Spaniards, or Spanish people, are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to Spain. Within Spain, there are a number of National and regional ethnic identities that reflect the country's complex history and diverse cultures, including a number of different languages, among which Spanish is the majority language and the only one, official throughout the whole country. Spoken regional languages include, most notably, Basque and Galician. Many populations outside Spain have ancestors who emigrated from Spain and share elements of a Hispanic culture; the most notable of these comprise Hispanic America in the Western Hemisphere. The Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC; as a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial, conquered the peninsula in 409 AD, they were followed by the Visigoths. In 711 the Iberian Peninsula was brought under the rule of the Arab Umayyads.
In the 11th and 12th centuries the Muslim Almohads and the Almoravids established Berber North African dynasties extending to this area. In the Middle Ages several Romance languages developed in the peninsula. Following the Christian Reconquista against the Moors, the modern Spanish state was formed in the late 15th century by the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, the conquest of the last Muslim Nasrid Kingdom of Granada in 1492, the Canary Islands. In the early 16th century Spain conquered the Kingdom of Navarre. In this period, Spain began to create an empire in the Americas, it persecuted religious minorities in Spain, such as Jews and Muslims, requiring them either to convert to Catholicism or be expelled. Heresy was persecuted by the established Catholic Church, the state religion, by the Spanish Inquisition; the population of Spain has become more diverse due to immigration of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. From 2000 to 2010, Spain had among the highest per capita immigration rates in the world and the second-highest absolute net migration in the world.
The diverse regional and cultural populations include the Castilians, Andalusians, Balearics, Canarians and the Galicians among others. The earliest modern humans inhabiting the region of Spain are believed to have been Neolithic peoples, who may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000–40,000 years ago; the Iberians are believed to have arrived or emerged in the region as a culture between the 4th millennium BC and the 3rd millennium BC, settling along the Mediterranean coast. Celts settled in Spain during the Iron Age; some of those tribes in North-central Spain, who had cultural contact with the Iberians, are called Celtiberians. In addition, a group known as the Tartessians and Turdetanians inhabited southwestern Spain, they are believed to have developed a separate culture influenced by Phoenicia. The seafaring Phoenicians and Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries. Interaction took place with indigenous peoples.
The Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and Romans was fought in what is now Spain and Portugal. The Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, established a series of Latin-speaking provinces in the region; as a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin, spoken in Hispania. A new group of Romance languages of the Iberian Peninsula including Spanish, which became the main language in Spain evolved from Roman expansion. Hispania emerged as an important part of the Roman Empire and produced notable historical figures such as Trajan, Hadrian and Quintilian; the Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with Iranian Alans under King Respendial, arrived in the peninsula in 409 AD. Part of the Vandals with the remaining Alans, now under Geiseric, removed to North Africa after a few conflicts with another Germanic tribe, the Visigoths; the latter were established in Toulouse and supported Roman campaigns against the Vandals and Alans in 415–19 AD.
The Visigoths reigned for three centuries. They were romanized in the eastern Empire and Christians, so they became integrated into the late Iberian-Roman culture, they accepted the laws and structures of the late Roman World with little change, more than any other successor barbarian state in the West after the Ostrogoths. The Suebi were another Germanic tribe in the peninsula, but they were independent and raided neighboring provinces to expand their political control over ever-larger portions of the southwest after the Vandals and Alans left. They created a independent Suebic Kingdom. In 447 AC they converted to Roman Catholicism under King Rechila. After being checked and reduced in 456 AD by the Visigoths, the Suebic Kingdom survived to 585 AD, it was decimated as an independent political unit by the Visigoths, after having been involved in the internal affairs of their kingdom. The Suebi had supported Catholic sedition within the Royal family. After two centuries of domination by the Visigoth
Black Ken is a mixtape by American rapper Lil B. Self-produced and self-released by the artist, the mixtape was released on August 17, 2017 and features contributions from iLoveMakonnen. Lil B described the record as his "first official mixtape" and dedicated it as a tribute to various artists such as Kanye West, Iggy Azalea, Lupe Fiasco and Charles Hamilton. Although the mixtape's official release was August 17, DatPiff accidentally leaked the album a day prior. Pitchfork critic Meaghan Garvey gave the record the "Best New Music" accolade, describing it as "27 tracks of deep funk and hyphy that define the mercurial Based God" and "a mile-marker along Lil B's journey." Garvey further wrote: "What ties Black Ken together, what makes it not just a palatable but thrilling listen, like stumbling unwittingly into the best block party is Lil B's production throughout—a wild but controlled stylistic breakthrough." All songs produced and composed by Lil B. "Produced by the BasedGod Intro" - 2:53 "Still Run It" - 3:33 "Bad MF" - 3:40 "Wasup JoJo" - 3:05 "Hip Hop" - 2:58 "DJ BasedGod" - 6:52 "Berkeley" - 5:09 "Free Life" - 5:09 "Pretty Boy Skit" - 0:38 "Young Niggaz" - 3:30 "Getting Hot" - 3:42 "Go Stupid Go Dumb" - 3:46 "Global" - 5:20 "Ride" - 3:20 "Mexico Skit" - 0:45 "Zam Bose" - 3:24 "Go Senorita Go" - 3:52 "Turn Up" - 3:31 "Ain't Me" - 3:18 "Raw" - 5:27 "West Coast" - 4:16 "The Real is Back" - 4:26 "Rawest Rapper Alive" - 4:55 "Da Backstreetz" - 4:08 "Rare Art" - 4:18 "Show Promoter Skit" - 0:26 "Live from the Island - Hawaii" - 2:53 Black Ken on DatPiff Ken
The tambourine dove is a pigeon, a widespread resident breeding bird in woodlands and other thick vegetation in Africa south of the Sahara Desert. Its range extends from Senegal east to Ethiopia and Kenya and southwards through eastern Africa to south-eastern South Africa, but it is absent from the drier areas of south-western Africa. There is a population on the Comoros Islands; this is much a species of thick woodlands, including dense gardens and plantations of castor oil and rubber. As such, this shy species is seen when flushed whilst feeding on the forest floor, The tambourine dove builds a frail stick nest low in a thicket or vine tangle, lays two cream-coloured eggs. Both sexes incubate, although this task is performed by the female, the eggs hatch in 13 days with another 13–14 days to fledging; the chicks are fed regurgitated food. The tambourine dove is a small plump pigeon 22 cm in length; the male has a white face with a black spot behind white underparts and a grey crown. Its back, hind neck and tail are pale grey brown, the folded wings have large dark purple patches.
The under tail is brown. The eye ring and feet are purple-red, the bill is purple; the female is duller, is white only on the belly, the face and breast being a pale grey-brown. The crown is grey-brown, without the blue-grey of the male; the juvenile resembles the female but has chestnut fringes to the feathers of the back and flanks. In these plumages, this species is paler below than other small African doves; the tambourine dove's flight is fast and agile, it tends to stay quite low when flushed. In flight it under wings; the call of this bird is a persistently repeated du-du-du-du-du. Tambourine dove is solitary, but is sometimes seen in family groups or with lemon doves, it is quite terrestrial, forages on the ground for seeds and small fruits. It has a preference for seeds of the castor oil plant, it will on occasion eat small molluscs. Barlow and Disley, Birds of The Gambia ISBN 1-873403-32-1 Gibbs and Cox, Pigeons and Doves ISBN 1-873403-60-7 Sinclair and Tarboton, SASOL Birds of Southern Africa ISBN 1-86872-721-1 Tambourine dove - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds