Lieutenant-General Sir Percy Henry Noel Lake was a senior commander of the British Indian Army, serving during World War I, a Canadian soldier. Lake was born at Fulwood Barracks, Lancashire on 29 June 1855, where his father was stationed, he was the son of Lt.-Colonel Percy Godfrey Botfield Lake and his wife Margaret Phillips of Quebec City. He was educated at Preston Grammar Uppingham School. Lake was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant in the 59th Regiment of Foot in 1873, he fought on the Second Anglo-Afghan War in 1878 and in Sudan in 1885. He was promoted to lieutenant on 9 August 1873, he became Deputy Assistant Adjutant General and Quartermaster General in Egypt in 1885, Staff Captain at Army Headquarters in 1887 and Deputy Assistant Adjutant General at Army Headquarters in 1888. He went on to be Deputy Assistant Adjutant General at Dublin District in Ireland in 1892, Quartermaster General for the Canadian Militia in 1893 and Assistant Quartermaster General at Army Headquarters in 1899, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath on 22 August 1902.
After that Lake became Chief Staff Officer for 2nd Army Corps in 1904, Chief of the Canadian General Staff in 1905 and Inspector General of the Canadian Militia in 1908. He became General Officer Commanding 7th Indian Division in India in 1911 and Chief of the General Staff in India from 1912. In January 1916 he was appointed Commander of the Mesopotamian Force, as part of an expeditionary force sent to relieve Sir Charles Townshend's troops at Kut. In 1913 he was given the colonelcy of the East Lancashire Regiment, which he held until 1920, he was created Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 1 January 1916. Following the war he formally retired on 20 November 1919, he died on 17 November 1940 in Victoria, British Columbia. Barker, A. J; the First Iraq War, 1914–1918: Britain's Mesopotamian Campaign, ISBN 978-1-929631-86-5
Alexander Duncan Campbell Peterson OBE was a British teacher and headmaster responsible for the birth of the International Baccalaureate educational system. He was instrumental in the formation of the International Baccalaureate Organisation in 1968, served as the organisation's first director-general until 1977, he was the first honorary member of the organisation's Council of Foundation from 1983 until his death in 1988. Peterson was the son of John Peterson an Indian Civil Service official and Flora, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, he attended Radley College and Balliol College and after spending two years as a management trainee became a teacher at Shrewsbury School in 1932. At the beginning of the Second World War he joined the Ministry of Information and joined the propaganda branch of the Special Operations Executive, he played an important role in South-East Asia, was responsible for the Indian Forward Broadcasting Unit, successful in the Burma campaign. He became Deputy Director of psychological warfare for South-East Asia Command and was awarded OBE in 1946.
After the war he was appointed headmaster at Adams' Grammar School. He spent two years as Director General, Information Services in Malaya from 1952 to 1954 during the Malayan emergency, he was headmaster at Dover College, where he set up an international sixth form in 1957. In 1958, he was named head of the Department of Educational Studies at Oxford University, a post he held until 1973, he was the Liberal Party's spokesman on education for some time and served as chairman of the Army Education Board for many years. He married daughter of Sir Arthur Cochrane of the College of Arms. Corrie was a member of the Society of Analytical Psychology and was a tutor at Beech Lawn College Oxford during the 1960s, they had a daughter. In 1962, Peterson's connections with the military and his acquaintance with Kurt Hahn earned him a job planning an academic curriculum for the future students of the newly founded Atlantic College in Wales. In 1966, he was named head of the International Schools Examination Syndicate, reorganized in 1968 as the International Baccalaureate Organisation.
During the first five years of his time as director-general of the IBO, Peterson continued to live and work in Oxford, despite the fact that the IBO offices were located in Geneva, Switzerland. He remained in his job at Oxford University, retaining the directorial job with the IBO as a part-time work. In 1973, he retired from his Oxford post and took up a part-time teaching job at the Hammersmith and West London College of Further Education, teaching Theory of Knowledge and managing his IBO directorate from London. Peterson retired in 1977, he was made an honorary member of the IBO's Council of Foundation in 1983. In 1987, he published the book Schools Across Frontiers: The Story of the International Baccalaureate and the United World Colleges, a historical account on the development of the IB programmes and the United World Colleges linked to them. Peterson died in 1988; the IBO Cardiff Headquarters building, Peterson House, is named after him. Peterson campaigned against what he called'over-specialisation' in British pre-university education.
In his 1960 report Arts and Science Sides in the Sixth Form, he vocally described the need for a new kind of educational system very similar to what the IB Diploma Programme was to become. The new system would provide broader education for students, while maintaining a certain degree of chances for specialisation, he emphasised the advantages of oral examinations and of assessing analytical skills in examinations rather than the ability to remember specific facts. Peterson is said to have shaped the entire educational philosophy of the IBO, basing it on his own humanist and liberal beliefs on the concept of education, he felt the purpose of education to be, to stimulate the mind and encourage critical thought, rather than focussing on simple memorisation of detail. His views are reflected in the structure of the IB Diploma Programme, in the way that it incorporates elements such as the Extended Essay, the CAS programme, Theory of Knowledge: the student is required to do independent research, to participate in meaningful tasks outside the immediate school community to benefit society, to develop a concrete image on the nature of knowledge that he comes across in his studies.
Despite his assumption of the task of IBO director-general as only a part-time job, Peterson was productive in advancing the cause of the International Baccalaureate. He continued to be active for the cause long after he retired from the director-general's post at the IBO. Peterson was viewed as energetic and devoted to his cause by his colleague Robert Blackburn, who said: In 1989, the IBO's Council of Foundation established the'Peterson lectures' in honour of Alec Peterson; these periodical lectures are held by distinguished scholars on subjects pertaining to international education, in an attempt to search for new solutions and ideas on the subject matter. Times Obituaries October 1988 The Peterson lectures at the IBO's website