Mujahideen is the plural form of mujahid, the term for one engaged in Jihad. Its widespread use in English began with reference to the guerrilla-type military groups led by the Islamist Afghan fighters in the Soviet–Afghan War, now extends to other jihadist groups in various countries. In its roots, Mujahideen refers to any person performing Jihad. In its post-classical meaning, Jihad refers to an act, spiritually comparable in reward to promoting Islam during the early 600s CE; these acts could be as simple as sharing a considerable amount of your income with the poor, provided that the poor in question are Muslim. The modern term of mujahideen referring to spiritual Muslim warriors, originates in the 19th century when some tribal leaders in Afghanistan fought against the British attempts to stop raids on India, it began in 1829 when a religious man, Sayyid Ahmed Shah Brelwi, came back to the village of Sitana from a pilgrimage to Mecca and began preaching war against the ‘infidels’ in the area defining the Northwest border of British India.
Although he died in battle, the sect he had created survived and the Mujahideen gained more power and prominence. During the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the Mujahideen were said to accept any fleeing Sepoys and recruit them into their ranks; as time went by the sect grew larger until it was not only conducting bandit raids, but controlling larger areas in Afghanistan. Usman dan Fodio Jahangir Khoja Ma al-'Aynayn Muhammad Ibn'Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi Muhammad Ahmed Al Mahdi Mehmed V Omar Mukhtar Imam Shamil Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosoewirjo Basmachi opponents of Tsarism and Bolshevism in Central Asia called themselves mojahed; the modern phenomenon of jihadism that presents jihad as the casus belli for insurgencies, guerrilla warfare and international terrorism, dates back to the 20th century and draws on early-to-mid-20th century Islamist doctrines such as Qutbism. Arguably the best-known mujahideen outside the Islamic world, various loosely aligned Afghan opposition groups rebelled against the government of the pro-Soviet Democratic Republic of Afghanistan during the late 1970s.
At the DRA's request, the Soviet Union brought forces into the country to aid the government from 1979. The mujahideen fought against DRA troops during the Soviet -- Afghan War. Afghanistan's resistance movement originated in chaos and, at first, regional warlords waged all of its fighting locally; as warfare became more sophisticated, outside support and regional coordination grew. The basic units of mujahideen organization and action continued to reflect the decentralized nature of Afghan society and strong loci of competing mujahideen and tribal groups in isolated areas among the mountains; the seven main mujahideen parties allied as the political bloc called Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen. Many Muslims from other countries assisted the various mujahideen groups in Afghanistan; some groups of these veterans became significant players in conflicts in and around the Muslim world. Osama bin Laden from a wealthy family in Saudi Arabia, was a prominent organizer and financier of an all-Arab Islamist group of foreign volunteers.
These foreign fighters became known as "Afghan Arabs" and their efforts were coordinated by Abdullah Yusuf Azzam. Although the mujahideen were aided by the Pakistani, U. S. and Saudi governments, the mujahideen's primary source of funding was private donors and religious charities throughout the Muslim world—particularly in the Persian Gulf. Jason Burke recounts that "as little as 25 per cent of the money for the Afghan jihad was supplied directly by states." Mujahideen forces caused serious casualties to the Soviet forces, made the war costly for the Soviet Union. In 1989 the Soviet Union withdrew its forces from Afghanistan. Many districts and cities fell to the mujahideen. However, the mujahideen did not establish a united government, many of the larger mujahideen groups began to fight each other over power in Kabul. After several years of devastating fighting, a village mullah named Mohammed Omar organized a new armed movement with the backing of Pakistan; this movement became known as the Taliban, referring to how most Taliban had grown up in refugee camps in Pakistan during the 1980s and were taught in the Saudi-backed Wahhabi madrassas, religious schools known for teaching a fundamentalist interpretation of Islam.
