New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah and Arizona. With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi, it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate; the economy of New Mexico is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, lumber milling, retail trade. As of 2016–2017, its total gross domestic product was $95 billion with a GDP per capita of $45,465. New Mexico's status as a tax haven yields low to moderate personal income taxes on residents and military personnel, gives tax credits and exemptions to favorable industries; because of this, its film industry contributed $1.23 billion to its overall economy.
Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a large U. S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. Various U. S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. During the 1940s, Project Y of the Manhattan Project developed and built the country's first atomic bomb and nuclear test, Trinity. Inhabited by Native Americans for many thousands of years before European exploration, it was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1563, it was named Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico. After Mexican independence in 1824, New Mexico became a Mexican territory with considerable autonomy; this autonomy was threatened, however, by the centralizing tendencies of the Mexican government from the 1830s onward, with rising tensions leading to the Revolt of 1837.
At the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the United States annexed New Mexico as the U. S. New Mexico Territory, it was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. Its history has given New Mexico the highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a population proportion. New Mexico is home to part of the Navajo Nation, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities of Puebloan peoples, three different federally recognized Apache tribes. In prehistoric times, the area was home to Ancestral Puebloans and the modern extant Comanche and Utes inhabited the state; the largest Hispanic and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico and Mexican Americans. The flag of New Mexico features the state's Spanish origins with the same scarlet and gold coloration as Spain's Cross of Burgundy, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe.
These indigenous, Mexican and American frontier roots are reflected in the eponymous New Mexican cuisine and the New Mexico music genre. New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. Though the name “Mexico” itself derives from Nahuatl, in that language it referred to the heartland of the Empire of the Mexicas in the Valley of Mexico far from the area of New Mexico, Spanish explorers used the term “Mexico” to name the region of New Mexico in 1563. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande "San Felipe del Nuevo México"; the Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous Mexica cultures there similar to those of the Aztec Empire of the Valley of Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, proved to be unrelated to the Mexicas, they were not wealthy, but the name persisted. Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" was applied to various configurations of the U.
S. territory, to a Mexican state, to a province of New Spain, all in the same general area, but of varying extensions. With a total area of 121,699 square miles, the state is the fifth-largest state of the US, larger than British Isles. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, 2.2 miles west of 103°W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that; the western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03'W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel; the 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner. New Mexico has no natural water sources
Pueblo of Isleta
Pueblo of Isleta or Isleta Pueblo is an unincorporated community Tanoan pueblo in Bernalillo County, New Mexico, United States established around the 14th century. The native name of the pueblo is Shiewhibak meaning "a knife laid on the ground to play whib", a native footrace, its people are federally recognized as a Native American tribe. Pueblo of Isleta is located in the Middle Rio Grande Valley, 13 miles south of Albuquerque, it is adjacent to and east of the main section of Laguna Pueblo. The pueblo was built on a knife-shaped reef of lava running across an ancient Rio Grande channel; the Isleta Pueblo Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. On January 15, 2016, the tribe's officials and federal government representatives held a ceremony to mark the government's taking into federal trust some 90,151 acres of land, 140 square miles, which the Pueblo had purchased, it enlarged their communal territory by 50%. The tribe had worked for more than 20 years to acquire this land, once part of their homeland.
It is so far the largest such acquisition handled under the President Barack Obama administration. The population of Pueblo of Isleta consists of the Southern Tiwa ethnic group; the inhabitants of the Pueblo traditionally speak Isletan Tiwa, one of the two varieties of the Southern Tiwa language, part of the Tanoan branch of the Kiowa-Tanoan language family. The other Southern Tiwa variety is spoken at Sandia Pueblo, whereas Northern Tiwa is spoken at Taos and Picuris Pueblos. In August 2015, the tribe announced that the Tiwa language would be taught to children at Isleta Elementary School, following the school's transfer from federal to tribal control. In 2016 the Kellogg Foundation made grants totaling $148,000 for development of the dual language, Tiwa-English program, for young children at the school. Anthropologists have divided Pueblo groups into two distinct groups based on cultural practices: the Western Pueblo Groups and the Eastern Pueblo Groups. Isleta is considered an Eastern Pueblo according to this classification, derived on their subsistence farming techniques.
Traditionally, Eastern pueblos rely more on irrigation techniques, in contrast to tdry farming practices that were more common in the Western Pueblos. Both groups cultivate maize, but squash and beans have been staple Pueblo foods all around the region. Other scholars classify the pueblos into three cultural groups: the Western and Keresan Pueblo groups. In either system, Pueblo of Isleta is considered an Eastern Pueblo group; the adjacent Laguna Pueblo is a Central—Keresan Pueblo group. Isleta have matrilineal kinship systems, with descent and inheritance traced through the mother's family, they have an endogamous system of marriage. These kinship/cultural divisions are connected with the sacred directions and colors, as well as tribal lineages, clans and moieties. In the moiety system, one moiety is connected with winter practices, the other with the summer practices and traditions; the tribe operates a kiva as sacred space for particular rituals and ceremonies. The traditional religion involves the cult of the Kachinas, spiritual beings that personify various aspects of the immaterial and natural worlds.
The kachina concept has three different aspects: the supernatural being, the kachina dancers, kachina dolls, small dolls carved in the likeness of Kachinas given as gifts to children. The cult of the Kachinas may have spread eastwards to Isleta from the Western Pueblos through Laguna, in which Kachinas have been a part of the traditional religion for longer; when the Spanish arrived in the late 1500s they named the village Isleta, Spanish for "little island". The Spanish Mission of San Agustín de la Isleta was built in the pueblo around 1629 or 1630 by the Spanish Franciscan friar Juan de Salas, he tried to teach western ways of cultivating plants. During the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, many of the pueblo people fled to Hopi settlements in Arizona, while others followed the Spanish retreat south to El Paso del Norte (present-day El Paso, Texas. After the rebellion, the Isleta people returned to the Pueblo, many with Hopi spouses. In the 1800s, friction with members of Laguna Pueblo and Acoma Pueblo, who had joined the Isleta community, led to the founding of the satellite settlement of Oraibi.
In the 21st century, Isleta includes the main pueblo, as well as the small communities of Oraibi and Chicale. On October 21, 1887, the French missionary Father Anton Docher traveled to New Mexico, where he was assigned as a priest in the Cathedral of Santa Fé. After three years in Santa Fé and one in Taos, he was assigned to Isleta, arriving on December 28, 1891. There, he met Charles Fletcher Lummis, who became long-term friends. Young Pablo Abeita had been selected as Governor of Isleta, continuing into the 1930s. Father Anton Docher served for 34 years in the historic St. Agustin Mission Church until his death in 1928, he is buried near Padre Padilla, near the altar of the church in Isleta. On October 26, 1919, the King of Belgium Albert I, together with Queen Elisabeth of Belgium and Prince Léopold, journeyed to Isleta during their official visit to the United States; the King decorated P
Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument
The Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument is a complex of three Spanish missions located in the U. S. state of New Mexico, near Mountainair. The main park visitor center is in Mountainair. Construction of the missions began in 1622 and was completed in 1635. Once, thriving Native American trade communities of Tiwa and Tompiro language-speaking Puebloans inhabited this remote frontier area of central New Mexico. Early in the 17th century Spanish Franciscans found the area ripe for their missionary efforts. However, by the late 1670s the entire Salinas District, as the Spanish had named it, was depopulated of both Indian and Spaniard. What remains today are austere yet beautiful reminders of this earliest contact between Pueblo Indians and Spanish Colonials: the ruins of three mission churches, at Quarai, Abó, Gran Quivira and the excavated pueblo of Las Humanas or, as it is known today, the Gran Quivira pueblo, it was first proclaimed Gran Quivira National Monument on November 1, 1909. As with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the National Monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966.
