The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
Ethnologue, Languages of the World is a web-based publication that contains information about the 7,099 living languages in its 20th edition, which was released in 2017. The publication is well respected and widely used by linguists, Ethnologue is published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based primarily on mutual intelligibility, shared language intelligibility features are complex, and usually include etymological and grammatical evidence that is agreed upon by experts. These lists of names are not necessarily complete, in 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an SIL code, to identify each language that it described. This set of codes significantly exceeded the scope of other standards, e. g. ISO 639-1, the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into an international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard and this standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue according to rules established by ISO, and since Ethnologue relies on the standard to determine what is listed as a language. e. A language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity, in December 2015, Ethnologue launched a soft paywall, users in high-income countries who want to refer to more than seven pages of data per month must buy a paid subscription. Ethnologues 18th edition describes 228 language families and six typological categories, in 1986, William Bright, editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world. In 2008 in the journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said, Ethnologue. has become the standard reference. However, he concluded that, on balance, Ethnologue is a comprehensive catalogue of world languages. Starting with the 17th edition, new editions of Ethnologue are to be published every year, linguasphere Observatory Register Glottolog Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert, Simon Musgrave, Alexis Dimitriadis, eds.
The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies, linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights. Evaluating language statistics, the Ethnologue and beyond
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language. The alphabet uses the Latin script, the punctuation is similar to that used in other Romance languages and in English. The Spanish language is written using the Spanish alphabet, which is the Latin script with one letter, eñe ñ. Although the letters k and w are part of the alphabet, they appear only in such as karate, waterpolo. Each letter has an official name according to the Real Academia Españolas new 2010 Common Orthography. The digraphs ch and ll were considered letters of the alphabet from 1754 to 2010, the digraph rr is occasionally considered a letter, but officially it was never so. ^1 The sequence ⟨ch⟩ represents the affricate /tʃ/, the digraph was formerly treated as a single letter, called che. ^2 The phonemes /θ/ and /s/ have merged in many dialects, see seseo. ^3 With the exception of loanwords, hámster, hachís, which have /x/. ^5 Used only in the digraph ⟨qu⟩. ^6 The digraph ⟨rr⟩. For details on Spanish pronunciation, see Spanish phonology and Wikipedia, when acute accent and diaeresis marks are used on vowels they are considered variants of the plain vowel letters, but ⟨ñ⟩ is considered a separate letter from ⟨n⟩.
This makes a difference when sorting alphabetically, ⟨ñ⟩ appears in dictionaries after ⟨n⟩, for example, in a Spanish dictionary piñata comes after pinza. There are five digraphs, ⟨ch⟩, ⟨ll⟩, ⟨rr⟩, ⟨gu⟩ and ⟨qu⟩, for example, in dictionaries, chico is alphabetized after centro and before ciudad, instead of being alphabetized after all words beginning with cu- as was formerly done. Despite their former status as unitary letters of the alphabet, ⟨ch⟩, thus the word chillón in a text written in all caps is CHILLÓN, not *ChILlÓN, and if it is the first word of a sentence, it is written Chillón, not *CHillón. Sometimes, one finds lifts with buttons marked LLamar, but this double capitalization has always been incorrect according to RAE rules, B and V The letters ⟨b⟩ and ⟨v⟩ were originally simply known as be and ve, which in modern Spanish are pronounced identically. In Old Spanish, they represented different sounds but the sounds merged later. Their usual names are be and uve, in some regions, some Mexicans and most Peruvians generally say be grande / chica, Argentines and Chileans, be larga / corta.
