The Spanish Empire known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World, the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies" and territories in Europe and Oceania, it was one of the most powerful empires of the 17th centuries. The Spanish Empire became known as "the empire on which the sun never sets" and reached its maximum extension in the 18th century. Castile became the dominant kingdom in Iberia because of its jurisdiction over the overseas empire in the Americas and the Philippines; the structure of empire was established under the Spanish Habsburgs, under the Spanish Bourbon monarchs the empire was brought under greater crown control and increased its revenues from the Indies. The crown's authority in The Indies was enlarged by the papal grant of powers of patronage, giving it power in the religious sphere. An important element in the formation of Spain's empire was the dynastic union between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, known as the Catholic Monarchs, which initiated political and social cohesion but not political unification.
Iberian kingdoms retained their political identities, with particular administration and juridical configurations. Although the power of the Spanish sovereign as monarch varied from one territory to another, the monarch acted as such in a unitary manner over all the ruler's territories through a system of councils: the unity did not mean uniformity. In 1580, when Philip II of Spain succeeded to the throne of Portugal, he established the Council of Portugal, which oversaw Portugal and its empire and "preserv its own laws and monetary system, united only in sharing a common sovereign." The Iberian Union remained in place until in 1640, when Portugal reestablished the independence under the House of Braganza. Under Philip II, rather than the Habsburg empire, was identified as the most powerful nation in the world eclipsing France and England. Furthermore, despite attacks from Northern European states, Spain retained its position of dominance with apparent ease. Philip II ruled over the greatest maritime powers and Naples, Franche-Comté in France, the Rhineland in Germany, an uninterrupted tract of the Americas from the viceroyalty of New Spain bordering modern-day Canada all the way down to Patagonia, trading ports throughout India and South Asia, the Spanish East Indies, select holdings in Guinea and North Africa.
He had a claim on England by marriage. The Spanish empire in the Americas was formed after conquering indigenous empires and claiming large stretches of land, beginning with Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean Islands. In the early 16th century, it conquered and incorporated the Aztec and Inca empires, retaining indigenous elites loyal to the Spanish crown and converts to Christianity as intermediaries between their communities and royal government. After a short period of delegation of authority by the crown in the Americas, the crown asserted control over those territories and established the Council of the Indies to oversee rule there; the crown established viceroyalties in the two main areas of settlement and Peru, both regions of dense indigenous populations and mineral wealth. The Spanish Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation — the first circumnavigation of the Earth — laid the foundation for the Pacific oceanic empire of Spain and began the Spanish colonization of the Philippines; the structure of governance of its overseas empire was reformed in the late 18th century by the Bourbon monarchs.
The crown's trade monopoly was broken early in the seventeenth century, with the crown colluding with the merchant guild for fiscal reasons in circumventing the closed system. In the seventeenth century, the diversion of silver revenue to pay for European consumer goods and the rising costs of defense of its empire meant that "tangible benefits of America to Spain were dwindling...at a moment when the costs of empire were climbing sharply."The Bourbon monarchy attempted to expand the possibilities for trade within the empire, by allowing commerce between all ports in the empire, took other measures to revive economic activity to the benefit of Spain. The Bourbons had inherited "an empire invaded by rivals, an economy shorn of manufactures, a crown deprived of revenue... taxing colonists, tightening control, fighting off foreigners. In the process, they gained a revenue and lost an empire." The Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian peninsula precipitated the Spanish American wars of independence, resulting in the loss of its most valuable colonies.
In its former colonies in the Americas, Spanish is the dominant language and Catholicism the main religion, enduring cultural legacies of the Spanish Empire. With the marriage of the heirs apparent to their respective thrones Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile created a personal union that most scholars view as the foundation of the Spanish monarchy, their dynastic alliance was important for a number of reasons, ruling jointly over a large aggregation of territories although not in a unitary fashion. They pursued expansion in Iberia in the Christian Reconquest of the Muslim Kingdom of Granada, completed in 1492; this conquest is called the “Christian Reconquest” due to the different religions of the ruling class of both kingdoms. Since the Kingdom of Granada was the last moorish kingdom in th
Ferrante II Gonzaga was Count of Guastalla and, from 1621, Duke of Guastalla. He was the son of Cesare I Gonzaga, Count of Guastalla and Duke of Amalfi, Camilla Borromeo, he succeeded his father in 1575. On 2 July 1621, the County of Guastalla was elevated to a Duchy and Ferrante was subsequently deemed a Duke. Ferrante played a part in the War of the Mantuan Succession when, as a distant Gonzaga cousin, he claimed the Duchy of Mantua after the extinction of the senior male branch of the House of Gonzaga in December 1627, he was nominally supported by Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand II, who sought to re-attach the Duchy of Mantua to the Holy Roman Empire. His attempt failed. Ferrante II married Vittoria Doria, daughter of Giovanni Andrea Doria, had 3 children: Cesare II Gonzaga, next Duke of Guastalla, married Isabella Orsini Vincenzo Gonzaga, Viceroy of Sicily Andrea Gonzaga, Count of San Paolo, father of Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Guastalla Zenobia de Gonzaga y Doria, married in 1607 don Giovanni Tagliavia d'Aragona, Duke of Terranova.