Veteran mujahideen confronted this radical splinter group in 1996. While more than one group in Iran have called themselves mujahideen, the most famous is the People's Mujahedin of Iran, as of 2014 an Iraq-based Islamic Socialist militant organization that advocates the overthrow of Iran's current government; the group took part in the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Iran–Iraq War, in the Iraqi internal conflicts. Another mujahideen was an Islamic party led by Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani, it formed part of the National Front during the time of Mohammed Mosaddeq's oil nationalization, but broke away from Mosaddeq over his un-Islamic policies. From 1947 to 1961, local mujahideen fought against Burmese government soldiers in an attempt to have the Mayu peninsula in northern Arakan, Burma secede
Battle of Tora Bora
The Battle of Tora Bora was a military engagement that took place in the cave complex of Tora Bora, eastern Afghanistan, from December 6-17, 2001, during the opening stages of the United States invasion of Afghanistan. It was launched by the United States and its allies with the objective to capture or kill Osama bin Laden, the founder and leader of the militant organization al-Qaeda. Al-Qaeda and bin Laden were suspected of being responsible for the September 11 attacks three months prior. Tora Bora is located in the White Mountains near the Khyber Pass; the U. S stated that it was bin Laden's location at the time. In Operation Cyclone during the early 1980s, CIA officers had assisted the mujahideen in extending and shoring up the caves to use for resistance during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan; the US supported their effort and several years the Taliban formed and took control of the country, enforcing fundamentalist rule. Several cave areas were used in much earlier periods, as the difficult terrain formed a natural defensive position and had been used by tribal warriors fighting foreign invaders.
At the end of 2001, al-Qaeda fighters were still holding out in the mountains of the Tora Bora region. Aerial bombardment ensued, including the use of large bombs known as daisy cutters. On December 3, 2001, a group of 20 U. S. CIA National Clandestine Service and 5th Special Forces Group ODA572 team members, code-named Jawbreaker, were inserted by helicopter in Jalalabad, Afghanistan to begin an operation against them. On December 5, 2001, Afghan Northern Alliance fighters wrested control of the low ground below the mountain caves from al-Qaeda fighters; the Jawbreaker team and SF teams equipped with laser markers called in Air Force bombers to take out targets. The al-Qaeda fighters dug in for the battle. A week 70 special forces operators from the Army Delta Force's A Squadron, Air Force STS arrived overland by vehicle to support the bombing campaign with ground forces. Two British SBS Commandos from M Sqn were embedded with A Sqn Delta, one of whom continued to work for JSOC, albeit in a different capacity.
During the hours of darkness, the al-Qaeda fighters would light fires, which would reveal their specific location and aid laser-designated targeting for air-launched weapons. The Northern Alliance fighters continued a steady advance through the difficult terrain, backed by air strikes and U. S. and British Special Forces. Facing defeat, al-Qaeda forces negotiated a truce with a local Afghan militia commander to give them time to surrender their weapons. In retrospect, some critics believe that the truce was a device to allow important al-Qaeda figures, including Osama bin Laden, to escape. On December 12, 2001, the fighting flared again initiated by a rear guard buying time for the main force's escape through the White Mountains into the tribal areas of Pakistan. Tribal forces backed by U. S. special operations troops and air support pressed ahead against fortified al-Qaeda positions in caves and bunkers scattered throughout the mountainous region. Twelve British SBS commandos, one British Royal Signals Specialist from 63 Signals squadron, accompanied the U.
S. special operations forces in attacking the cave complex at Tora Bora. Special Forces Operators of the German KSK took part in the battle as well, they were responsible for protecting the flanks in the mountains and conducted reconnaissance missions. The U. S. focus increased on the Tora Bora. Local tribal militias and organized by Special Forces and CIA SAD paramilitary, numbering over 2,000 strong, continued to mass for an attack as heavy bombing continued of suspected al-Qaeda positions, it was reported that U. S forces found a few minor training camps. Journalist Matthew Forney, covering the battle, described being allowed access to see "rough bunkers" deep in the mountains, which he considered "remarkable."By December 17, 2001, the last cave complex had been taken and their defenders overrun. U. S forces continued searching the area into January, but did not find any signs of bin Laden or the al-Qaeda leadership. Former CIA officer Gary Berntsen led, he said that al-Qaeda detainees had reported that bin Laden escaped into Pakistan via an easterly route to Parachinar.
