A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space and temperature extremes. Space suits are worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of loss of cabin pressure, are necessary for extravehicular activity, work done outside spacecraft. Space suits have been worn for such work in Earth orbit, on the surface of the Moon, en route back to Earth from the Moon. Modern space suits augment the basic pressure garment with a complex system of equipment and environmental systems designed to keep the wearer comfortable, to minimize the effort required to bend the limbs, resisting a soft pressure garment's natural tendency to stiffen against the vacuum. A self-contained oxygen supply and environmental control system is employed to allow complete freedom of movement, independent of the spacecraft. Three types of space suits exist for different purposes: IVA, EVA, IEVA. IVA suits are meant to be worn inside a pressurized spacecraft, are therefore lighter and more comfortable.
IEVA suits are meant for use such as the Gemini G4C suit. They include more protection from the harsh conditions of space, such as protection from micrometeorites and extreme temperature change. EVA suits, such as the EMU, are used outside spacecraft, for either planetary exploration or spacewalks, they must protect the wearer against all conditions of space, as well as provide mobility and functionality. Some of these requirements apply to pressure suits worn for other specialized tasks, such as high-altitude reconnaissance flight. At altitudes above the Armstrong limit, around 19,000 m, water boils at body temperature and pressurized suits are needed; the first full-pressure suits for use at extreme altitudes were designed by individual inventors as early as the 1930s. The first space suit worn by a human in space was the Soviet SK-1 suit worn by Yuri Gagarin in 1961. A space suit must perform several functions to allow its occupant to work safely and comfortably, inside or outside a spacecraft.
It must provide: A stable internal pressure. This can be less than Earth's atmosphere, as there is no need for the space suit to carry nitrogen. Lower pressure allows for greater mobility, but requires the suit occupant to breathe pure oxygen for a time before going into this lower pressure, to avoid decompression sickness. Mobility. Movement is opposed by the pressure of the suit. See the Theories of space suit design section. Supply of breathable oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide. Unlike on Earth, where heat can be transferred by convection to the atmosphere, in space, heat can be lost only by thermal radiation or by conduction to objects in physical contact with the exterior of the suit. Since the temperature on the outside of the suit varies between sunlight and shadow, the suit is insulated, air temperature is maintained at a comfortable level. A communication system, with external electrical connection to the spacecraft or PLSS Means of collecting and containing solid and liquid bodily waste Advanced suits better regulate the astronaut's temperature with a Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment in contact with the astronaut's skin, from which the heat is dumped into space through an external radiator in the PLSS.
Additional requirements for EVA include: Shielding against ultraviolet radiation Limited shielding against particle radiation Means to maneuver, release, and/or tether onto a spacecraft Protection against small micrometeoroids, some traveling at up to 27,000 kilometers per hour, provided by a puncture-resistant Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, the outermost layer of the suit. Experience has shown the greatest chance of exposure occurs near the gravitational field of a moon or planet, so these were first employed on the Apollo lunar EVA suits; as part of astronautical hygiene control, a space suit is essential for extravehicular activity. The Apollo/Skylab A7L suit included eleven layers in all: an inner liner, a LCVG, a pressure bladder, a restraint layer, another liner, a Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment consisting of five aluminized insulation layers and an external layer of white Ortho-Fabric; this space suit is capable of protecting the astronaut from temperatures ranging from −156 °C to 121 °C.
During exploration of the Moon or Mars, there will be the potential for lunar/Martian dust to be retained on the space suit. When the space suit is removed on return to the spacecraft, there will be the potential for the dust to contaminate surfaces and increase the risks of inhalation and skin exposure. Astronautical hygienists are testing materials with reduced dust retention times and the potential to control the dust exposure risks during planetary exploration. Novel ingress/egress approaches, such as suitports, are being explored as well. In NASA space suits, communications are provided via a cap worn over the head, which includes earphones and a microphone. Due to the coloration of the version used for Apollo and Skylab, which resembled the coloration of the comic strip character Snoopy, these caps became known as "Snoopy caps." To supply enough oxygen for respiration, a space suit using pure oxygen must have a pressure of about 32.4 kPa, equal to the 20.7 kPa partial pres
Oz is an American television drama series created by Tom Fontana, who wrote or co-wrote all of the series' 56 episodes. It was the first one-hour dramatic television series to be produced by the premium cable network HBO. Oz ran for six seasons. "Oz" is the nickname for the Oswald State Correctional Facility Oswald State Penitentiary, a fictional level 4 maximum-security state prison. The nickname "Oz" is a reference to the classic film The Wizard of Oz, which popularized the phrase, "There's no place like home." In contrast, a poster for the series uses the tagline: "It's no place like home". Moreover, most of the series' story arcs are set in "Emerald City", a wing named after a setting from the fictional Land of Oz in L. Frank Baum's Oz books, first described in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz; the majority of Oz's story arcs are set in "Emerald City", named for a setting from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. In this experimental unit of the prison, unit manager Tim McManus emphasizes rehabilitation and learning responsibility during incarceration, rather than carrying out purely punitive measures.
