,319 feet above the vall