Treaty of Lisbon
The Treaty of Lisbon is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union. The Treaty of Lisbon was signed by the EU member states on 13 December 2007, entered into force on 1 December 2009, it amends the Maastricht Treaty, known in updated form as the Treaty on European Union or TEU, the Treaty of Rome, known in updated form as the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union or TFEU. It amends the attached treaty protocols as well as the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. Prominent changes included the move from unanimity to qualified majority voting in at least 45 policy areas in the Council of Ministers, a change in calculating such a majority to a new double majority, a more powerful European Parliament forming a bicameral legislature alongside the Council of Ministers under the ordinary legislative procedure, a consolidated legal personality for the EU and the creation of a long-term President of the European Council and a High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.
The Treaty made the Union's bill of rights, the Charter of Fundamental Rights binding. The Treaty for the first time gave member states the explicit legal right to leave the EU, established a procedure by which to do so; the stated aim of the treaty was to "complete the process started by the Treaty of Amsterdam and by the Treaty of Nice with a view to enhancing the efficiency and democratic legitimacy of the Union and to improving the coherence of its action". Opponents of the Treaty of Lisbon, such as former Danish Member of the European Parliament Jens-Peter Bonde, argued that it would centralize the EU, weaken democracy by "moving power away" from national electorates. Supporters argue that it brings more checks and balances into the EU system, with stronger powers for the European Parliament and a new role for national parliaments. Negotiations to modify EU institutions began in 2001, resulting first in the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, which would have repealed the existing European treaties and replaced them with a "constitution".
Although ratified by a majority of member states, this was abandoned after being rejected by 54% of French voters on 29 May 2005 and by 61% of Dutch voters on 1 June 2005. After a "period of reflection", member states agreed instead to maintain the existing treaties, but to amend them, salvaging a number of the reforms, envisaged in the constitution. An amending "reform" treaty was drawn up and signed in Lisbon in 2007, it was intended to have been ratified by all member states by the end of 2008. This timetable failed due to the initial rejection of the Treaty in June 2008 by the Irish electorate, a decision, reversed in a second referendum in October 2009 after Ireland secured a number of concessions related to the treaty; the need to review the EU's constitutional framework in light of the accession of ten new Member States in 2004, was highlighted in a declaration annexed to the Treaty of Nice in 2001. The agreements at Nice had paved the way for further enlargement of the Union by reforming voting procedures.
The Laeken declaration of December 2001 committed the EU to improving democracy and efficiency, set out the process by which a constitution aiming to achieve these goals could be created. The European Convention was established, presided over by former French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, was given the task of consulting as as possible across Europe with the aim of producing a first draft of the Constitution; the final text of the proposed Constitution was agreed upon at the summit meeting on 18–19 June 2004 under the presidency of Ireland. The Constitution, having been agreed by heads of government from the 25 Member States, was signed at a ceremony in Rome on 29 October 2004. Before it could enter into force, however, it had to be ratified by each member state. Ratification took different forms in each country, depending on the traditions, constitutional arrangements, political processes of each country. In 2005, referendums held in France and the Netherlands rejected the European Constitution.
While the majority of the Member States had ratified the European Constitution, due to the requirement of unanimity to amend the treaties of the EU, it became clear that it could not enter into force. This led to a "period of reflection" and the political end of the proposed European Constitution. In 2007, Germany declared the period of reflection over. By March, the 50th anniversary of the Treaties of Rome, the Berlin Declaration was adopted by all Member States; this declaration outlined the intention of all Member States to agree on a new treaty in time for the 2009 Parliamentary elections, to have a ratified treaty before mid-2009. Before the Berlin Declaration, the Amato Group – a group of European politicians, backed by the Barroso Commission with two representatives in the group – worked unofficially on rewriting the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. On 4 June 2007, the group released their text in French – cut from 63,000 words in 448 articles in the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe to 12,800 words in 70 articles.