Emerald City is an controlled environment, with a managed balance of members from each racial and social group, intended to ease tensions among these various factions. Under McManus and Warden Leo Glynn, all inmates in "Em City" struggle to fulfill their own needs; some fight for power -- either over other inmate factions and individuals. Others, corrections officers and inmates alike want to survive, some long enough to make parole and others just to see the next day; the show's narrator, inmate Augustus Hill, explains the show, provides context, thematic analysis, a sense of humor. Oz chronicles McManus' attempts to keep control over the inmates of Em City. There are many groups of inmates throughout the show, not everyone within each group survives the show's events. There are the African-American Homeboys and Muslims, the Wiseguys, the Aryan Brotherhood, the Latinos of El Norte, the Irish, the Gays, the Bikers, the Christians and many other individuals not affiliated with one particular group.
In contrast to the dangerous criminals, character Tobias Beecher gives a look at a law-abiding man who made one fatal drunk-driving mistake. Actors listed as "recurring" are credited as "also starring" in the opening title sequence, actors listed as "guests" are credited in the end credits. Oz took advantage of the freedoms of premium cable to show elements of coarse language, drug use, frontal nudity and male rape, as well as ethnic and religious conflicts that would have been unacceptable to traditional advertiser-supported American broadcast television. In Australia, Oz was screened uncensored on Channel "OH" on Optus TV free-to-air channel, SBS; this was the case in Brazil, where it was aired by the SBT Network Corporation, late at night. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, it was aired on the federal TV station called FTV. In Canada, Oz aired on the Showcase Channel at Friday 10 p.m. EST. In Croatia and Slovenia, the show was aired late at night on public, non-commercial, state-owned channels HRT, ETV, RTV SLO, respectively.
In Denmark, it appeared late at night on the non-commercial public service channel DR1. In Finland, it broadcast on the free-to-air channel Nelonen. In France, the show aired on commercial cable channel'Serie Club,' late at night. In Malaysia, full episodes of Oz aired late at night on ntv7, while the censored version aired during the day. In the Netherlands, Oz aired on the commercial channel RTL 5. In New Zealand Oz aired on The Box at 9.30pm on Wednesdays in the early 2000s. In Norway and Sweden, it aired on TV3 late at night. In Panama, Oz aired on RPC-TV Channel 4 in a late-night hour. In Portugal, Oz aired late at night on SIC one of the SIC channels in the cable network. In Serbia, Oz aired on RTV BK Telecom. In Spain, the show aired on premium channel Canal+. In Turkey, Oz was aired on Cine5. In Japan, it aired on SuperChannel from 29 December 2001 to 22 July 2005. On April 21, 2009, Variety announced that starting May 31, DirecTV will broadcast all 56 episodes in their original form without commercials and in up-scaled "high definition" on The 101 Network available to all subscribers.
The episodes will be available through DirecTV's On Demand service. The series was co-produced by HBO and Rysher Entertainment, the underlying U. S. rights lie with Warner Bros.. Entertainment, which has released the entire series on DVD in North America; the international rights were owned by Rysher Paramount Pictures/Domestic Television after that company acquired Rysher. CBS Studios International owns the international TV rights, Paramount Home Entertainment/CBS DVD owns the international DVD rights; the first two seasons of Oz were released on VHS in box sets. HBO Home Video has released all six seasons of Oz on DVD in Region 1 and Region 2; the Re
Harmony, in music, is the use of simultaneous pitches, or chords. Harmony or harmonious may refer to: Apache Harmony, a Java programming language Open source implementation ECMAScript Harmony, codename for the sixth edition of the scripting language Harmony, a music visualizer program Harmony, a never-completed Qt-like software widget toolkit Harmony OS known as Hongmeng OS, a mobile operating system under development by Huawei Harmony search, an evolutionary algorithm used in optimization problems Harmony technology, developed by RealNetworks. National Harmony Party, a former Latvian political party dissolved in 2010 to create the former. Harmony Centre, a former Latvian political alliance. Consonant harmony, in linguistics The Game of Harmony, a 1990 video game published by Accolade Harmony, a segment of the International Space Station Harmonia, goddess of harmony and concord Harmony Airways, based in Vancouver, Canada Harmony Books, an imprint of the Crown Publishing Group, itself part of publisher Penguin Random House Harmony Gold Harmony Korine, American film director and screenwriter Harmony Science Academy MS Harmony of the Seas, a 2016 Royal Caribbean International cruise ship Harmony Society, communal, German-American religious group that existed from around 1805 to 1905 Vowel harmony, in linguistics Harmony, a character from Toy Story 4 All pages with titles containing harmony Harmonia Harmony School New Harmony Socialist Harmonious Society, Chinese socio-economic vision in 2000s