On December 19, 1980 it was enlarged and two New Mexico State Monuments were absorbed into it on November 2, 1981. It was renamed on October 28, 1988; the Quarai Ruins are located about 8 miles north at about 6650 feet above sea level. There is a 0.5 mile trail through the ruins. The Gran Quivira Ruins are located about 25 miles south of Mountainair, at about 6500 feet above sea level. There is a small visitor center near the parking lot. A 0.5 mile trail leads through excavated pueblo ruins and the ruins of the uncompleted mission church. The Gran Quivira, as it has been called for over a hundred years, is by far the best known of the Salinas pueblos, in fact is one of the most celebrated ruins in all of the Southwest; this is not strange, as it is altogether the largest ruin of any Christian temple that exists in the United States. How and when it first received its deceptive title of "Gran Quivira" we may never know. From the days of Coronado the name of "Quivira" had been associated with the idea of a great unknown city, of wealth and splendor, situated somewhere on the Eastern Plains.
The Gran Quivera Historic District was listed separately on the National Register of Historic Places in 2015. National Register of Historic Places listings in Socorro County, New Mexico National Register of Historic Places listings in Torrance County, New Mexico List of National Historic Landmarks in New Mexico List of National Monuments of the United States Ivey, James E.. In the Midst of a Loneliness: The Architectural History of the Salinas Missions: Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument Historic Structire Report. Southwest Cultural Resource Center Professional Papers. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Division of History, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Southwest Region, National Park Service, Department of the Interior. Official NPS website: Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument American Southwest, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Gran Quivira: A Blending of Cultures in a Pueblo Indian Village, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, stems, leaves and seeds; the alternate definition of the term vegetable is applied somewhat arbitrarily by culinary and cultural tradition. It may exclude foods derived from some plants that are fruits and cereal grains, but include fruits from others such as tomatoes and courgettes and seeds such as pulses. Vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world during the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types. Nowadays, most vegetables are grown all over the world as climate permits, crops may be cultivated in protected environments in less suitable locations.
China is the largest producer of vegetables and global trade in agricultural products allows consumers to purchase vegetables grown in faraway countries. The scale of production varies from subsistence farmers supplying the needs of their family for food, to agribusinesses with vast acreages of single-product crops. Depending on the type of vegetable concerned, harvesting the crop is followed by grading, storing and marketing. Vegetables can be eaten either raw or cooked and play an important role in human nutrition, being low in fat and carbohydrates, but high in vitamins and dietary fiber. Many nutritionists encourage people to consume plenty of fruit and vegetables, five or more portions a day being recommended; the word vegetable was first recorded in English in the early 15th century. It comes from Old French, was applied to all plants, it derives from Medieval Latin vegetabilis "growing, flourishing", a semantic change from a Late Latin meaning "to be enlivening, quickening". The meaning of "vegetable" as a "plant grown for food" was not established until the 18th century.
In 1767, the word was used to mean a "plant cultivated for food, an edible herb or root". The year 1955 saw the first use of the shortened, slang term "veggie"; as an adjective, the word vegetable is used in scientific and technical contexts with a different and much broader meaning, namely of "related to plants" in general, edible or not—as in vegetable matter, vegetable kingdom, vegetable origin, etc. The exact definition of "vegetable" may vary because of the many parts of a plant consumed as food worldwide—roots, leaves, flowers and seeds; the broadest definition is the word's use adjectivally to mean "matter of plant origin". More a vegetable may be defined as "any plant, part of, used for food", a secondary meaning being "the edible part of such a plant". A more precise definition is "any plant part consumed for food, not a fruit or seed, but including mature fruits that are eaten as part of a main meal". Falling outside these definitions are edible fungi and edible seaweed which, although not parts of plants, are treated as vegetables.
In the latter-mentioned definition of "vegetable", used in everyday language, the words "fruit" and "vegetable" are mutually exclusive. "Fruit" has a precise botanical meaning, being a part that developed from the ovary of a flowering plant. This is different from the word's culinary meaning. While peaches and oranges are "fruit" in both senses, many items called "vegetables", such as eggplants, bell peppers, tomatoes, are botanically fruits; the question of whether the tomato is a fruit or a vegetable found its way into the United States Supreme Court in 1893. The court ruled unanimously in Nix v. Hedden that a tomato is identified as, thus taxed as, a vegetable, for the purposes of the Tariff of 1883 on imported produce; the court did acknowledge, that, botanically speaking, a tomato is a fruit. Before the advent of agriculture, humans were hunter-gatherers, they foraged for edible fruit, stems, leaves and tubers, scavenged for dead animals and hunted living ones for food. Forest gardening in a tropical jungle clearing is thought to be the first example of agriculture.
Plant breeding through the selection of strains with desirable traits such as large fruit and vigorous growth soon followed. While the first evidence for the domestication of grasses such as wheat and barley has been found in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, it is that various peoples around the world started growing crops in the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC. Subsistence agriculture continues to this day, with many rural farmers in Africa, South America, elsewhere using their plots of land to produce enough food for their families, while any surplus produce is used for exchange for other goods. Throughout recorded history, the rich have been able to afford a varied diet including meat and fruit, but for poor people, meat was a luxury and the food they ate was dull comprising some staple product made from rice, barley, millet or maize; the addition of vegetable matter provided some variety to the diet. The staple diet of the Aztecs in Central America was maize and they cultivated tomatoes, beans, pumpkins, squashes and amaranth seeds to supplement their tortillas and porridge.
In Peru, the Incas subsisted on maize in the lowla
Spanish missions in California
The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of 21 religious outposts or missions established between 1769 and 1833 in today's U. S. State of California. Founded by Catholic priests of the Franciscan order to evangelize the Native Americans, the missions led to the creation of the New Spain province of Alta California and were part of the expansion of the Spanish Empire into the most northern and western parts of Spanish North America. Following long-term secular and religious policy of Spain in Spanish America, the missionaries forced the native Californians to live in settlements called reductions, disrupting their traditional way of life; the missionaries introduced European fruits, cattle, horses and technology. The missions have been accused by critics and now, of various abuses and oppression. In the end, the missions had mixed results in their objectives: to convert and transform the natives into Spanish colonial citizens. By 1810, Spain's king had been imprisoned by the French, financing for military payroll and missions in California ceased.
In 1821, Mexico achieved independence from Spain, although Mexico did not send a governor to California until 1824, only a portion of payroll was reinstated. The 21,000 Mission Indians produced hide and tallow and wool and textiles at this time, the leather products were exported to Boston, South America, Asia which sustained the colonial economy from 1810 until 1830, but tended to give British or New England merchant captains importance; the missions began to lose control over land in the 1820s, as unpaid military men unofficially encroached, but missions maintained authority over native neophytes and control of land holdings until the 1830s. At the peak of its development in 1832, the coastal mission system controlled an area equal to one-sixth of Alta California; the Alta California government secularized the missions after the passage of the Mexican secularization act of 1833. This divided the mission lands into land grants, in effect legitimizing and completing the transfer of Indian congregation lands to military commanders and their most loyal men.
The surviving mission buildings are the state's oldest structures and its most-visited historic monuments. They have become a symbol of California, appearing in many movies and television shows, are an inspiration for Mission Revival architecture; the oldest cities of California formed around or near Spanish missions, including the four largest: Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco. Prior to 1754, grants of mission lands were made directly by the Spanish Crown. But, given the remote locations and the inherent difficulties in communicating with the territorial governments, power was transferred to the viceroys of New Spain to grant lands and establish missions in North America. Plans for the Alta California missions were laid out under the reign of King Charles III, came at least in part as a response to recent sightings of Russian fur traders along the California coast in the mid 1700s; the missions were to be interconnected by an overland route which became known as the Camino Real.