Some people give examples of words spelt with the letter, e. g. b de burro / v de vaca, Colombians tend to say be grande for B and ve pequeña for V. In Venezuela, they called B as b de Bolívar, and V as v de Venezuela, regardless of these regional differences, all Spanish-speaking people recognize be as the official name of B. R The digraph ⟨rr⟩ is sometimes called doble erre or erre doble. It is sometimes suggested that the name of the letter ⟨r⟩ be ere when it is single, and erre when it is double, the name ere was used when referring specifically to the alveolar tap /ɾ/ and erre referring to the alveolar trill /r/
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population, the term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses, other common censuses include agriculture and traffic censuses. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, the word is of Latin origin, during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the level of detail but raise concerns about privacy. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population, typically main population estimates are updated by such intercensal estimates. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, and planning. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling, stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations.
In some countries, the census provides the official used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions. In many cases, a carefully chosen random sample can provide accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is often construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a frame to count the population. This is the way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known, the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is already known. However, a census is used to collect data on the individuals in the nation. This process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, which was a house to house process or the product of a decree. The sampling frame used by census is almost always an address register, thus it is not known if there is anyone resident or how many people there are in each household.
Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, a particular problem is what are termed communal establishments which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc
Royal Spanish Academy
The Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE, is the official royal institution responsible for overseeing the Spanish language. It is based in Madrid, but is affiliated with national language academies in twenty-one other hispanophone nations through the Association of Spanish Language Academies, the proposed language guidelines are shown in a number of works. The priorities are the Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española, edited periodically twenty-three times since 1780, the Academy has a formal procedure for admitting words to its publications. The headquarters, opened in 1894, is located at Calle Felipe IV,4, in the ward of Jerónimos, the Center for the Studies of the Royal Spanish Academy, opened in 2007, is located at Calle Serrano 187–189. King Philip V approved its constitution on 3 October 1714, placing it under the Crowns protection, the RAE began establishing rules for the orthography of Spanish beginning in 1741 with the first edition of the Ortographía.
The proposals of the Academy became the norm in Spain by royal decree in 1844. The current rules and practical recommendations are presented in the latest edition of the Ortografía. In 1994, the RAE ruled that the Spanish consonants CH and LL would hence be alphabetized under C and under L, the Números are elected for life by the other academicians. Each academician holds a seat labeled with a letter from the Spanish alphabet, upper-, joint publications of the RAE and the Association of Spanish Language Academies Diccionario de la lengua española. The first edition is in public domain, the Diccionario esencial de la lengua española was published in 2006 as a shortened work to span between the 22nd and 23rd editions. The edition of 1999 was the first spelling book to cover the whole Hispanic world, the first edition is in public domain. Nueva gramática de la lengua española, the latest edition is the first grammar to cover the whole Hispanic world, replacing the prior Gramática de la lengua española and the Esbozo de una Nueva gramática de la lengua española.
The first edition is in public domain, the Gramática básica is a 250-page pocket reference intended for school use, to be published in late 2010. The RAE has published two works by individual editors, Gramática de la lengua española and Gramática descriptiva de la lengua española. Resolves doubts related to the use of the Spanish language, replaces the Diccionario escolar de la RAE. Diccionario práctico del estudiante is a version for Latin America
It is an offshoot of the Krio language of Sierra Leone, and was brought to Bioko by Krios who immigrated to the island during the colonial era in the 19th century. Pichi is the most widely spoken language of the capital Malabo, next to Spanish and it is spoken by a sizable community of people originating from Bioko in Bata, the largest town on the continental part of the country. Pichi descends from Krio, which first arrived in Bioko, the former Fernando Po, with African settlers from Freetown, Sierra Leone in 1827. No official figures exist, but there is reason to assume that Pichi is today the second most widely spoken African language of the country behind Fang. It is safe to assume that at least 100,000 people of the population of around one million use Pichi regularly as a primary or secondary language. Next to Fang and Bubi, over ten other African languages are spoken by the peoples of Equatorial Guinea, one of these is another Creole, the Portuguese-lexicon Creole Fá dAmbô, spoken by the people of the island of Annobón.
