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Soy sauce

Soy sauce spelled as soya sauce, is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, traditionally made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds. Soy sauce in its current form was created about 2,200 years ago during the Western Han dynasty of ancient China, spread throughout East and Southeast Asia where it is used in cooking and as a condiment. Soy sauce can be added directly to food, used as a dip, used to season meat, or be added for flavor in cooking, it is eaten with sushi and sashimi. It can be mixed with ground wasabi. Bottles of soy sauce can be found at dining tables in Japan as a common seasoning. Soy sauce can be stored at room temperature. Shoyu is stored in soft plastic containers. Soy sauce is considered as old as soy paste—a type of fermented paste obtained from soybeans—which had appeared during the Western Han dynasty and was listed in the bamboo slips found in the archaeological site Mawangdui. There are several precursors of soy sauce.

Among them the earliest one is Qingjiang, listed in Simin Yueling. Others are Jiangqing and Chiqing which are recorded in Qimin Yaoshu in AD 540. By the time of the Song dynasty, the term soy sauce had become the accepted name for the liquid condiment, which are documented in two books: Shanjia Qinggong and Pujiang Wushi Zhongkuilu during the Song dynasty. Like many salty condiments, soy sauce was a way to stretch salt an expensive commodity. During the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, fermented fish with salt was used as a condiment in which soybeans were included during the fermentation process. By the time of the Han dynasty, this had been replaced with the recipe for soy paste and its by-product soy sauce, by using soybeans as the principal ingredient, with fermented fish-based sauces developing separately into fish sauce; the 19th century Sinologist Samuel Wells Williams wrote that in China, the best soy sauce is "made by boiling beans soft, adding an equal quantity of wheat or barley, leaving the mass to ferment.

A common Japanese condiment was uoshōyu, fish based. When Buddhism came to Japan from China in the 7th century, they introduced vegetarianism and brought many soy based products with them, such as soya sauce, known as shōyu in Japan. Shoyu exportation began in 1647 by the Dutch East India Company; the earliest soy sauce brewing in Korea seems to have begun prior to the era of the Three Kingdoms c. 57 BCE. The Records of the Three Kingdoms, a Chinese historical text written and published in the 3rd century, mentions that "Goguryeo people are good at brewing fermented soy beans." In the section named Dongyi, in the Book of Wei. Jangdoks used for soy sauce brewing are found in the mural paintings of Anak Tomb No.3 from the 4th century Goguryeo. In Samguk Sagi, a historical record of the Three Kingdoms era, it is written that ganjang and doenjang along with meju and jeotgal were prepared for the wedding ceremony of the King Sinmun in February 683. Sikhwaji, a section from Goryeosa, recorded that ganjang and doenjang were included in the relief supplies in 1018, after a Khitan invasion, in 1052, when a famine occurred.

Joseon texts such as Guhwangchwaryo and Jeungbo sallim gyeongje contain the detailed procedures on how to brew good quality ganjang and doenjang. Gyuhap chongseo explains how to pick a date for brewing, what to forbear, how to keep and preserve ganjang and doenjang. Records of the Dutch East India Company list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737, when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima, Japan, to Batavia on the island of Java. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were shipped to the Netherlands. In the 18th century and scholar Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce. Although earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West, his was among the earliest to focus on the brewing of the Japanese version. By the mid-19th century, Japanese soy sauce disappeared from the European market, the condiment became synonymous with the Chinese product. Europeans were unable to make soy sauce because they did not understand the function of Aspergillus oryzae, the fungus used in its brewing.

Soy sauce made from ingredients such as Portobello mushrooms were disseminated in European cookbooks during the late 18th century. A Swedish recipe for "Soija" was published in the 1770 edition of Cajsa Warg's Hjelpreda i Hushållningen för Unga Fruentimber and was flavored with allspice and mace; the first soy sauce production in the United States began in the Territory of Hawaii in 1908 by the Hawaiian Yamajo Soy Company. La Choy started selling hydrolyzed vegetable protein based soy sauce in 1933. Soy sauce is made either by hydrolysis; some commercial sauces have both chemical sauces. Flavor and aroma developments during production are attributed to non-enzymatic Maillard browning. Variation is achieved as the result of different methods and durations of fermentation, different ratios of water and fermented soy, or through the addition of other ingredients. Traditional soy sauces are made by mixing soybeans and grain with mold cultures such as Aspergillus oryzae and other related microorga

Hau Nui Wind Farm

The Hau Nui Wind Farm is a 15-turbine wind farm located 21 kilometres south-east of Martinborough, in the South Wairarapa District of New Zealand. Hau Nui was the first wind farm built in New Zealand; the wind farm was built in two stages and the completed capacity is 8.65 MW. Hau Nui wind farm is located on a ridge adjacent to White Rock Road, the main road between Martinborough and White Rock. Stage 1 is situated on Range Road near its intersection with White Rock Road. Stage 2 is located one kilometre south of Stage 1 on Range Road; the site has an average wind speed of 9.2–9.5 metres per second. Hau Nui has a total of fifteen Enercon E-40 wind turbines; the seven Stage 1 turbines are third-generation turbines. The eight Stage 2 turbines are versions of the same Enercon E-40 model, each generating 600 kW each; the turbines in both stages are 46 metres tall to the hub, have rotor diameters of 40 metres. Electricity generated by Hau Nui is injected into the local distribution grid; the 400 V electricity generated by each turbine is stepped up by transformers at the base of the turbine - to 11,000 V for stage 1 turbines and 33,000 V for stage 2 turbines.

