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A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy to seaport for ships or airport for aircraft. The word spaceport, more so cosmodrome, has traditionally been used for sites capable of launching spacecraft into orbit around Earth or on interplanetary trajectories. However, rocket launch sites for purely sub-orbital flights are sometimes called spaceports, as in recent years new and proposed sites for suborbital human flights have been referred to or named'spaceports'. Space stations and proposed future bases on the moon are sometimes called spaceports, in particular if intended as a base for further journeys; the term rocket launch site is used for any facility. It may contain suitable sites to mount a transportable launch pad, it is surrounded by a large safety area called a rocket range or missile range. The range includes the area over which launched rockets are expected to fly, within which some components of the rockets may land. Tracking stations are sometimes located in the range to assess the progress of the launches.

Major spaceports include more than one launch complex, which can be rocket launch sites adapted for different types of launch vehicles. For launch vehicles with liquid propellant, suitable storage facilities and, in some cases, production facilities are necessary. On-site processing facilities for solid propellants are common. A spaceport may include runways for takeoff and landing of aircraft to support spaceport operations, or to enable support of HTHL or HTVL winged launch vehicles; the first rockets to reach space were V-2 rockets launched from Peenemünde, Germany in 1944 during World War II. After the war, 70 complete V-2 rockets were brought to White Sands for test launches, with 47 of them reaching altitudes between 100 km and 213 km; the world's first spaceport for orbital and human launches, the Baikonur Cosmodrome in southern Kazakhstan, started as a Soviet military rocket range in 1955. It achieved the first orbital flight in October 1957; the exact location of the cosmodrome was held secret.

Guesses to its location were misdirected by a name in common with a mining town 320 km away. The position became known in 1957 outside the Soviet Union only after U-2 planes had identified the site by following railway lines in the Kazakh SSR, although Soviet authorities did not confirm the location for decades; the Baikonur Cosmodrome achieved the first launch of a human into space in 1961. The launch complex used, Site 1, has reached a special symbolic significance and is called Gagarin's Start. Baikonur was the primary Soviet cosmodrome, is still used by Russia under a lease arrangement with Kazakhstan. In response to the early Soviet successes, the United States built up a major spaceport complex at Cape Canaveral in Florida. A large number of unmanned flights, as well as the early human flights, were carried out at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. For the Apollo programme, an adjacent spaceport, Kennedy Space Center, was constructed, achieved the first manned mission to the lunar surface in July 1969.

It was most of their runway landings. For details on the launch complexes of the two spaceports, see List of Cape Canaveral and Merritt Island launch sites; the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana, is the major European spaceport, with satellite launches that benefit from the location 5 degrees north of the equator. In October 2003 the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center achieved the first Chinese human spaceflight. Breaking with tradition, in June 2004 on a runway at Mojave Air and Space Port, California, a human was for the first time launched to space in a funded, suborbital spaceflight, intended to pave the way for future commercial spaceflights; the spacecraft, SpaceShipOne, was launched by a carrier airplane taking off horizontally. At Cape Canaveral, SpaceX in 2015 made the first successful landing and recovery of a first stage used in a vertical satellite launch. Rockets can most reach satellite orbits if launched near the equator in an easterly direction, as this maximizes use of the Earth's rotational speed.

Such launches provide a desirable orientation for arriving at a geostationary orbit. For polar orbits and Molniya orbits this does not apply. Advantages of high altitude launch are reduced vertical distance to travel and a thinner atmosphere for the rocket to penetrate. However, altitude of the launch site is not a driving factor in spaceport placement because most of the delta-v for a launch is spent on achieving the required horizontal orbital speed; the small gain from a few kilometers of extra altitude does not off-set the logistical costs of ground transport in mountainous terrain. Many spaceports have been placed at existing military installations, such as intercontinental ballistic missile ranges, which are not always physically ideal sites for launch. A rocket launch site is built as far as possible away from major population centers in order to mitigate risk to bystanders should a rocket experience a catastrophic failure. In many cases a launch site is built close to major bodies of water to ensure that no components are shed over populated areas.

A spaceport site is large enough that, should a vehicle explode, it will not endanger human lives or adjacent launch pads. Planned sites of spaceports for sub-orbital tourist spaceflight make use of existing ground infrastructure, including runways; the nature of the local view from 100 km altitude is a factor to consider. USA: Eastern Range, Western Range; the space tourism industr


Phyllobates is a genus of poison dart frogs native to Central and South America, from Nicaragua to Colombia. Phyllobates contains the most poisonous species of the golden poison frog, they are typical of the poison dart frogs, in that all species have bright warning coloration, have varying degrees of toxicity. Only species of Phyllobates are used by natives of South American tribes as sources of poison for their hunting darts; the most toxic of the many poisonous alkaloids these frogs emit from their skins is batrachotoxin, alongside a wide variety of other toxic compounds. Phyllobates used to contain many of the species. However, it now just contains those six members within the Phyllobates bicolor species group; these are: All these different species within the genus exhibit a diversity in color. Some examples are, P. terribilis, with color morphs of "mint", "yellow", "orange". P. vittatus, another example, is always black as a ground color, but can show yellow stripes, orange stripes, red stripes, turquoise, green, or blue legs, etc.