Fa d’Ambô shares historical and linguistic ties with the other Portuguese-lexicon Creoles of the Gulf of Guinea, namely Lungwa Santome and Angolar in São Tomé Island, the other languages traditionally spoken in Equatorial Guinea belong to the Bantu branch of the Niger–Congo family. In the literature, Pichi is known under the names Fernando Po Creole English, Fernando Po Krio, Fernandino Creole English, Pidgin Morgades 2004), Broken English and Pichinglis. While many older speakers refer to the language as Krio or Pidgin, most present-day speakers refer to it as Pichinglis, as a consequence, Pichi was considered an impoverished, debased form of English by Spanish colonial administrators and missionaries. Pichi, like the other Creole languages of the Atlantic Basin, Pichi is a member of the African branch of the family of Atlantic English-lexicon Creoles. It descends directly from Krio, the English-lexicon Creole that rose to become the language of the Creole community of Freetown, mutual intelligibility within the African branch is quite high.
However, an impediment to fluid communication between speakers of Pichi and its languages is the divergent path of development of Pichi since 1857. In that year, Spain began to actively enforce colonial rule in Equatorial Guinea, from onwards, Pichi was cut off from the direct influence of English, the language from which it inherited the largest part of its lexicon. Some of the differences between Pichi and its sister languages can be attributed to internal developments in Pichi. Spanish has left an imprint on the lexicon and grammar of Pichi. Code-mixing is an part of the linguistic system of Pichi. The pervasive influence of Spanish on Pichi is for one part, since colonial rule, Spanish has remained the sole medium of instruction at all levels of the educational system. There is a competence in different registers of Spanish by Pichi speakers in Malabo
Palenquero is a Spanish-based creole language spoken in Colombia. Palenquero is the only Spanish-based creole in Latin America, the ethnic group which speaks this Creole consisted of only 3,000 people in 1998. Palenquero is spoken in Colombia, in the village of San Basilio de Palenque which is southeast of Cartagena, the village was formed by escaped slaves and sometimes Native Americans around 1604 under the leadership of Benkos Biojo. Since many slaves had not been subjected to a lot of contact with people of European descent, Spanish speakers are usually unable to understand Palenquero. Ten percent of the population under 25 years of age spoke Palenquero in 1998 and it is more commonly spoken by the elderly. There are some influences from Kongo, which is spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Palenquero words like ngombe, which means cattle, are found in several Bantu languages. Nda suto agué pan ri to ma ría, peddona ma fata suto, asina kumo suto a se peddoná, nu rejá sujo kaí andí tentasión nu, librá suto ri má.
Misa andi lengua ri palenque - Katajena, mayo 21 ri 2000 Afro-Latin American Papiamentu Chavacano
When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form, Radio systems need a transmitter to modulate some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation. Radio systems need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves, an antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving. The electrical resonance of tuned circuits in radios allow individual stations to be selected, the electromagnetic wave is intercepted by a tuned receiving antenna. Radio frequencies occupy the range from a 3 kHz to 300 GHz, a radio communication system sends signals by radio. The term radio is derived from the Latin word radius, meaning spoke of a wheel, beam of light, this invention would not be widely adopted. The switch to radio in place of wireless took place slowly and unevenly in the English-speaking world, the United States Navy would play a role.
Although its translation of the 1906 Berlin Convention used the terms wireless telegraph and wireless telegram, the term started to become preferred by the general public in the 1920s with the introduction of broadcasting. Radio systems used for communication have the following elements, with more than 100 years of development, each process is implemented by a wide range of methods, specialised for different communications purposes. Each system contains a transmitter, This consists of a source of electrical energy, the transmitter contains a system to modulate some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it. This modulation might be as simple as turning the energy on and off, or altering more subtle such as amplitude, phase. Amplitude modulation of a carrier wave works by varying the strength of the signal in proportion to the information being sent. For example, changes in the strength can be used to reflect the sounds to be reproduced by a speaker. It was the used for the first audio radio transmissions.