Berntsen believed that bin Laden could have been captured during the battle if the U. S military had committed more troops to the battle. In a 2005 interview, another former CIA agent, Gary Schroen, concurred with Berntsen's opinion. Pentagon documents suggest. In an October 2004 opinion article in The New York Times, General Tommy Franks, the general commander of U. S forces in Afghanistan at the time, wrote, We don't know to this day whether Mr. bin Laden was at Tora Bora in December 2001. Some intelligence sources said. Tora Bora was teeming with Taliban and Qaeda operatives... but Mr. bin Laden was never within our grasp. Many enemy fighters fled through the rough terrain and into tribal areas of Pakistan to the south and east. Allied forces estimated that around 200 of the al-Qaeda fighters were killed during the battle, along with an unknown number of anti-Taliban tribal fighters. No coalition deaths were reported. In 2009, the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations led an investigation into the Battle of Tora Bora.
They concluded that Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and General Tommy Fran
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan. It was known as the North-West Frontier Province until 2010 when the name was changed to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by the 18th Amendment to Pakistan's Constitution, is known colloquially by various other names. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the third-largest province of Pakistan by the size of both population and economy, though it is geographically the smallest of four. Within Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa shares a border with Punjab, Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan, Islamabad, it is home to 17.9% of Pakistan's total population, with the majority of the province's inhabitants being Pashtuns. The province is the site of the ancient kingdom Gandhara, including the ruins of its capital Pushkalavati near modern-day Charsadda. A stronghold of Buddhism, the history of the region was characterized by frequent invasions under various Empires due to its geographical proximity to the Khyber Pass.
Since the 9/11 attacks in the United States in 2001, the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has been a major theatre of militancy and terrorism which intensified when the Taliban began an unsuccessful attempt to seize the control of the province in 2004. With the launch of Operation Zarb-e-Azb against the Taliban insurgency, the casualty and crime rates in the country as a whole dropped by 40.0% as compared to 2011–13, with greater drops noted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. As of July 2014, about 929,859 people were reported to be internally displaced from North Waziristan to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as a result of Operation Zarb-e-Azb. On March 2, 2017, the Government of Pakistan considered a proposal to merge the Federally Administered Tribal Areas with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, to repeal the Frontier Crimes Regulations, which are applicable to the tribal areas. However, some political parties have opposed the merger, called for the tribal areas to instead become a separate province of Pakistan.
On 24 May 2018, the National Assembly of Pakistan voted in favour of an amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan to merge the Federally Administered Tribal Areas with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly approved the historic FATA-KP merger bill on 28 May 2018 making FATA part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, signed by President Mamnoon Hussain, completing the process of this historic merger. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa means the "Khyber part of the land of the Pashtuns", while only the word Pakhtunkhwa means "Land of Pashtuns", according to some scholars, it means "Pashtun culture and society"; when the British established it as a province, they called it "North West Frontier Province" due to its relative location being in north west of their Indian Empire. After the creation of Pakistan, Pakistan continued with this name but a Pashtun nationalist party, Awami National Party demanded that the province name be changed to "Pakhtunkhwa", their logic behind that demand was that Punjabi people, Sindhi people and Balochi people have their provinces named after their ethnicities but, not the case for Pashtun people.
Pakistan Muslim League was against that name since it was too similar to Bacha Khan's demand of separate nation of Pashtunistan. PML-N wanted to name the province something other than which does not carry Pashtun identity in it as they argued that there were other minor ethnicities living in the province Hindkowans who spoke Hindko, thus the word Khyber was introduced with the name because it is the name of a major pass which connects Pakistan to Afghanistan. During the times of Indus Valley Civilization the modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's Khyber Pass, through Hindu Kush provided a route to other neighbouring regions and was used by merchants on trade excursions. From 1500 BCE, Indo-Aryan peoples started to enter in the region after having passed Khyber Pass; the Gandharan civilization, which reached its zenith between the sixth and first centuries BCE, which features prominently in the Hindu epic poem, the Mahabharatha, had one of its cores over the modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The modern day capital city of Peshawar was known in ancient times as Purushapura when the region was Hindu.