In the Berlin Declaration, the EU leaders unofficially set a new timeline for the new treaty: 21–23 June 2007: European Council meeting in Brussels, mandate for Intergovernmental Conference 23 July 2007: IGC in Lisbon, text of Reform
Chorizo or chouriço is a type of pork sausage. Traditionally, it uses natural casings made from a method used since Roman times. In Europe, chorizo is a fermented, smoked sausage, which may be sliced and eaten without cooking, or added as an ingredient to add flavor to other dishes. Elsewhere, some sausages sold as chorizo may not be fermented and cured, require cooking before eating. Spanish chorizo and Portuguese chouriço get their distinctive smokiness and deep red color from dried, red peppers. Chorizo can be eaten sliced in a sandwich, fried, or simmered in liquid, including apple cider or other strong alcoholic beverages such as aguardiente, it is sometimes sliced and used as a pizza topping in a similar manner to salami and pepperoni. It can be used as a partial replacement for ground beef or pork. Several different names and spellings are used: Astur-Leonese: chorizu Basque: txorizo Catalan: xoriço Galician: chourizo Portuguese: chouriço Spanish: chorizo The etymology of chorizo is uncertain: it was thought to derive from the Latin salsicium, meaning "salted".
In English, chorizo is pronounced. Non-English pronunciations are sometimes heard, mimicking Castilian Spanish pronunciation. Spanish chorizo is made from coarsely chopped pork and pork fat, seasoned with garlic, pimentón – a smoked paprika – and salt, it is classed as either picante or dulce, depending upon the type of pimentón used. Hundreds of regional varieties of Spanish chorizo, both smoked and unsmoked, may contain herbs, other ingredients. For example, chorizo de Pamplona is a thicker sausage with the meat more finely ground. Among the varieties is chorizo Riojano from the La Rioja region, which has PGI protection within the EU. Chorizo is made in long and hard or soft varieties. A rule of thumb is that long, thin chorizos are sweet, short chorizos are spicy, although this is not always the case. Spain produces many other pork specialties, as well, such as lomo embuchado or salchichón, cured and air-dried in a similar way. Lomo is a lean, cured meat to slice, made from the loin of the pig, marinated and air-dried.
Salchichón is another cured sausage without the pimentón seasoning of chorizo, but flavoured with black peppercorns, instead. Depending on the variety, chorizo can be eaten sliced without further cooking, sometimes sliced in a sandwich, or grilled, fried, or baked alongside other foodstuffs, is an ingredient in several dishes where it accompanies beans, such as fabada or cocido montañés; the version of these dishes con todos los sacramentos adds to chorizo other preserved meats such as tocino and morcilla. Portuguese chouriço is made with pork, wine, paprika and salt, it is stuffed into natural or artificial casings and dried over smoke. The many different varieties differ in color, shape and taste. Many dishes of Portuguese cuisine and Brazilian cuisine make use of chouriço – cozido à portuguesa and feijoada are just two of them. A popular way to prepare chouriço is sliced and flame-cooked over alcohol at the table. Special glazed earthenware dishes with a lattice top are used for this purpose.
In Johannesburg, South Africa, the high influx of Portuguese immigrants in the 1960s from Portugal and Mozambique tended to settle in a suburb called La Rochelle and though most of them have either returned to Portugal or moved on to more affluent suburbs in the city, restaurants in the area, as well as the well supported annual "Lusitoland" fundraiser festival, have chouriço on the menu. In the Portuguese counties in Rhode Island and southeastern Massachusetts, chouriço is served with little neck clams and white beans. Chouriço sandwiches on grinder rolls, with sautéed green peppers and onions, are available at local delis and convenience stores. Stuffed quahogs, a Rhode Island specialty include chouriço. In Portugal, a blood chouriço similar to black pudding is made, amongst many other types of enchidos, such as alheira, linguiça, farinheira, chouriço de vinho, chouriço de ossos, chourição, paia, paiola and tripa enfarinhada. Based on the uncooked Spanish chorizo fresco, the Mexican versions of chorizo are made not just from fatty pork, but beef, chicken and tofu, vegan versions are made.