Frequency modulation varies the frequency of the carrier, the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal. FM has the capture effect whereby a receiver only receives the strongest signal, Digital data can be sent by shifting the carriers frequency among a set of discrete values, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at Very high frequency radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music, analog TV sound is broadcast using FM. Angle modulation alters the phase of the carrier wave to transmit a signal
Most varieties of Spanglish are not usually considered a language itself, but instead a blend of Spanish and English lexical items and grammar. Spanglish is not a pidgin, because unlike pidgin languages, Spanglish can be the primary form for some individuals. Spanglish can be considered a variety of Spanish with heavy use of English or a variety of English with heavy use of Spanish and it can be more related either to Spanish or to English, depending on the circumstances. Since Spanglish arises independently in each region, it reflects the spoken varieties of English and Spanish. In general different varieties of Spanglish are not necessarily mutually intelligible, the term was introduced by the Puerto Rican poet Salvador Tió in the late 1940s, when he called it Espanglish or Inglañol. Some of these creoles have become recognized languages in their own right, including the Llanito language of Gibraltar and San Andrés–Providencia Creole of Colombia. In the late 1940s, the Puerto Rican journalist and essayist Salvador Tió coined the terms Espanglish for Spanish spoken with some English terms, between 1902 and 1948, the main language of instruction in public schools was English.
Currently Puerto Rico is nearly unique in having both English and Spanish as its official languages, many American English words are now found in the vocabulary of Puerto Rican Spanish. Spanglish may be known by different regional names, Spanglish does not have one unified dialect—specifically, the varieties of Spanglish spoken in New York, Florida and California differ. It is common in Panama, where the 96-year U. S. control of the Panama Canal influenced much of society, especially among the former residents of the Panama Canal Zone. The same applies to the large Puerto Rican-descended populations of New York City, Spanglish is spoken commonly in the modern United States, reflecting the growth of the Hispanic-American population due to immigration. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the population of Hispanics grew from 35.3 million to 53 million between 2000 and 2012, Hispanics have become the largest minority ethnic group in the US. More than 80% are of Mexican descent, Mexican Americans form one of the fastest-growing groups, increasing from 20.6 million to 34.5 million between 2000 and 2012.
Around 58% of this community chose California, especially Southern California, Spanglish is widely used throughout the heavily Mexican-American and other Hispanic communities of Southern California. The use of Spanglish has become important to Hispanic communities throughout the United States in areas such as Miami, New York City, Texas, in Miami a Spanglish familiarly known as Cubonics is spoken. Spanglish is known as bilingualism/ semi-lingual ism, the acquisition of the first language is interrupted or unstructured language input follows from the second language. This can happen in reverse, many Mexican-Americans and bilinguals express themselves in various Spanglishes. For many, Spanglish serves as a basis for self-identity, many others believe that Spanglish should not exist and should be prohibited
Isabela, officially the City of Isabela, and often referred to as Isabela City, is a 4th class city and the capital of the province of Basilan, Philippines. It is known as Isabela de Basilan to differentiate the citys name from the province of Isabela on Luzon island. Trading and commerce are still predominantly East Asian, aided more so by a recent influx of immigrants from Taiwan, Isabelas history is inadvertently inter-mingled with that of Basilan Island and the Sulu Archipelago, albeit culturally, Isabela is an extension of neighboring Zamboanga City. Basilans earliest settlers was believed to be the Orang Dampuans originating from the islands of Eastern Indonesia. They are variously called the Orang Dyaks or the Tagihamas, historians have scant knowledge of the pre-Spanish history of the indigenous Yakans simply because they have had little contact with other ethnic groups. Basilans nearness to Borneo led to the theory that the Yakan originated from the Dyak, although it is fairly safe to say that Basilans history is related to that of the Sulu archipelago, it is by no means right to suppose that Basilans first inhabitants came from Indonesia.
