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Spamming is the use of messaging systems to send an unsolicited message advertising, as well as sending messages on the same website. While the most recognized form of spam is email spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online classified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social spam, spam mobile apps, television advertising and file sharing spam, it is named after Spam, a luncheon meat, by way of a Monty Python sketch about a restaurant that has Spam in every dish and where patrons annoyingly chant "Spam" over and over again. Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, infrastructures, IP ranges, domain names, it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mass mailings; the costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, which have been forced to add extra capacity to cope with the volume.

Spamming has been the subject of legislation in many jurisdictions. A person who creates spam is called a spammer; the term spam is derived from the 1970 Spam sketch of the BBC television comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus. The sketch, set in a cafe, has a waitress reading out a menu where every item but one includes Spam canned luncheon meat; as the waitress recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drown out all conversations with a song, repeating "Spam, Spam, Spam… Lovely Spam! Wonderful Spam!". The excessive amount of Spam mentioned is a reference to the ubiquity of it and other imported canned meat products in the UK after World War II as the country struggled to rebuild its agricultural base. In the 1980s the term was adopted to describe certain abusive users who frequented BBSs and MUDs, who would repeat "Spam" a huge number of times to scroll other users' text off the screen. In early chat-room services like PeopleLink and the early days of Online America, they flooded the screen with quotes from the Monty Python Spam sketch.

This was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It was used to prevent members of rival groups from chatting—for instance, Star Wars fans invaded Star Trek chat rooms, filling the space with blocks of text until the Star Trek fans left, it came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple posting—the repeated posting of the same message. The unwanted message would appear in many, if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch; the first usage of this sense was by Joel Furr This use had become established—to "spam" Usenet was to flood newsgroups with junk messages. The word was attributed to the flood of "Make Money Fast" messages that clogged many newsgroups during the 1990s. In 1998, the New Oxford Dictionary of English, which had only defined "spam" in relation to the trademarked food product, added a second definition to its entry for "spam": "Irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of newsgroups or users."

There was an effort to differentiate between types of newsgroup spam. Messages that were crossposted to too many newsgroups at once, as opposed to those that were posted too were called velveeta, but this term did not persist. In the late 19th century, Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations; the first recorded instance of a mass unsolicited commercial telegram is from May 1864, when some British politicians received an unsolicited telegram advertising a dentist. The earliest documented spam was a message advertising the availability of a new model of Digital Equipment Corporation computers sent by Gary Thuerk to 393 recipients on ARPANET on May 3, 1978. Rather than send a separate message to each person, the standard practice at the time, he had an assistant, Carl Gartley, write a single mass email. Reaction from the net community was fiercely negative. Spamming had been practiced as a prank by participants in multi-user dungeon games, to fill their rivals' accounts with unwanted electronic junk.

The first major commercial spam incident started on March 5, 1994, when a husband and wife team of lawyers, Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, began using bulk Usenet posting to advertise immigration law services. The incident was termed the "Green Card spam", after the subject line of the postings. Defiant in the face of widespread condemnation, the attorneys claimed their detractors were hypocrites or "zealouts", claimed they had a free speech right to send unwanted commercial messages, labeled their opponents "anti-commerce radicals"; the couple wrote a controversial book entitled How to Make a Fortune on the Information Superhighway. An early example of nonprofit fundraising bulk posting via Usenet occurred in 1994 on behalf of CitiHope, an NGO attempting to raise funds to rescue children at risk during the Bosnian War. However, as it was a violation of their terms of service, the ISP Panix deleted all of the bulk posts from Usenet, only missing three copies. Within a few years, the focus of spamming moved chiefly to email.

By 1999, Khan C. Smith, a well known hacker at the time, had begun to commercialize the bulk email industry and rallied thousands into the business by building more friendly bulk email software and providing internet access

Charles Lawrence (British Army officer)

Brigadier-General Charles Lawrence was a British military officer who, as lieutenant governor and subsequently governor of Nova Scotia, is best known for overseeing the Expulsion of the Acadians and settling the New England Planters in Nova Scotia. He was born in Plymouth and died in Halifax, Nova Scotia. According to historian Elizabeth Griffiths, Lawrence was seen as a "competent", "efficient" officer with a "service record that had earned him rapid promotion, a person of considerable administrative talent, trusted by both Cornwallis and Hopson." He is buried in the crypt of St. Paul's Church. Lawrence was born in Plymouth on December 14th, 1709, he followed his father, General Charles John Lawrence, said to have served in Flanders under John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, into a military career. Charles Lawrence's earlier life is obscure, he was commissioned in the 11th Regiment of Foot and served in the West Indies from 1733 until 1737. He served in the War Office, he was made Lieutenant in 1731 and Captain in 1745.

He was wounded while serving with the 54th Foot in the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745. During Father Le Loutre's War, in 1749 he transferred again, to the 40th Foot, he participated in the Battle at Chignecto and built Fort Lawrence on the south bank of the Missaguash River in the fall of 1750, was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel the same year. In 1753, he directed the settlement of the Foreign Protestants at Lunenburg, Nova Scotia and suppressed the settlers' rebellion there. Lawrence mobilized rangers to prevent the Acadian Exodus as well as fight the Mi'kmaq. During the French and Indian War, in conjunction with Governor William Shirley of Massachusetts, he helped raise forces for the Battle of Fort Beauséjour on 16 June 1755, he wrote the deportation order, orchestrated the various campaigns of the Expulsion of the Acadians, beginning with the Bay of Fundy Campaign. After the native Raid on Lunenburg, he placed a bounty on male native scalps. Lawrence commissioned several armed patrol vessels to patrol the Nova Scotia coast as part of a provincial marine, including the ten-gun brigantine Montague in 1759.

As governor of Nova Scotia, Lawrence saw the settlement of the Acadian lands by New England Planters. In 1757, Lawrence was further promoted to the title of brigadier general and commanded one of the three divisions at the successful siege of the French fortress at Louisbourg on Île Royale in 1758, he is said to have died of pneumonia in 1760 in Halifax, Nova Scotia and is buried under St. Paul's Church. According to his biographer, Dominique Graham, Referring to the monument raised to Lawrence’s memory in St Paul’s Church, Halifax, to indicate the late governor’s popularity, Belcher wrote, "In a grateful sense of his affection and services the last tribute that could be paid to his memory was unanimously voted by the General Assembly at their first meeting after the late Governor’s universally lamented decease." These sympathetic remarks by a contemporary with whom Lawrence had sometimes been at odds and the considerations mentioned above should be placed in the scales against the views of historians who condemn him for his inhumanity to the Acadians.

He is the namesake of Fort Lawrence, Nova Scotia and Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia, Lawrence St in Lunenburg namesake of a British privateer Lawrence Military history of Nova Scotia Military history of the Mi’kmaq People Military history of the Acadians Endnotes Texts Griffiths, N. E. S.. From Migrant to Acadian: A North American Border People, 1604-1755. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-2699-0. Brasseaux, Carl A.. The Founding of New Acadia: The Beginnings of Acadian Life in Louisiana, 1765-1803. Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8071-4163-2. Brasseaux, Carl A.. "Scattered to the Wind": Dispersal and Wanderings of the Acadians, 1755-1809. Center for Louisiana Studies, University of Southwestern Louisiana. ISBN 978-0-940984-70-7. Brasseaux, Carl A.. Acadian to Cajun: Transformation of a People, 1803-1877. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-61703-111-3. Graham, Dominick. "Lawrence, Charles". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. III. University of Toronto Press.

Rushton, William F.. The Cajuns: From Acadia to Louisiana. Noonday Press. British critique of Lawrence for military government. 1756 biography proclamation of 1756 Bartleby Girouard Cajun

Dana Incorporated

Dana Incorporated is an American supplier of axles, driveshafts and electrodynamic, thermal and digital equipment for conventional and electric-powered vehicles. The company's products and services are aimed at the light vehicle, commercial vehicle, off-highway equipment markets. Founded in 1904 and based in Maumee, the company employs nearly 36,000 people in 33 countries. In 2018, Dana generated sales of $8.1 billion. The company is included in the Fortune 500. In 1904, Clarence W. Spicer, engineer and founder of the company, began manufacturing universal joints in Plainfield, New Jersey. In 1904, the first C. W. Spicer "u-joints" are shipped to Corbin Motor Company in Connecticut. In 1905, Spicer Universal Joint Manufacturing Company is incorporated. In 1909, the company changes its name to Spicer Manufacturing Company. In 1910, Spicer relocates to New Jersey. In 1914, Charles Dana joins the company. In 1922, Spicer is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1925, Spicer expands internationally taking a holding in licensee in England, renamed Hardy Spicer.