The meat is ground rather than chopped, different seasonings are used. This type is better known in Mexico and other parts of the Americas, including the border areas of the United States, is not found in Europe, it is spicier than Spanish and Portuguese varieties of the sausage, contains chili peppers that are higher on the Scoville scale. Chorizo and longaniza are not considered the same thing in Mexico. Due to culinary tradition and the high cost of imported Spanish smoked paprika, Mexican chorizo is made with native chili peppers of the same Capsicum annuum species. Spanish-American cuisine adds vinegar instead of the white wine used in Spain; the area of around Toluca, known as the capital of chorizo outside of the Iberian Peninsula, specializes in "green" chorizo, made with some combination of tomatillo, chili peppers, garlic. The green chorizo recipe is na
The bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colours, including red, orange, green and purple. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". Peppers are native to Mexico, Central America, northern South America. Pepper seeds were imported to Spain in 1493, from there, spread to Europe and Asia; the mild bell pepper cultivar was developed in Szeged, Hungary. Preferred growing conditions for bell peppers include warm, moist soil in a temperate range of 21 to 29 °C; the misleading name "pepper" was given by Europeans when Christopher Columbus brought the plant back to Europe. At that time, black pepper, from the unrelated plant Piper nigrum originating from India, was a prized condiment; the most used alternative name of the plant family, "chile", is of Mexican origin, from the Nahuatl word chilli. The terms "bell pepper", "pepper" or "sweet pepper", "capsicum" are used for any of the large bell-shaped peppers, regardless of their color.
The vegetable is referred to as a "pepper", or additionally by color. In the Midland region of the U. S. bell peppers when stuffed and pickled are sometimes called "mangoes." Canadian English uses both "bell pepper" and "pepper" interchangeably. In some languages, the term "paprika", which has its roots in the word for pepper, is used for both the spice and the fruit – sometimes referred to by their colour; the bell pepper is called "パプリカ" or "ピーマン" in Japan. In Switzerland, the fruit is called "peperone", the Italian name of the fruit. In France, it is called "poivron", with the same root as "poivre" or "piment". In Spain it is called "pimiento", which would be the masculine form of the traditional spice, "pimienta". In South Korea, the word "피망" refers to green bell peppers, whereas "파프리카" refers to bell peppers of other colors. In Sri Lanka, the fruit used as a vegetable is called "maalu miris"; the most common colors of bell peppers are green, yellow and red. More brown, white and dark purple peppers can be seen, depending on the variety.
Most unripe fruits are green or, less pale yellow or purple. Red bell peppers are ripened green peppers, although the Permagreen variety maintains its green color when ripe; as such, mixed colored peppers exist during parts of the ripening process. Green peppers are less sweet and more bitter than yellow or orange peppers, with red bell peppers being the sweetest; the taste of ripe peppers can vary with growing conditions and post-harvest storage treatment. While bell peppers are fruits in a botanical sense, they are considered vegetables in culinary contexts; the bell pepper is the only member of the genus Capsicum that does not produce capsaicin, a lipophilic chemical that can cause a strong burning sensation when it comes in contact with mucous membranes. This absence of capsaicin is due to a recessive form of a gene that eliminates the compound and the "hot" taste associated with the rest of the genus Capsicum; this recessive gene is overwritten in the Mexibelle pepper, a hybrid variety of bell pepper that produces small amounts of capsaicin.
Sweet pepper cultivars produce non-pungent capsaicinoids. Bell peppers contain 94% water, 5% carbohydrates, negligible fat and protein, they are rich sources of vitamin C, containing 97% of the Daily Value in a 100 gram reference amount. Red bell peppers have more vitamin C content than green bell peppers. Vitamin B6 is moderate in content, with no other micronutrients having significant amounts of the DV. China is the world's largest producer of bell and chile peppers, followed by Mexico, Turkey and the United States of America
In cuisine, an omelette or omelet is a dish made from beaten eggs fried with butter or oil in a frying pan. It is quite common for the omelette to be folded around a filling such as cheese, vegetables, meat, or some combination of the above. Whole eggs or egg whites are beaten, sometimes with a small amount of cream, or water; the fluffy omelette is a refined version of an ancient food. According to Alan Davidson, the French word omelette came into use during the mid-16th century, but the versions alumelle and alumete are employed by the Ménagier de Paris in 1393. Rabelais mentions an homelaicte d'oeufs, Olivier de Serres an amelette, François Pierre La Varenne's Le cuisinier françois has aumelette, the modern omelette appears in Cuisine bourgoise. According to the founding legend of the annual giant Easter omelette of Bessières, Haute-Garonne, when Napoleon Bonaparte and his army were traveling through southern France, they decided to rest for the night near the town of Bessières. Napoleon feasted on an omelette prepared by a local innkeeper, thought it was a culinary delight.
He ordered the townspeople to gather all the eggs in the village and to prepare a huge omelette for his army the next day. On March 19, 1994, the largest omelette in the world at the time was made with 160,000 eggs in Yokohama, but was subsequently overtaken by another, weighing 2,950 kilograms, made by the Canadian Lung Association at the Brockville Memorial Centre in Brockville, Canada, on May 11, 2002. In turn, that record was surpassed on August 11, 2012, by an omelette cooked by the Ferreira do Zêzere City Council in Santarém, Portugal; this record-breaking omelette weighed 6,466 kg, required 145,000 eggs and a 10.3-metre diameter pan. Nargesi or Spinach Omelette, an Iranian dish, is made with fried onions and spinach, is spiced with salt and pepper. Baghala ghatogh, an Iranian dish made with Baghalas, dill and spices. A Chinese omelette can be an oyster omelette. A Denver omelette known as a Southwest omelette or Western omelette, is an omelette filled with diced ham and green bell peppers, though there are many variations on fillings.
Served in the Southwestern United States, this omelette sometimes has a topping of cheese and a side dish of hash browns or fried potatoes. A Hangtown fry, containing bacon and breaded oysters, is an unusual omelette that originated in Placerville, during the gold rush. An egg white omelette is a variation which omits the yolks to remove fat and cholesterol, which reside in the yolk portion of an egg; the French omelette is smoothly and briskly cooked in an hot pan specially made for the purpose. The technique relies on clarified butter in great ratio to the eggs. Good with just salt and pepper, this omelette is flavored with tomato and finely chopped herbs or chopped onions. A frittata is a kind of open-faced Italian omelette that can contain cheese, vegetables, or leftover pasta. Frittata are cooked slowly. Except for the cooking oil, all ingredients are mixed with the eggs before cooking starts; the Spanish tortilla de patatas, or tortilla española in other Spanish-speaking countries, is a traditional and popular thick omelette containing sliced potatoes sautéed in cooking oil.
It includes sliced onions and less other additional fillings, such as cheese, bell peppers, cooked diced ham. In Japan, tamagoyaki is a traditional omelette in which eggs are beaten with mirin, soy sauce, bonito flakes and water, cooked in a special rectangular frying pan; the omelette is cooked by frying a thin layer of egg mixture and rolling it up with a pair of chopsticks to form a sausage shape in one end of the pan. Another thin layer of egg is added to the bottom of the pan and is again rolled, with the original rolled, cooked egg at the centre, over to the other end of the pan; this is repeated until all the egg has been used up, resulting in a dense cylindrical omelette containing many thin layers. This is squeezed into a rectangular or circular cross-section using a sushi mat, sliced into segments for serving. Omelette can mean a Western omelette. Omurice is an omelette filled with rice and served with a large amount of tomato ketchup. Omu-soba is an omelette with yakisoba as its filling.
In Thai cuisine, a traditional omelette is called khai chiao ไข่เจียว, in which the beaten egg mixture and a small quantity of fish sauce is deep fried in a wok filled with 1-2 cups of vegetable oil and served over steamed rice. The dish is served with Sriracha sauce and cilantro. A variation on this dish is khai chiao songkhrueang, where the plain egg omelette is served together with a stir-fry of meat and vegetables, yet another type of Thai omelette is khai yat sai "eggs filled with stuffing". In Parsi cuisine, an omelette is called Pora which consists of eggs, tomato, green chillies, coriander leaves. Had for breakfast with Indian/Irani tea and bread. List of egg dishes List of brunch foods
The bocadillo or bocata, in Spain, is a sandwich made with Spanish bread a baguette or similar type of bread, cut lengthwise. Traditionally seen as a humble food, its low cost has allowed it to evolve over time into an iconic piece of cuisine. In Spain, they are eaten in cafes and tapas bars; some bocadillos are seasoned with sauces like mayonnaise, ketchup, mustard or tomato sauce. They are served with cold beer or red wine, coffee and a portion of tapas. Different types of bocadillos are available in different parts of Spain, such as the serranito and esgarrat. There is a wide variety of bocadillos in Spain. Bocadillos can be found in northern Morocco. Spanish omelette Campera omelette Jamon omelette Cheese omelette Courgette omelette French omelette Garlic omelette Bean omelette Aubergine omelette Spinach omelette Tuna fish omelette Jamón - Spanish dry-cured ham served with olive oil Boiled ham with cheese Bacon with cheese Mortadella Salchichon Salami Paté, Pâté Sobrassada with cheese Cheese Fresh cheese with oil and tomato Cheese spread with anchovies sliced Tasmanian feta cheese Tomato and olive oil, Pa amb tomàquet Pisto Vegetarian Chistorra Longaniza or blanco Chorizo or rojo Morcilla or negro Blanco y negro Frankfurt Pork fillet Horse meat Pechuga Pepito Fried egg Revuelto de huevos, Scrambled eggs Calamares, Fried calamares Puntillas or Puntillitas Calamares en su tinta Tuna fish with olives Sardines Cuttlefish Smoked salmon with boiled eggs Chocolate Brascada Kike Pascuala Pascuala especial Cofrade Chivito.
Emanuele Spanish Bocadillo Portuguese Bocadillo Tumbadito List of sandwiches - Cuban sandwich
Maize known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice. However, little of this maize is consumed directly by humans: most is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup; the six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, sweet corn. Maize is the most grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol. Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are grown for human consumption as kernels, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed, various corn-based human food uses, as chemical feedstocks.
Maize is used in making ethanol and other biofuels. Most historians believe. Recent research in the early 21st century has modified this view somewhat. An influential 2002 study by Matsuoka et al. has demonstrated that, rather than the multiple independent domestications model, all maize arose from a single domestication in southern Mexico about 9,000 years ago. The study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths; this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Archaeologist Dolores Piperno has said: A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP. Since even earlier dates have been published. According to a genetic study by Embrapa, corn cultivation was introduced in South America from Mexico, in two great waves: the first, more than 6000 years ago, spread through the Andes.
Evidence of cultivation in Peru has been found dating to about 6700 years ago. The second wave, about 2000 years ago, through the lowlands of South America. Before domestication, maize plants grew only small, 25 millimetres long corn cobs, only one per plant. In Spielvogel's view, many centuries of artificial selection by the indigenous people of the Americas resulted in the development of maize plants capable of growing several cobs per plant, which were several centimetres/inches long each; the Olmec and Maya cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica. It was believed. Research of the 21st century has established earlier dates; the region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Mapuches of south-central Chile cultivated maize along with quinoa and potatoes in Pre-Hispanic times, however potato was the staple food of most Mapuches, "specially in the southern and coastal territories where maize did not reach maturity". Before the expansion of the Inca Empire maize was traded and transported as far south as 40°19' S in Melinquina, Lácar Department.
In that location maize remains were found inside pottery dated to 730 ±80 BP and 920 ±60 BP. This maize was brought across the Andes from Chile; the presence of maize in Guaitecas Archipelago, which constitute southernmost outspost of Pre-Hispanic agriculture, is reported by early Spanish explorers. However the Spanish may have misidentified the plant. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for communion bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation and be transformed into the body of Christ; some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. "In the view of Europeans, it was the food they ate more than the environment in which they lived, that gave Amerindians and Spaniards both their distinctive physical characteristics and their characteristic personalities."
Despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize. Archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates, it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbus's voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for mahiz, it is known by other names around the world. The word "corn" outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple. In the United Stat
Bilbao is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole. It is the largest city proper in northern Spain. Bilbao is the tenth largest city in Spain, with a population of 345,141 as of 2015; the Bilbao metropolitan area has 1 million inhabitants, making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in northern Spain. Bilbao is the main urban area in what is defined as the Greater Basque region. Bilbao is situated in the north-central part of Spain, some 16 kilometres south of the Bay of Biscay, where the economic social development is located, where the estuary of Bilbao is formed, its main urban core is surrounded by two small mountain ranges with an average elevation of 400 metres. Its climate is shaped by the Bay of Biscay low-pressure systems and mild air, moderating summer temperatures by Iberian standards, with low sunshine and high rainfall; the annual temperature range is low for its latitude. After its foundation in the early 14th century by Diego López V de Haro, head of the powerful Haro family, Bilbao was a commercial hub of the Basque Country that enjoyed significant importance in Green Spain.