The detailed planning and direction of the missions was to be carried out by Friar Junípero Serra, O. F. M.. The Rev. Fermín Francisco de Lasuén took up Serra's work and established nine more mission sites, from 1786 through 1798. Work on the coastal mission chain was concluded in 1823, completed after Serra's death in 1784. Plans to build a twenty-second mission in Santa Rosa in 1827 were canceled; the Rev. Pedro Estévan Tápis proposed establishing a mission on one of the Channel Islands in the Pacific Ocean off San Pedro Harbor in 1784, with either Santa Catalina or Santa Cruz being the most locations, the reasoning being that an offshore mission might have attracted potential people to convert who were not living on the mainland, could have been an effective measure to restrict smuggling operations. Governor José Joaquín de Arrillaga approved the plan the following year, however an outbreak of sarampion killing some 200 Tongva people coupled with a scarcity of land for agriculture and potable water left the success of such a venture in doubt, so no effort to found an island mission was made.
In September 1821,the Rev. Mariano Payeras, "Comisario Prefecto" of the California missions, visited Cañada de Santa Ysabel east of Mission San Diego de Alcalá as part of a plan to establish an entire chain of inland missions; the Santa Ysabel Asistencia had been founded in 1818 as a "mother" mission, the plan's expanding beyond never came to fruition. In addition to the presidio and pueblo, the misión was one of the three major agencies employed by the Spanish sovereign to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories. Asistencias were small-scale missions that conducted Mass on days of obligation but lacked a resident priest; the Spanish Californians had never strayed from the coast. Each frontier station was forced to be self-supporting, as existing means of supply were inadequate to maintain a
George A. Grant
George Alexander Grant was an American photographer who served as the first Chief Photographer for the U. S. National Park Service. Grant was born in Milton, Pennsylvania, on March 4, 1891, grew up in Sunbury, Pennsylvania. After graduating high school, he had a series of manufacturing jobs before gaining employment in 1912 as a master craftsman and metalsmith at the Roycroft Community in East Aurora, New York. Roycroft was renowned for its craftsmanship of furnishings and other architectural pieces that were popular during the Arts and Crafts Movement in the early 20th century. Following America's entry in to World War I in 1917, Grant enlisted in the Army, he was sent to Fort D. A. Russell remained there until war's end. Following his discharge he returned to Pennsylvania to work at a series of construction and factory jobs, all the time yearning to return to the West. In early 1921, he wrote a letter to the chief ranger at Yellowstone National Park inquiring about a position, but nothing came from the correspondence.
Upon learning that the park had a new chief ranger in 1922, he wrote again. This time the ranger, Sam Woodring, passed the information on to park superintendent Horace Albright. Both men liked Grant's resume, notably his experience in Wyoming during the war, offered him a seasonal ranger position for the summer of 1922, it is unclear if Grant brought a camera with him to the park or located one after his arrival, but he began taking photographs and teaching himself how to process and print film. Superintendent Albright was impressed with his work and encouraged him to snap pictures when he was not involved in other duties. At summer's end, Grant was awarded a permanent ranger position. However, following a horseback accident, he realized that he was not suited to the strenuous demands of back country ranger work and there was not enough photographic work during the winter to justify his employment. In early 1923, George Grant took photography courses in New York City and accepted a position as a photographer for Pennsylvania State College.
He held the position for four years serving as an instructor in photography. During that time, he maintained a steady correspondence with Horace Albright seeking an opportunity to return to the National Park Service. In 1927, a position was approved for a Park Service photographer. Grant drove to southern California to begin work. However, no funding was allocated for the position in the 1928 budget. In early 1929, Albright succeeded Park Service Director Stephen Mather, gravely ill, Hall located outside funding to support a photography position for 18 months. With those two pieces in place, George Grant was hired as the Park Service's first staff photographer in April, 1929, was based at the NPS Educational Division headquarters at the University of California Berkeley. During his first field season, he traveled thousands of miles in a Park Service vehicle to produce photographs at more than a dozen national parks across the West and Southwest. In November 1929, he gave presentations on the value of photography in the parks to attendees of the first Park Naturalists Conference, held in Berkeley.