Vedic texts refer to the area as the Janapada of Pushkalavati. The area was once known to be a great center of learning. At around 516 BCE. Darius Hystaspes sent Scylax, a Greek seaman from Karyanda, to explore the course of the Indus river. Darius Hystaspes subsequently subdued north of Kabul. Gandhara was incorporated into the Persian Empire as one of its far easternmost satrapy system of government; the satrapy of Gandhara is recorded to have sent troops for Xerxes' invasion of Greece in 480 BCE. In the spring of 327 BCE Alexander the Great crossed the Indian Caucasus and advanced to Nicaea, where Omphis, king of Taxila and other chiefs joined him. Alexander dispatched part of his force through the valley of the Kabul River, while he himself advanced into modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's Bajaur and Swat regions with his troops. Having defeated the Aspasians, from whom he took 40,000 prisoners and 230,000 oxen, Alexander crossed the Gouraios and entered into the territory of the Assakenoi – in modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Alexander made Embolima his base. The ancient region of Peukelaotis submitted to the Greek invasion, leading to Ni
Tari Mangal is a town in the Kurram Valley at the Durand Line, near Spin Ghar, a part of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in Pakistan. Tari Mangal is 23 kilometres away from Parachinar, 10 kilometres from the town of Aryob in Zazi District, Afghanistan; the Pashtun tribe Mangal has been living in Tari Mangal since 1600 AD. From 1977–1988, during the Soviet–Afghan War, the city served as a Mujahideen camp. Weapons and funds from the United States, en route to Pakistan, were delivered to Afghanistan through the border at Tari Mangal, as well as its neighbouring region Torkham. Due to Tari Mangal's normal weather in summer, many people from hot areas in Pakistan visit Tari Mangal to enjoy cold weather. Current-day Tari Mangal was control by the Mangal tribe. At that time, prior to the formation of an independent Pakistan, Tari Mangal was a part of Hindustan. Tari Mangal, like Parachinar, was growing and thriving until war came to the area in 2007. Due to the Kurram Agency War April 2007, many government services were discontinued.
For example, from 2007 to 2014, all government schools were closed. With the exception of the Government Girls Primary School, all have now reopened. There are now three schools in Tari Mangal: Government High School Tari Mangal International Public School Tari Mangal, administered by education reformer and political activist Syed Ahmad Shah Government Girls Primary School, organized by the federal government Climate conditions in Tari Mangal are favorable. January and February are the harshest months due to snow and cold temperatures. Heavy fog and cold air coming from the Spin Ghar mountain range add to adverse weather conditions. From the middle of June to the middle of August, temperatures can be warm. During the rest of the year, the climate is moderate and considered to be ideal. In the summer months, there is no need for air conditioning or fans. Many people use the border between Pakistan and Afghanistan for trade. However, nowadays a significant number of locals reside and work abroad in places like the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, bringing prosperity back to the area.