Marek, Miroslav. "Genealogy euweb". Genealogy. EU
Ecosophy or ecophilosophy is a philosophy of ecological harmony or equilibrium. The term was coined by the French post-structuralist philosopher and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari and the Norwegian father of deep ecology, Arne Næss. Ecosophy refers to a field of practice introduced by psychoanalyst, poststructuralist philosopher, political activist Félix Guattari. In part Guattari's use of the term demarcates a necessity for the proponents of social liberation, whose struggles in the 20th century were dominated by the paradigm of social revolution, to embed their arguments within an ecological framework which understands the interconnections of social and environmental spheres. Guattari holds that traditional environmentalist perspectives obscure the complexity of the relationship between humans and their natural environment through their maintenance of the dualistic separation of human and nonhuman systems. Ecology in the Guattarian sense is a study of complex phenomena, including human subjectivity, the environment, social relations, all of which are intimately interconnected.
Despite this emphasis on interconnection, throughout his individual writings and more famous collaborations with Gilles Deleuze, Guattari has resisted calls for holism, preferring to emphasize heterogeneity and difference, synthesizing assemblages and multiplicities in order to trace rhizomatic structures rather than creating unified and holistic structures. Without modifications to the social and material environment, there can be no change in mentalities. Here, we are in the presence of a circle that leads me to postulate the necessity of founding an "ecosophy" that would link environmental ecology to social ecology and to mental ecology. Guattari's concept of the three interacting and interdependent ecologies of mind and environment stems from the outline of the three ecologies presented in Steps to an Ecology of Mind, a collection of writings by cyberneticist Gregory Bateson. Naess defined ecosophy in the following way: By an ecosophy I mean a philosophy of ecological harmony or equilibrium.
A philosophy as a kind of sofia wisdom, is normative, it contains both norms, postulates, value priority announcements and hypotheses concerning the state of affairs in our universe. Wisdom is policy wisdom, not only scientific description and prediction; the details of an ecosophy will show many variations due to significant differences concerning not only the'facts' of pollution, population, etc. but value priorities. While a professor at University of Oslo in 1972, Arne Næss, introduced the terms "deep ecology movement" and "ecosophy" into environmental literature. Naess based his article on a talk he gave in Bucharest in 1972 at the Third World Future Research Conference; as Drengson notes in Ecophilosophy and the Deep Ecology Movement: An Overview, "In his talk Næss discussed the longer-range background of the ecology movement and its connection with respect for Nature and the inherent worth of other beings." Naess's view of humans as an integral part of a "total-field image" of Nature contrasts with the alternative construction of ecosophy outlined by Guattari.
The term ecological wisdom, synonymous with ecosophy, was introduced by Næss in 1973. The concept has become one of the foundations of the deep ecology movement. All expressions of values by Green Parties list ecological wisdom as a key value—it was one of the original Four Pillars of the Green Party and is considered the most basic value of these parties, it is often associated with indigenous religion and cultural practices. In its political context, it is not as defined as ecological health or scientific ecology concepts. Ecology Global Greens Charter Green syndicalism Simple living Spiritual ecology Sustainable living Yin and yang Environmental philosophy Drengson, A. and Y. Inoue, eds; the Deep Ecology Movement: An Introductory Anthology. Berkeley: North Atlantic Publishers. Guattari, Félix: »Pour une refondation des pratiques sociales«. In: Le Monde Diplomatique: 26-7. Guattari, Félix: »Remaking Social Practices«. In: Genosko, Gary: The Guattari Reader. Oxford, Blackwell, S. 262-273. Maybury-Lewis, David.
"On the Importance of Being Tribal: Tribal Wisdom." Millennium: Tribal Wisdom and the Modern World. Binimun Productions Ltd. Næss, Arne; the Shallow and the Deep Long-Range Ecology Movement: A Summary". Inquiry, 16:95-100 Drengson A. & B. Devall The Ecology of Wisdom. Writings by Arne Naess. Berkeley: Counterpoint Ecophilosophy and the Deep Ecology Movement: An Overview by Alan Drengson Ecospherics.net. Accessed 2005-08-14. Transversalising the Ecological Turn: Four Components of Felix Guattari’s Ecosophical Perspective by John Tinnell Fibreculturejournal.org. Accessed 2012-02-04; the Trumpeter, A Journal of Ecosophy