The bicolor dart frog can range from yellow to orange, from black legs to green legs, to a uniform color of any of the aforementioned color morphs. P. aurotaenia specimens are orange. They are always smaller than P. vittatus, beyond locality, this is the best way to differentiate between the two in the field or in the hobby. Allopumiliotoxin 267A Pumiliotoxin 251D "Amphibian Species of the World – Phyllobates Duméril and Bibron, 1841". Archived from the original on 2006-02-17. Retrieved 2006-07-21. Cogger, H. G.. G. Zweifel. Encyclopedia of Reptiles & Amphibians Second Edition. Fog City Press. ISBN 1-877019-69-0

William Wallace Wotherspoon

William Wallace Wotherspoon was a United States Army general who served as Chief of Staff of the United States Army in 1914. Wotherspoon was born in Washington, D. C. on November 16, 1850, the son of Army surgeon Alexander Summerville Wotherspoon and Louisa Kuhn Wotherspoon. Alexander Wotherspoon was a veteran of the Mexican War. William Wotherspoon was educated in private schools and served aboard ship as a mate in the United States Navy from 1870 to 1873. Wotherspoon was commissioned a second lieutenant and assigned to the 12th Infantry in October 1873. From 1874 to 1881, he served in the West during the Indian wars as a troop officer and quartermaster. After a year of absence from the Army for being sick, he became the superintendent and did much needed work to expand the Soldiers' Home in Washington, D. C, he served at Fort Sully and at Mount Vernon Barracks, where he trained a company of Apache prisoners from 1890 to 1894. In 1893 he became an hereditary member of the Aztec Club of 1847. In 1894, he became aide to General Oliver O. Howard, commander of the Department of the East, was the Rhode Island College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts first Professor Military Science and Tactics from 1894 to 1898.

In 1898, while on recruiting duty at Fort McPherson, he organized the 3rd 12th Infantry. He served in the Philippines against insurgents and as collector of customs at Iloilo from 1899 to 1901. In 1901, he was transferred to the 30th Infantry, he commanded the 2nd Battalion, 6th Infantry at Fort Leavenworth and taught at the Command and General Staff College from 1902 to 1904. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel and assigned to the 14th Infantry in 1904 and was transferred to the 19th Infantry and became the director of the U. S. Army War College from 1904 to 1906. Wotherspooon was the chief of staff of the Army of Cuban Pacification from 1906 to 1907. Wotherspoon served as the acting president of the Army War College and chief of the Third Division, General Staff in 1907, he was promoted to brigadier general in October 1907, advanced over 140 officers with more seniority. He was president of the Army War College, serving from 1907 to 1909 and again from 1910 to 1912. Wotherspoon was instrumental in transforming the Army War College from an adjunct of the General Staff to an autonomous educational institution, he became assistant to the chief of staff from 1901 to 1910 and again in 1912 to 1914.

He was promoted to major general in May 1912 and served as the commander of the Department of the Gulf until that September. Wotherspoon became the Chief of Staff of the United States Army in 1914. During his term, he highlighted the shortage of experienced officers and noncommissioned as the Army began to prepare for possible involvement in World War I, he emphasized the need to improve coastal defenses to match battleships that were increasing in size and armament, oversaw establishment of the Army's first aviation section as a branch of the Signal Corps, completion of the Panama Canal and its opening to ship traffic. Wotherspoon retired upon reaching the mandatory retirement age of 64 on November 16, 1914 After retiring, he was New York State Superintendent of Public Works from 1915 to 1920. Wotherspoon died in Washington, D. C. on October 21, 1921. He was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery, Section 3, Site 1949. In 1887, while stationed in northern New York, he married Mary C. Adams of New York.

They were the parents of Alexander Somerville Wotherspoon. Alexander Wotherspoon was a career officer in the United States Navy, retired as a rear admiral. "Biographies: Major General William Wallace Wotherspoon". Virtual Library, Army Historical Foundation. Retrieved September 16, 2008. Bell, William Gardner. Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff, 1775–2005: Portraits & Biographical Sketches of the Army's Senior Officers. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Center of Military History, United States Army. P. 106. ISBN 978-0-16-072376-6. Wotherspoon, William Wallace. "The Training of the Efficient Soldier". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Sage Publications. 26: 149–160. Doi:10.1177/000271620502600114. Works by or about William Wallace Wotherspoon at Internet Archive "William Wallace Wotherspoon, Major General, United States Army". April 22, 2006. Retrieved September 16, 2008

The Pretty Reckless discography

American rock band The Pretty Reckless has released three studio albums, two extended plays, 11 singles and 13 music videos. Named The Reckless, the band was formed in early 2009, with Taylor Momsen in the vocals, Ben Phillips in lead guitar, Mark Damon in bass and Jamie Perkins in drums. During 2009, they played some small concerts in New York City and opened for The Veronicas on their North American tour. Following the end of that tour, Interscope Records signed a record deal with the band, their debut single which became a top-20 hit on the UK Singles Chart. The song was featured on their debut studio album, Light Me Up, released in August 2010; the album had sold over one million units in combined singles and albums sales as of January 2014. In March 2012, the band released their second extended play, Hit Me Like a Man EP, which included three original tracks. In 2013, The Pretty Reckless signed with label Razor & Tie to release their second studio album, Going to Hell, in March 2014; the album peaked at number five on the Billboard 200, spawned five singles, of which three topped Billboard's Mainstream Rock chart—"Heaven Knows", "Messed Up World", "Follow Me Down".