Tari Mangal Post is a fort located in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in Pakistan. Its estimated elevation is 2174 meters above sea level. Latitude: 33°57'25.98" Longitude: 69°53'38" Tari Mangal is located 0.8 km from Ali Mangal Post. Its estimated elevation is 2079 meters above 6820.87 ft, 81850.44 in. Latitude: 33° 57' 44" North Logitude: 69° 56' 5" East Kotri Mangal Sursurang Gedu Gobazana Haq Dara Pewar Tangai Shelozan Tangai Mangal Loya Paktia
Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden rendered Usama bin Ladin, was a founder of the pan-Islamic militant organization al-Qaeda. He was a Saudi Arabian until 1994, a member of the wealthy bin Laden family, an ethnic Yemeni Kindite. Bin Laden's father was Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, a Saudi millionaire from Hadhramaut and the founder of the construction company, Saudi Binladin Group, his mother, Alia Ghanem, was from a secular middle-class family based in Syria. He was born in Saudi Arabia and studied at university in the country until 1979, when he joined Mujahideen forces in Pakistan fighting against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, he helped to fund the Mujahideen by funneling arms and fighters from the Arab world into Afghanistan, gained popularity among many Arabs. In 1988, he formed al-Qaeda, he was banished from Saudi Arabia in 1992, shifted his base to Sudan, until U. S. pressure forced him to leave Sudan in 1996. After establishing a new base in Afghanistan, he declared a war against the United States, initiating a series of bombings and related attacks.
Bin Laden was on the American Federal Bureau of Investigation's lists of Ten Most Wanted Fugitives and Most Wanted Terrorists for his involvement in the 1998 U. S. embassy bombings. From 2001 to 2011, bin Laden was a major target of the United States, as the FBI offered a $25 million bounty in their search for him. On May 2, 2011, bin Laden was shot and killed by United States Navy SEALs inside a private residential compound in Abbottabad, where he lived with a local family from Waziristan, during a covert operation conducted by members of the United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group and Central Intelligence Agency SAD/SOG operators on the orders of U. S. President Barack Obama. One of the most controversial, influential figures in the 20th and 21st centuries, bin Laden was described as a spiritual leader for al-Qaeda organization, he became one of the most symbolic figures in the Arab world following the Soviet withdrawal. Under his leadership, the al-Qaeda organization was responsible for the mass murder of 2,977 victims of the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
There is no universally accepted standard for transliterating Arabic words and Arabic names into English. The FBI and Central Intelligence Agency, as well as other U. S. governmental agencies, have used either "Usama bin Laden" or "Usama bin Ladin". Less common renderings include "Ussamah bin Ladin" and, in the French-language media, "Oussama ben Laden". Other spellings include "Binladen" or, as used by his family in the West, "Binladin"; the decapitalization of bin is based on the convention of leaving short prepositions and patronymics uncapitalized in surnames. The spellings with o and e come from a Persian-influenced pronunciation used in Afghanistan, where bin Laden spent many years. Osama bin Laden's full name, Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, means "Osama, son of Mohammed, son of Awad, son of Laden". "Mohammed" refers to bin Laden's father Mohammed bin Laden. The Arabic linguistic convention would be to refer to him as "Osama" or "Osama bin Laden", not "bin Laden" alone, as "bin Laden" is a patronymic, not a surname in the Western manner.
According to bin Laden's son Omar bin Laden, the family's hereditary surname is "al-Qahtani", but bin Laden's father, Mohammed bin Laden, never registered the name. Osama bin Laden had assumed the kunyah "Abū'Abdāllāh", his admirers have referred to him by several nicknames, including the "Prince" or "Emir", the "Sheik", the "Jihadist Sheik" or "Sheik al-Mujahid", "Hajj", the "Director". The word usāmah means "lion", earning him the nicknames "Lion" and "Lion Sheik". Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a son of Yemeni Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, a millionaire construction magnate with close ties to the Saudi royal family, Mohammed bin Laden's tenth wife, Syrian Hamida al-Attas. In a 1998 interview, bin Laden gave his birth date as March 10, 1957. Mohammed bin Laden divorced Hamida. Mohammed recommended Hamida to an associate. Al-Attas married Hamida in the late 1950s or early 1960s, they are still together; the couple had four children, bin Laden lived in the new household with three half-brothers and one half-sister.
The bin Laden family made $5 billion in the construction industry, of which Osama inherited around $25–30 million. Bin Laden was raised as a devout Sunni Muslim. From 1968 to 1976, he attended the élite secular Al-Thager Model School, he studied economics and business administration at King Abdulaziz University. Some reports suggest he earned a degree in civil engineering in 1979, or a degree in public administration in 1981. One source described him as "hard working". At university, bin Laden's main interest was religion, where he was involved in both "interpreting the Quran and jihad" and charitable work. Other interests included writing poetry.
