Spanish Armada

The Spanish Armada was a Habsburg Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from Corunna in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England. Medina Sidonia was an aristocrat without naval command experience but was made commander by King Philip II; the aim was to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I and her establishment of Protestantism in England, to stop English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and to stop the harm caused by English and Dutch privateering ships that interfered with Spanish interests in the Americas. English ships sailed from Plymouth to attack the Armada and were faster and more manoeuvrable than the larger Spanish Galleons, enabling them to fire on the Armada without loss as it sailed east off the south coast of England; the Armada could have anchored in The Solent between the Isle of Wight and the English mainland and occupied the Isle of Wight, but Medina Sidonia was under orders from King Philip II to meet up with the Duke of Parma's forces in the Netherlands so England could be invaded by Parma's soldiers and other soldiers carried in ships of the Armada.

English guns damaged the Armada and a Spanish ship was captured by Sir Francis Drake in the English Channel. The Armada anchored off Calais. While awaiting communications from Duke of Parma, the Armada was scattered by an English fireship night attack and abandoned its rendezvous with Parma's army, blockaded in harbour by Dutch flyboats. In the ensuing Battle of Gravelines, the Spanish fleet was further damaged and was in risk of running aground on the Dutch coast when the wind changed; the Armada, driven by southwest winds, withdrew north, with the English fleet harrying it up the east coast of England. On return to Spain round the north of Scotland and south around Ireland, the Armada was disrupted further by storms. Many ships were wrecked on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland and more than a third of the initial 130 ships failed to return; as Martin and Parker explain, "Philip II attempted to invade England. This was due to his own mismanagement, including appointing an aristocrat without naval experience as commander of the Armada, unfortunate weather, the opposition of the English and their Dutch allies including the use of fire-ships sailed into the anchored Armada."The expedition was the largest engagement of the undeclared Anglo-Spanish War.

The following year, England organised a similar large-scale campaign against Spain, the English Armada, sometimes called the "counter-Armada of 1589", unsuccessful. The word armada is from the Spanish: armada, cognate with English army. From the Latin: armāta, the past participle of armāre,'to arm', used in Romance languages as a noun for armed force, navy, fleet. Armada Española is still the Spanish term for the modern Spanish Navy. Henry VIII began the English Reformation as a political exercise over his desire to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. Over time, it became aligned with the Protestant reformation taking place in Europe during the reign of Henry's son, Edward VI. Edward died childless and his half-sister, Mary I, ascended the throne. A devout Catholic, with her co-monarch and husband, Philip II of Spain, began to reassert Roman influence over church affairs, her attempts led to more than 260 people being burned at the stake, earning her the nickname'Bloody Mary'. Mary's death in 1558 led to Elizabeth I, taking the throne.

Unlike Mary, Elizabeth was in the reformist camp, reimplemented many of Edward's reforms. Philip, no longer co-monarch, deemed Elizabeth a illegitimate ruler of England. In the eyes of the Catholic Church, Henry had never divorced Catherine, making Elizabeth illegitimate, it is alleged that Phillip supported plots to have Elizabeth overthrown in favour of her Catholic cousin and heir presumptive, Queen of Scots. These plans were thwarted when Elizabeth had the Queen of Scots imprisoned and executed in 1587. Elizabeth retaliated against Philip by supporting the Dutch revolt against Spain, as well as funding privateers to raid Spanish ships across the Atlantic. In retaliation, Philip planned an expedition to invade England in order to overthrow Elizabeth and, if the Armada was not successful, at least negotiate freedom of worship for Catholics and financial compensation for war in the Low Countries. Through this endeavor, English material support for the United Provinces, the part of the Low Countries that had seceded from Spanish rule, English attacks on Spanish trade and settlements in the New World would end.

The King was supported by Pope Sixtus V, who treated the invasion as a crusade, with the promise of a subsidy should the Armada make land. A raid on Cádiz, led by Francis Drake in April 1587, had captured or destroyed about 30 ships and great quantities of supplies, setting preparations back by a year. Philip favoured a triple attack, starting with a diversionary raid on Scotland, while the main Armada would capture the Isle of Wight, or Southampton, to establish a safe anchorage in The Solent; the Duke of Parma would follow with a large army from the Low Countries crossing the English Channel. Parma was uneasy about mounting such an invasion without any possibility of surprise; the appointed commander of the Armada was the experienced Álvaro de Bazán, Marquis of Santa Cruz, but he died in February 1588, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, a high-born courtier, took his place. While a competent soldier and distinguished administrator, Medina Sidonia had no naval experience, he wrote to Philip expressing grave doubts about the planned cam

Kingswood Football Club

Kingswood Football Club was a former Australian rules football club based at Kingswood, South Australia that folded following the 1991 South Australian Amateur Football League season. The club was formed as a workplace club called the National Bank Amateur Football Club in 1971 and joined the South Australian Amateur Football League, with the first committee meeting held on 15 February 1971, based at Park 19 in the South Parklands; the club relocated to Kingswood Oval in 1981 and adjusted its name to National Australia Bank Group Football Club in 1984. The club renamed itself to the Kingswood Football Club in 1991 to appeal to a wider market, but this name was short-lived as the club folded at the end of that season. South Australian Amateur Football League A4 1976 South Australian Amateur Football League A5 1975 South Australian Amateur Football League A7 1971 1984

Led Zeppelin Boxed Set

Led Zeppelin is a boxed set by English rock band Led Zeppelin. It was the first compilation of songs by the group and the selection and remastering of the tracks were supervised by Jimmy Page. Atlantic Records released it on 7 September 1990 on several formats: four compact discs, six vinyl records, or four cassette tapes. A 36-page booklet was included with the release; this set contains two unreleased tracks and one new mix. "Travelling Riverside Blues" was recorded on 24 June 1969 at the BBC Maida Vale Studio. "White Summer/Black Mountain Side" was recorded at the Playhouse Theatre, London on 27 June 1969. The "Moby Dick/Bonzo's Montreux" mix took place at the Atlantic Synclavier Suite in New York, in May 1990, it includes the band's only non-album B-side, "Hey, What Can I Do" of the 1970 single "Immigrant Song" unavailable on compact disc. To differentiate this box set from a set of selections taken from it, the Remasters box set released the following month, in some markets this release is listed under the title The Complete Collection.

To further the confusion, in both cases this is different from The Complete Studio Recordings box set released three years which includes all nine of the band's studio albums on ten discs, with the three extra tracks appended to Coda, along with the 1969 recording "Baby Come On Home", first released on the two-disc Led Zeppelin Boxed Set 2. The "Moby Dick/Bonzo's Montreux" mix is included in the promotional interview album Profiled. Three years after this release, the remaining Led Zeppelin tracks not appearing on this box set were issued on Led Zeppelin Boxed Set 2. All tracks produced by Jimmy Page except for "Travelling Riverside Blues" produced by John Walters and "White Summer/Black Mountain Side" produced by Jeff Griffin. List of best-selling albums in the United States