In 1931, Grant was promoted to Chief Photographer and transferred to Washington, D. C. Grant remained a lifelong bachelor, but spent many holidays and vacations visiting his parents in Pennsylvania, his younger brother who lived with his wife and three daughters in Snow Hill, Maryland. Following the inauguration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in March of 1933, Grant's workload expanded. In June, Roosevelt signed an executive order nearly doubling the size of the Park Service with the addition of many national monuments, historic sites, national battlefields, he accompanied teams traveling to different regions to survey for planned or proposed national parks. Among these were trips to the Great Smoky Mountains, along the route of the planned Natchez Trace Parkway, to southern Arizona and Sonora, Mexico, to the Big Bend of Texas, to the North Cascades of Washington. Grant continued active work with the Park Service and the Department of the Interior until his retirement in 1954. Among his final projects was the documentation of historic sites and artifacts threatened by the rising waters of the Missouri River and its tributaries that were dammed as part of the Pick–Sloan Missouri Basin Program.
After his retirement, Grant was recognized with a Meritorious Service Award from the National Park Service. After his death in 1964, he was further recognized as an "Eminent Photographer" by the Park Service. George Grant produced between 40,000 images during his year career with the Park Service. Of those only10% were published, his photographs have been featured in exhibitions, magazines, park brochures, other documents. Because of their significance to NPS history, Grant's images have been included in the National Park Service Historic Photograph Collection. George A. Grant photographs for National Park Service This article incorporates text from the Eminent National Park Service Photographers website, a public domain document. Davis and Helen, Landscapes for the People: George Alexander Grant, First Chief Photographer of the National Park Service; the University of Georgia Press. U. S. government works in Wikipedia: Public domain NPS: "George A. Grant, a biogr
Spanish missions in Georgia
The Spanish missions in Georgia comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics in order to spread the Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans. The Spanish chapter of Georgia's earliest colonial history is dominated by the lengthy mission era, extending from 1568 through 1684. Catholic missions were the primary means by which Georgia's indigenous Native American chiefdoms were assimilated into the Spanish colonial system along the northern frontier of greater Spanish Florida; the early missions in present-day Georgia were established to serve the Guale and various Timucua peoples, including the Mocama. The missions served other peoples who had entered the region, including the Yamassee. Mission San Pedro y San Pablo de de Puturibato, on Cumberland Island San Buenaventura de Guadalquini, on St. Simons Island Mission San Diego de Satuache, on the mouth of the Ogeechee River Mission San Joseph de Sapala, on Sapelo Island San Lorenzo de Ibihica, near Folkston San Pedro de Mocama, on Cumberland Island Mission San Phelipe de Alave, on the North Newport River Mission San Phelipe II, on Cumberland Island Santa Catalina de Guale, on St. Catherines Island, Sapelo Island, Amelia Island Mission Santa Clara de Tupiqui/Espogache, on the Sapelo River Mission Santa Cruz de Cachipile, near Lake Park, Georgia Santa Isabel de Utinahica, at the forks of the Altamaha River Mission Santa Maria de los Angeles de Arapaja, on the Alapaha River Mission Santiago de Oconi, on the Okefenokee Swamp Mission Santo Domingo de Asao/Talaje, at the mouth of the Altamaha River Mission Santo Domingo de Asao/Talaje II, on St. Simons Island Mission Talapo, on the mainland near Sapelo Island Mission Tolomato, on the mainland near St. Catherines Island History of Georgia Spanish Florida — colonial region Spanish missions in Florida Viceroyalty of New Spain — Spanish colonial North America Spanish Louisiana — colonial region The New Georgia Encyclopedia