In 1946, Dana became president and treasurer, the company was renamed the Dana Corporation. Spicer becomes the brand name for the company's driveline products. In 2006, Dana filed for bankruptcy. In 2007, Dana canceled 150 million shares of stock during their bankruptcy. In 2018, Dana announced that it was buying a majority stake in TM4 Inc. a company specialized in electric powertrains, for C$165 million. In 2019, Dana acquired held SME Group. In March 2019, Dana purchases Drive Systems segment of the Oerlikon Group, including the Graziano Trasmissioni and Fairfield brands and VOCIS, a wholly owned electronic controls business located in the UK. In August 2019, Dana acquires Inc.. Key products include axles, drive shafts, universal joints and sealing and thermal-management products. Dana 25 Dana 28 Dana 30 Dana 35 Dana 44 Dana 50 Dana 53 Dana 60 Dana 70 Dana 80 Dana S 110 Twin Traction Beam Official website

Amy Shuard

Amy Shuard CBE was an English operatic soprano renowned in such dramatic roles as Elektra, Turandot and Brünnhilde. She created both title roles in Janáček's Káťa Kabanová and Jenůfa in their respective British premieres, she has been described as "the best English dramatic soprano since Eva Turner". Shuard was born in London. After studying at the Trinity College of Music, she had lessons from Eva Turner. In 1948 the Worshipful Company of Musicians awarded her a prize and she toured South Africa as the organization's representative, she returned there in 1949 to make her operatic debut, in Johannesburg, in the title role of Verdi's Aida. She sang at Sadlers Wells from 1949 to 1953, before undertaking more study in Milan with Rosetta Pampanini, at Covent Garden from 1954 until her death, she sang at Bayreuth, La Scala, Buenos Aires and San Francisco. Her notable roles included the title roles in Káťa Kabanová, Jenůfa, Tosca, Elektra, Madama Butterfly and Aida; the latter part of the career saw her essay Wagnerian roles, she was the first English soprano to sing Brünnhilde at Covent Garden.

She sang Isolde at Geneva, as well as Sieglinde and Kundry. San Francisco was the only place she appeared on stage in the United States, firstly as Brünnhilde in Die Walküre in October 1963 in 1966 as Elektra, 1968 as Turandot, as Brünnhilde in Götterdämmerung in 1969. Amy Shuard was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire, she died in 1975, aged 50. Amy Shuard made only a few studio recordings, but there are many live recordings of her performances. A complete list can be found here. Available recordings include: Hector Berlioz: The Trojans, under Rafael Kubelík, with Jon Vickers, Blanche Thebom, Lauris Elms, Joan Carlyle and others Giuseppe Verdi: Macbeth, under Francesco Molinari-Pradelli, with Tito Gobbi, Forbes Robinson and others Verdi: Requiem, under Carlo Maria Giulini, with Richard Lewis, Anna Reynolds and David Ward, she appears on Volume 5 of The Record of Singing

Sterling, Virginia

Sterling, Virginia refers most to a census-designated place in Loudoun County, Virginia. The population of the CDP as of the 2010 United States Census was 27,822; the CDP boundaries are confined to a small area between Virginia State Route 28 on the west and Virginia State Route 7 on the northeast, excluding areas near SR 606 and the Dulles Town Center. A much wider region has a preferred mailing address of Sterling, Virginia per the United States Post Office. Other localities included within the "Greater" Sterling area include Arcola, Countryside, Dulles Town Center, Oak Grove, Sugarland Run; the "Greater Sterling" region includes part of Washington Dulles International Airport and the former AOL corporate headquarters. Greater Sterling is home to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office LWX, as well as the Sterling Field Support Center, the National Weather Service test and evaluation center for weather instruments; the following includes information covering both the wider "Greater Sterling" region.

In the beginning of 1962, large farms made up the 1,762 acres of. Route 7 known as Leesburg Pike, bordered what used to be Jesse Hughes's dairy farm. Hughes arrived in Loudoun County in the early 20th century and was a longtime head of the county's Democrats. Fred Franklin Tavenner, somewhat related to Benjamin Franklin, operated vast stretches of Sterling Farm at the southwest fringes of Sterling Park. Tavenner had purchased land from Albert Shaw Jr. who had inherited it from his father Albert B. Shaw and publisher of the American Review of Reviews. One of Shaw's spreads, totaling 1,640 acres, was called "The Experimental Farm" because it was one of the first area farms to receive a U. S. grant for applying "scientific methods". According to Tavenner, refugees from the Soviet Union ran the farm while Shaw remained in New York City. Dulles International Airport and the extension of water and sewer lines to the airport began to change the landscape when construction started in 1959. Land prices rose from an average $125 per acre to $500 per acre.

During the same year, Marvin T. Broyhill Jr. and his father made plans to develop land in the airport area under the company M. T. Broyhill & Sons Corporation. In late 1961, they decided to buy and incorporated Sterling Park Development Corporation with his son Marvin T. Broyhill, a cousin, Thomas J. Broyhill, as vice president. Between April 28, December 29, 1961 of that year, they purchased 1,762 acres in 14 parcels for $2,115,784. For the 226-acre Hughes farm along Route 7, they paid $1,700 per acre. M. T. Broyhill & Sons Corporation learned where the right-of-way for Route 28 would be, hoped to develop Sterling Park on both sides of it, so they would not have to build a road through Sterling Park. However, Powell B. Harrison, instrumental in planning Route 28, insisted that road be kept free of development, for easy access to the airport. Therefore, the Broyhills developed Sterling Park east of Route 28, had to build their own through road, today's Sterling Boulevard. Marvin Broyhill, Jr.'s marketing thoughts were to "put together a prefabricated home marketed by U.

S. Steel and sell it for about $17,000 3,000 less than a comparable Fairfax County home... All homes to have air‑conditioning. Homeowners to have access without membership fees to golf and tennis courts and pools." Air conditioning was uncommon in homes of that price range at the time. Broyhill's ideas, except for free golf, are realities today; as selling points, Loudoun's taxes were less than half of Fairfax's taxes. The railroad tracks were the southern boundary of the present Sterling Park. Sterling Park residents had to be of the "Caucasian race." No board member or speaker before the board raised an objection to the clause, a common one in the United States before the 1960s, when discriminatory housing was outlawed by the Fair Housing Act, enacted as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. No African American family moved into Sterling Park until August 1966, when the illegality of the clause became apparent. By the population of "The Park", as it had come to be known, reached 5,000; the Broad Run Bridge and Tollhouse, Vestal's Gap Road and Lanesville Historic District, Arcola Elementary School are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

According to the USGS, Sterling has an average elevation of 289 feet above sea level. The USGS has assigned Sterling the geographical coordinates:. Sterling borders the Potomac River. Broad Run Farms is a residential area north of Virginia State Route 7 and 28, founded in 1952, it shares the ZIP code of 20165 and calls itself, Sterling, or Potomac Falls. As an area much older than the surrounding recent growth, it has features unique to the region, including large lots wooded old-growth trees, a wide variety of housing and a voluntary civic association; the Potomac River forms its northern border, Broad Run its southern. A U. S. Senate lawyer bought the Miskel farm in 1950 and subdivided it, founding Broad Run Farms; the community banded together in 1995 with state and county help to finance and install its own sewer service in part through an added property tax. The lien was pai

John Aitken (meteorologist)