This was due to its port activity based on the export of iron extracted from the Biscayan quarries. Throughout the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, Bilbao experienced heavy industrialisation, making it the centre of the second-most industrialised region of Spain, behind Barcelona. At the same time an extraordinary population explosion prompted the annexation of several adjacent municipalities. Nowadays, Bilbao is a vigorous service city, experiencing an ongoing social and aesthetic revitalisation process, started by the iconic Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, continued by infrastructure investments, such as the airport terminal, the rapid transit system, the tram line, the Azkuna Zentroa, the under development Abandoibarra and Zorrozaurre renewal projects. Bilbao is home to football club Athletic Club de Bilbao, a significant symbol for Basque nationalism due to its promotion of only Basque players and one of the most successful clubs in Spanish football history. On 19 May 2010, the city of Bilbao was recognised with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize, awarded by the city state of Singapore, in collaboration with the Swedish Nobel Academy.
Considered the Nobel Prize for urbanism, it was handed out on 29 June 2010. On 7 January 2013, its mayor, Iñaki Azkuna, received the 2012 World Mayor Prize awarded every two years by the British foundation The City Mayors Foundation, in recognition of the urban transformation experienced by the Biscayan capital since the 1990s. On 8 November 2017, Bilbao was chosen the Best European City 2018 at The Urbanism Awards 2018, awarded by the international organisation The Academy of Urbanism; the official name of the town is Bilbao, as known in most languages of the world. Euskaltzaindia, the official regulatory institution of the Basque language, has agreed that between the two possible names existing in Basque and Bilbo, the historical name is Bilbo, while Bilbao is the official name. Although the term Bilbo does not appear in old documents, in the play The Merry Wives of Windsor by William Shakespeare, there is a reference to swords made of Biscayan iron which he calls "bilboes", suggesting that it is a word used since at least the sixteenth century.
There is no consensus among historians about the origin of the name. Accepted accounts state that prior to the 12th century the independent rulers of the territory, named Senores de Zubialdea, were known as Senores de Bilbao la Vieja; the symbols of their patrimony are the church used in the shield of Bilbao to this day. One possible origin was suggested by the engineer Evaristo de Churruca, he said. For Bilbao this would be the result of the union of the Basque words for river and cove: Bil-Ibaia-Bao; the historian José Tussel Gómez argues that it is just a natural evolution of the Spanish words bello vado, beautiful river crossing. On the other hand, according to the writer Esteban Calle Iturrino, the name derives from the two settlements that existed on both banks of the estuary, rather than from the estuary itself; the first, where the present Casco Viejo is located, would be called billa, which means stacking in Basque, after the configuration of the buildings. The second, on the left bank, where now Bilbao La Vieja is located, would be called vaho, Spanish for mist or steam.
From the union of these two derives the name Bilbao, written as Bilvao and Biluao, as documented in its municipal charter. An -ao ending is present in nearby Sestao and Ugao, that could be explained from Basque aho, "mouth"; the demonym is "bilbaíno, -a", although the popular pronunciation bilbaino/a is frequent. In euskera it is bilbotar, sometimes used in Spanish within the Basque Country; the village is affectionately known by its inhabitants as «the botxo», that is, «the hole», since it is surrounded by mountains. The nickname "botxero" is derived from this nickname. Another nickname that Bilbao receives is that of "chimbos", which comes from birds that were hunted in large numbers in these places during the XIX century; the titles, the flag and the coat of arms are Bilbao's traditional symbols and belong to its historic patrimony, being used in formal acts, for the identification and decoration of specific places or for the validation of documents. TitlesBilbao holds the historic category of borough, with the titles of "Very noble and loyal and unbeaten" ("Mu