33 kV lines from stage 2 take electricity 24 kilometres to Martinborough to supply the town. Stage 1 turbines connect to 11 kV lines to supply the local area, or connect to the Stage 2 to Martinborough 33 kV lines through a 750 kVA transformer to the north side of the stage. During peak demand, electricity generated by Hau Nui is used by Martinborough and the eastern South Wairarapa district. During off-peak, Hau Nui electricity can supply the entire South Wairarapa district via 33 kV lines connecting Martinborough with Featherston and Pirinoa. If local demand is low, some electricity may be exported to the national grid through Transpower's Greytown substation. Wind power in New Zealand Official website

Woodhaven, Queens

Woodhaven is a middle-class neighborhood located in the central section of the New York City borough of Queens. It is bordered on the north by Park Lane South and Forest Park, on the east by Richmond Hill, on the south by Ozone Park and Atlantic Avenue, on the west by the Cypress Hills neighborhood of Brooklyn. Woodhaven, once known as Woodville, has one of the greatest tree populations in the borough and is known for its proximity to the hiking trails of Forest Park. Woodhaven contains a mixture of urban and suburban land uses, with both low-density residential and commercial sections, it is home to people of many different ethnicities. Woodhaven is located in Queens Community District 9 and its ZIP Code is 11421, it is patrolled by the New York City Police Department's 102nd Precinct. Politically, Woodhaven is represented by the New York City Council's 28th, 30th, 32nd Districts. Jamaica Avenue, the neighborhood's main thoroughfare, has its beginnings in an ancient Native American trail, the Old Rockaway Trail.

The northern boundary of the Rockaway territory was the terminal moraine of the Wisconsin glacier, which formed the ridges of Forest Park. According to the New York City Parks Department, Forest Park was inhabited by the Rockaway and Lenape Native Americans "until the Dutch West India Company settled the area in 1635." Native Americans in the area used. European settlement in Woodhaven began in the mid-18th century as a small town that revolved around farming, with the Ditmar, Wyckoff and Snediker families. British troops flanked General George Washington's Continental Army by a silent night-march from Gravesend, Brooklyn through the defended "Jamaica Pass" located in Brooklyn, to win the Battle of Long Island, Queens—the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, the first battle after the Declaration of Independence. Woodhaven became the site of two racetracks: the Union Course and the Centerville. Union Course was a nationally famous racetrack situated in the area now bounded by 78th Street, 82nd Street, Jamaica Avenue and Atlantic Avenue.

The Union Course was the site of a novelty at the time. These courses were without grandstands; the custom of conducting a single, four-mile race consisting of as many heats as were necessary to determine a winner, gave way to programs consisting of several races. Match races between horses from the South against those from the North drew crowds as high as 70,000. Several hotels were built in the area to accommodate the racing crowds. A Connecticut Yankee, John R. Pitkin, developed the eastern area as a workers' village and named it Woodville. In 1853, he launched a newspaper; that same year, the residents petitioned for a local post office. To avoid confusion with a Woodville located upstate, the residents agreed to change the name to Woodhaven; the original boundaries extended as far south as Liberty Avenue. Two Frenchmen named Charles Lalance and Florian Grosjean launched the village as a manufacturing community in 1863, by opening a tin factory and improving the process of tin stamping; as late as 1900, the surrounding area, was still farmland, from Atlantic Avenue one could see as far south as Jamaica Bay, site of present-day John F. Kennedy International Airport.

Since 1894, Woodhaven's local newspaper has been the Leader-Observer. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Woodhaven was 56,674, an increase of 2,525 from the 54,149 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 853.08 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 66.4 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 17.3% White, 6.1% African American, 0.4% Native American, 17.4% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 2.4% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 53.5% of the population. The entirety of Community Board 9, which comprises Kew Gardens, Richmond Hill, Woodhaven, had 148,465 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 84.3 years. This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are youth and middle-aged adults: 22% are between the ages of between 0–17, 30% between 25–44, 27% between 45–64; the ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 17% and 7% respectively.

As of 2017, the median household income in Community Board 9 was $69,916. In 2018, an estimated 22% of Woodhaven and Kew Gardens residents lived in poverty, compared to 19% in all of Queens and 20% in all of New York City. One in twelve residents were unemployed, compared to 9 % in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 55% in Woodhaven and Kew Gardens, higher than the boroughwide and citywide rates of 53% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Woodhaven and Kew Gardens are considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying. Woodhaven is majority Hispanic/Latino, it consists of small number of African Americans, a growing number of Asian Americans. Woodhaven is a residential semi-suburban neighborhood. Commercial zones are restricted to Jamaica Avenue, a west-east artery which bisects Woodhaven, as well as Atlantic Avenue on the southern border of Woodhaven. Geographically, southern Woodhaven is flat, while northern Woodh