For others named, see the John Aitken navigation pageJohn Aitken, FRS, FRSE was a Scottish meteorologist and marine engineer. He was one of the founders of cloud physics and aerosol science, who built the first apparatus to measure the number of dust and fog particles in the atmosphere, a koniscope. Aitken was born in Falkirk on 18 September 1839, the son of Henry Aitken of Darroch, a Falkirk lawyer, he was educated at Falkirk Grammar School and studied marine engineering at Glasgow University, undertaking his engineer training with Messrs Napier & Sons, the Glasgow shipbuilder. He settled at Falkirk, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1889 and was awarded the Royal Medal in 1917. He received the Keith Medal and Gunning Prize from the Royal Society of Edinburgh. In April 1902 he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Glasgow; the Royal Society of Edinburgh awarded him the Keith Medal 1883–5. He died at Ardenlea in Falkirk 13 November 1919, he carried out experiments on atmospheric dust in relation to the formation of clouds and mists, on the formation of dew and on the laws of cyclones.

His instrument for counting the dust particles in the air has been used in principle by many workers. He invented new forms of thermometer screens which aided the development of meteorology. One of his experiments conducted with a self-designed apparatus provided the first evidence of new particle formation in the atmosphere; this work was documented in an article titled "On some nuclei of cloudy condensation", in the 39th volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh published in 1898. John Aitken was the author of a number of important pioneering discoveries "On Dust and Clouds"; as early as 1874, Aitken had concluded that when water vapour in the atmosphere condenses, it must condense on some solid particle, thus, without the presence of dust and other aerosol particles in the air, there would be no formation of fog, clouds, or rain. In 1884, he concluded that the brilliant colours seen in the sunset are due to the refraction of light by dust particles in the upper atmosphere.

Today, his name is given by atmospheric scientists to the smallest atmospheric aerosol particles, those with a radius less than 0.1 micrometres. This size range include the newly nucleated particles. Cargill Gilston Knott assembled and edited Aitkens works for the Royal Society of Edinburgh, contributed an introductory Memoir: Aitken, J. 1872. Melting and regelation of ice. Nature 6:396. Aitken, J. 1873. Glacier motion. Nature 7:287–288. Aitken, J. 1875. On boiling, condensing and melting. Transactions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts 9:240–287. Aitken, J. 1875. Experiments illustrating rigidity produced by centrifugal force. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 9:73–78. Aitken, J. 1876. Experiments illustrating rigidity produced by centrifugal force. Proceedings of the Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow 10:99–106. Aitken, J. 1878. Experiments illustrating rigidity produced by centrifugal force; the London and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Fifth series, 5:81–105.

Aitken, J. 1876–77. On ocean circulation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 9:394–400. Aitken, J. 1880. On a new variety of ocular spectrum. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 10:40–44. Aitken, J. 1880. On the distribution of temperature under the ice in frozen lakes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 10:409–415. Aitken, J. 1880. On dust and clouds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 11:14–18. Aitken, J. 1880. On dust and clouds. Nature 23:195–197. Aitken, J. 1881. Dust and fogs. Nature 23:311–312. Aitken, J. 1881. Dust and clouds. Nature 23:384–385. Aitken, J. 1881. On dust and clouds. Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine 24:308–310. Aitken, J. 1882. On the colour of the Mediterranean and other waters. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 11:472–483. Aitken, J. 1882–1883. On the effect of oil on a stormy sea. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 12:56–75. Aitken, J. 1883. On dust and clouds. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 30:337–368. Aitken, J. 1883–84.

The remarkable sunsets. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 12:448–450,647-660. Aitken, J. 1884. On the formation of small clear spaces in dusty air. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 32:239–272. Aitken, J. 1884. Second note on the remarkable sunsets. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 12:123–133. Aitken, J. 1885. Chromomictors. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 13:122–130. Aitken, J. 1885. On dew. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 13:446–450. Aitken, J. 1885. On thermometer screens. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 13:632–642. Aitken, J. 1886. On dew; the London and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Fifth Series, 22:206–212. Aitken, J. 1887. Note on hoar-frost. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 14:121–125. Aitken, J. 1888. On the number of dust particles in the atmosphere. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 35:1–19. Aitken, J. 1889. Dust particles in the atmosphere at Ben Nevis Observatory. Nature 40:350–351.

Aitken, J. 1889. On improvements in the apparatus for counting the dust particles in the atmosphere. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edi