In October 2016, the band released a follow-up album, Who You Selling For, which peaked at number 13 on the Billboard 200. Its lead single, "Take Me Down", topped the US Mainstream Rock chart, making The Pretty Reckless the first act to send its first four entries to number one on that chart, as well as the female-fronted group with the most number ones. Official website The Pretty Reckless at AllMusic The Pretty Reckless discography at Discogs The Pretty Reckless discography at MusicBrainz

Mapledurham Watermill

Mapledurham Watermill is a historic watermill in the civil parish of Mapledurham in the English county of Oxfordshire. It is driven by the head of water created on the River Thames; the mill was built in the 15th century, further extended in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. It is a grade II * is preserved in an operational state; the mill houses a micro hydro-electric power station, using a 3.6-metre Archimedes' screw turbine to generate electricity for sale to the National Grid. The turbine produces some 83.3 Kilowatts, sufficient to power about 140 homes. A mill was present at Mapledurham at the time of the Domesday Book; the central section of the current mill building dates back to the 15th century. The mill had a single water wheel on the river side of the building; the mill was increased in size in the 1670s, a leat was constructed to drive a second water wheel on the village side. It is this second wheel, still in use today. In 1690, the mill was leased to James Web for the sum of £60 per year.

Around 1700, he expanded the mill again to allow him to install the equipment to produce the refined flour, becoming popular. His son Daniel Webb took over from him in 1726 at a rent of £100. In 1747, Thomas Atrum took over the mill at a rent of £150, raised to £205 in 1776. In 1777 a barn was added on the mill island, a wharf built to allow the mill to supply flour to the London market by barge. However, by 1784 Thomas Atrum was bankrupt; the mill continued to flourish, as late as 1823 plans were drawn up to rebuild the mill in classical style. The advent of cheap imported flour from North America damaged the mill's prosperity, but it remained in use until just after the Second World War. On 24 October 1951, the watermill was designated as a grade II* listed building, it was restored and brought back into use in 1980. In 2011, work started on the installation of a new Archimedes' screw turbine on the river side of the watermill in order to generate electricity; this was built to provide power to Mapledurham House, replaced a turbine installed in the 1920s, no longer functional.

At the time the turbine was inaugurated in 2012, it was the most powerful turbine on the River Thames, the largest of its type in the country. The mill is located in the grounds of Mapledurham House, like the house is open to visitors on weekend and bank holiday afternoons from April to September; the water mill is working on opening days, visitors can visit both main floors of the mill, see its operation. Admission is charged, joint tickets are available that allow admission to both house and mill. Access is by car down the narrow and steep lane, Mapledurham village's only road connection, or by a boat service that runs from Thameside Promenade in Reading on all opening days; the mill building is best known, has gained worldwide recognition, for being featured on the cover of heavy metal band Black Sabbath's self-titled debut album in 1970. The watermill is known for its starring role in the 1976 film of The Eagle Has Landed, where the mill leat is the scene of the dramatic rescue of a local girl by a German paratrooper that results in the unmasking of Steiner and his men.

The mill appears in the introductory credits to the BBC television programme, Richard Hammond's Blast Lab, as the supposed hidden location of the underground lab. The mill appears in the Midsomer Murders episode The Fisher King, as the scene for the discovery of a body. List of watermills in the United Kingdom Mapledurham Watermill web site Page on the watermill from the Mapledurham Estate website

Geoff Cottrill

Geoff Cottrill is an American marketer who held top positions at Procter & Gamble, Coca-Cola and Converse. He is the father of the musical artist Clairo. Cottrill held the position of Vice President at Starbucks Entertainment Hear Music in Seattle, Washington. Between 2007 and 2016, he was Chief Marketing Officer of Converse, a subsidiary of Nike, Inc.. In 2014, he was appointed vice-chair of MusiCares, a philanthropic organization associated with the Grammy Awards. Between 2015 and 2017, he was president of American operations at MullenLowe Lintas Group. In 2010, he was named one of Brandweek's "Marketers of the Year". Cottrill is the father of the musical artist Clairo. According to The New York Times, her record label signing was made possible by her father's connection to Jon Cohen, co-founder of The Fader and an executive at the publication's marketing agency, Cornerstone, his role in the launching of his daughter's professional career attracted scrutiny from some online communities with regards to the singer's authenticity.

"Former Converse CMO Geoff Cottrill to Lead MullenLowe Boston". Adage. "From Brand to Agency-Side Feat. MullenLowe U. S.'s Geoff Cottrill · MullenLowe Group". Mullenlowe Group. "Kimpton Group Holding LLC - Relationship Science". Relationship Science