Local historians attribute this long lost kingdom to modern-day Kumalarang located along the northwestern coast of Basilan island, chan Chien was received by Lakan Ipentun, presumably a Yakan Prince, who ruled the Kingdom as a vassal to the Sultan of Sulu. The Mandarin official stayed in Kumalarang for two years returning to China. He was accompanied by Lakan Ipentun and an entourage of several hundred, composed of his family, minor chieftains. They were finally given an audience with the Chinese Emperor on November 16,1420 where he asked the latter to proclaim him as a recognized sovereign. Lakan Ipentun wrote a missive to the Chinese Emperor on December 28,1420, the Chinese Emperor received the petition and finally granted Lakan Ipentun with the title of wang. After his request was granted, a satisfied Lakan Ipentun, along with his entire retinue and his funeral was supervised by Yang Shan, administrator of the temples, and was likewise honored by a eulogy sent by the Chinese Emperor which extolled his virtues of determination and serenity.
His son, was proclaimed as rightful successor to the just bestowed title of wang. Lapi sent one of his fathers most trusted officials, the party, with its newly proclaimed King, eventually returned to Kumalarang, and almost just as promptly faded from the historical records of the period. The proselytization of Basilan started in earnest when Fr, francisco Lado, a Jesuit, established the first Catholic mission, in an area called Pasangen by the native Yakans. Pasangen is a Yakan term for commune, town or a place where people visit or stay and this coastal area, was already predominantly populated by Tausug and Samal settlers when the Spanish came, and therefore was likewise locally called a pagpasalan or settlement area. They constructed the first wooden mission and palisade wall near the mouth of the Aguada River, and dedicated the Island to St. Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Jesuit Order. Catholic missionaries together with Spanish soldiers who inter-married into the population were able to successfully penetrate Basilan by bringing in additional Settler soldiers
Spanish dialects and varieties
Some of the regional varieties of the Spanish language are quite divergent from one another, especially in pronunciation and vocabulary, and less so in grammar. While all Spanish dialects use the written standard, all spoken varieties differ from the written variety. There are differences between European Spanish and the Spanish of the Americas, as well as many different dialect areas both within Spain and within Hispanic America, among grammatical features, the most prominent variation among dialects is in the use of the second-person pronouns. For the second-person singular familiar pronoun, some Hispanic America dialects use tú, in a broad sense, Hispanic American Spanish can be grouped into, Mexican Central American Caribbean. The Spanish spoken in Gibraltar is essentially not different from the areas in Spain. The maintenance of phonemic contrast is called distinción in Spanish, the merged phoneme is typically realized as, though in parts of southern Andalusia the realization is closer to, in Spain this latter variation is called ceceo and the former one seseo.
In dialects with seseo the words casa and caza are pronounced as homophones, the symbol stands for a voiceless sibilant like the s of English sick, while represents a voiceless interdental fricative like the th of English thick. In some cases where the merger would render words homophonic in Hispanic America. Caza replaced by cacería, or cocer, homophonic with coser, for more on seseo, see González-Bueno. Traditionally Spanish had a distinction between /ʎ/ and /ʝ/. But for most speakers in Spain and the Americas, these two phonemes have merged in the phoneme /ʝ/. This merger results in the words calló and cayó being pronounced the same, the use of the merged phoneme is called yeísmo. The phoneme /ʝ/ can be pronounced in a variety of ways, in most of the area where yeísmo is present, the merged phoneme /ʎ ~ ʝ/ is pronounced as the fricative or approximant or as the glide, and also, in word-initial positions, affricates and. In the area around the Río de la Plata, this phoneme is pronounced as a sibilant fricative, either as voiced or, especially by young speakers.
One of the most distinctive features of the Spanish variants is the pronunciation of /s/ when it is not aspirated to or elided. However, in most of Andalusia, in a few areas in southern Spain. /s/ is allophonized as or before voiced consonants when it is not aspirated to or elided, is a transitional between and. In some varieties of Hispanic American Spanish this may occur intervocalically within an individual word, for instance, todos los cisnes son blancos, can be pronounced, or even