Mount Sikaram is a mountain on the Afghanistan–Pakistan border, south of the Kabul River and Khyber Pass. At 4,755 m, it is Safēd Kōh, mountain range. Mount Sikaram is located north of the village Peiwar in Kurram Agency, its parent range, Spīn Ghar connects directly with the Shandūr offshoot of the Hindu Kush mountain system. Atop the range, temperatures can fall below 0 °C at any time of the year. A small valley on the slope of Mount Sikaram encompasses a number of villages and tribal regions—many significant—including Peiwar, Tari Mangal, Speena Shaga, Khewas; the Gawi Pass known as the Peiwar Kotal Pass, runs between the Kurram Valley and Afghanistan's Aryub Valley. 1878 British forces were victorious over Afghan forces and seized control of the Peiwar Pass in the Battle of Peiwar Kotal. 1878-1879 British surveyor George Batley Scott climbed the mountain during a campaign to survey Afghanistan. Hindukush Mountain ranges of Pakistan List of Mountains in Pakistan List of mountain ranges of the world List of Ultras of the Karakoram and Hindu Kush
Tora Bora is a cave complex, part of the Spīn Ghar mountain range of eastern Afghanistan. It is situated in the Pachir Aw Agam District of Nangarhar 50 km west of the Khyber Pass and 10 km north of the border of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in Pakistan. Tora Bora was known to be a stronghold location of the Taliban, used by military forces against the Soviet Union during the 1980s. Tora Bora and the surrounding Spīn Ghar range had natural caverns formed by streams eating into the limestone, expanded into a CIA-financed complex built for the Mujahedeen; the lithological nature of Tora Bora is schist. During the U. S. invasion of Afghanistan the cave complex was one of the strongholds of the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, according to Donald Rumsfeld. It was the location of the December 2001 Battle of Tora Bora, suspected hideout of Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, it was reported that in 2007, U. S. intelligence suspected Osama bin Laden planned to meet with top Al Qaeda and Taliban commanders at Tora Bora prior to the launch of a possible attack on Europe or the United States of America.
Tora Bora was variously described by the western media to be an "impregnable cave fortress" housing 2,000 men complete with a hospital, a hydroelectric power plant, offices, a hotel and ammunition stores, roads large enough to drive a tank into, sophisticated tunnel, ventilation systems. This fortress at Tora Bora had been developed as a CIA-financed complex built for the Mujahideen. Both the British and American press published detailed plans of the base; when shown a plan during an NBC interview, Donald Rumsfeld of the United States Secretary of Defense said "This is serious business, there's not one of those, there are many of those". An elaborate military operation was planned which included deployment of the CIA-US Special Operations Forces team with laser markers to guide non-stop heavy air strikes during 72 hours; when Tora Bora was captured by the U. S. and Afghan troops, no traces of the supposed "fortress" were found despite painstaking searches in the surrounding areas. Tora Bora turned out to be a system of 200 fighters.
While arms and ammunition stores were found, there were no traces of the advanced facilities claimed to exist. In an interview published by PBS, a Staff Sergeant from the U. S. Special Forces Operational Detachment Alpha 572 described the caves: Again, with the caves, they weren't these crazy mazes or labyrinths of caves that they described. Most of them were natural caves; some were supported with some pieces of wood maybe about the size of a 10-foot by 24-foot room, at the largest. They weren't real big. I know they made a spectacle out of that, how are we going to be able to get into them? We worried about that too, it turns out, when you go up there, there's just small bunkers, a lot of different ammo storage is up there. – Jeff, Staff Sgt. ODA 572 The complex was retaken by the Taliban, served as an important base for the Taliban insurgency. In 2017, Tora Bora was attacked and captured by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Khorasan Province, though the Afghan National Army soon recaptured it.
Qanat Zhawar Photo Gallery – The Telegraph Article on photographs – The New York Post