The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The Underground has its origins in the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground passenger railway. Opened in January 1863, it is now part of the Metropolitan lines; the network has expanded to 11 lines, in 2017/18 carried 1.357 billion passengers, making it the world's 11th busiest metro system. The 11 lines collectively handle up to 5 million passengers a day; the system's first tunnels were built just below the surface. The system has 250 miles of track. Despite its name, only 45% of the system is underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, with fewer than 10% of the stations located south of the River Thames; the early tube lines owned by several private companies, were brought together under the "UndergrounD" brand in the early 20th century and merged along with the sub-surface lines and bus services in 1933 to form London Transport under the control of the London Passenger Transport Board.
The current operator, London Underground Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London, the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in Greater London. As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares; the Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003. Contactless card payments were introduced in 2014, the first public transport system in the world to do so; the LPTB was a prominent patron of art and design, commissioning many new station buildings and public artworks in a modernist style. The schematic Tube map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, was voted a national design icon in 2006 and now includes other TfL transport systems such as the Docklands Light Railway, London Overground and Tramlink. Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and Johnston typeface, created by Edward Johnston in 1916; the idea of an underground railway linking the City of London with the urban centre was proposed in the 1830s, the Metropolitan Railway was granted permission to build such a line in 1854.
To prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, was in 1861, filled up; the world's first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, borrowing trains from other railways to supplement the service; the Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground "inner circle" connecting London's main-line stations. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and cover method. Both railways expanded, the District building five branches to the west reaching Ealing, Uxbridge and Wimbledon and the Metropolitan extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street and the centre of London.
For the first deep-level tube line, the City and South London Railway, two 10 feet 2 inches diameter circular tunnels were dug between King William Street and Stockwell, under the roads to avoid the need for agreement with owners of property on the surface. This opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells; the Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, known as the "twopenny tube". These two ran electric trains in circular tunnels having diameters between 11 feet 8 inches and 12 feet 2.5 inches, whereas the Great Northern and City Railway, which opened in 1904, was built to take main line trains from Finsbury Park to a Moorgate terminus in the City and had 16-foot diameter tunnels. While steam locomotives were in use on the Underground there were contrasting health reports. There were many instances of passengers collapsing whilst travelling, due to heat and pollution, leading for calls to clean the air through the installation of garden plants.
The Metropolitan encouraged beards for staff to act as an air filter. There were other reports claiming beneficial outcomes of using the Underground, including the designation of Great Portland Street as a "sanatorium for asthma and bronchial complaints", tonsillitis could be cured with acid gas and the Twopenny Tube cured anorexia. With the advent of electric Tube services, the Volks Electric Railway, in Brighton, competition from electric trams, the pioneering Underground companies needed modernising. In the early 20th century, the District and Metropolitan railways needed to electrify and a joint committee recommended an AC system, the two companies
Barking is an interchange railway station located on Station Parade in Barking in East London, England. The station is served by London London Overground and National Rail services. On the London Underground it is a stop on the District line and the eastern terminus of the Hammersmith & City line; the station was opened in 1854 by the London and Southend Railway as one of the first stations on the route. It was rebuilt in 1908 and again in 1959; as of February 2012, significant redevelopment of the station is proposed by Barking and Dagenham London Borough Council and the Department for Transport. The station was opened on 13 April 1854 by the London Tilbury and Southend Railway on their new line to Tilbury, which split from the Eastern Counties Railway at Forest Gate. A shorter route from London between Little Ilford and Gas Factory Junction in Bow, avoiding the ECR, opened in April 1858. A "Pitsea direct" branch was completed in June 1888 giving more direct access to Southend-on-Sea via Upminster, avoiding Tilbury.
The station was rebuilt in 1889. In 1894 the Tottenham and Hampstead Junction Railway was extended by means of the Tottenham and Forest Gate Railway to join the 1854 line from Forest Gate to Tilbury. District line services operated over the tracks of the LTSR from 1902. In 1905 a pair of tracks was electrified as far as the service was cut back there, it was extended back to Barking in 1908 and eastwards to Upminster, over a new set of tracks, from 1932. Hammersmith and City line known as the Metropolitan line, service began in 1936; the station booking hall was rebuilt between 1959–61 to designs by architect H. H. Powell with Project architect John Ward of British Railways Eastern Region Architect's Department. Nikolaus Pevsner stated it was "erected to coincide with electrification of the railway" and that "it is commensurately modern in outlook and unquestionably one of the best English stations of this date"; the station was reopened by the Queen in 1961. It is now a Grade II listed building.
In November 1923, a locomotive crashed through buffers at Barking and overturned, overhanging the road below. The station has four sets of stairs from the platforms to the booking hall. Four ramps connected by a subway give step free access between all the platforms; the stairs/ramps access platforms: 1 and 1a, 2, 3 & 4, 5 & 6, 7 & 8. There is a lift between platforms 1 and 1a; this station has two bay platforms. Platform 1 is the terminal platform for the Gospel Oak to Barking Line, is only used by London Overground services, it was electrified in 2017 ready for the planned introduction of electric trains in 2018. Platform 3 is used by some LU trains on both lines that serve the station, but the District line; the ticket office has seven serving windows. TRIBUTE and FasTIS ticket machines are in use. Tickets are available for National Rail, as well as London Underground. Oyster Cards can be issued at the ticket office. There are four Bachman ticket machines, which can issue tickets ordered on line.
The S&B machines sell Oyster products. The four Shere Fastticket machines still on site as at 25 April 2018 have been taken out of service with effect from 1 April 2018, according to a sign posted on them. Seven ticket barriers and a wide ticket gate control access to all platforms. There are sidings to the east which were built to accommodate D stock, C stock and S stock, though from 2017 only S stock is in service on the route. To the west of the station there are two railway over bridges; the westernmost carries the NR tracks to and from platforms 7 and 8 over the four tracks to and from platforms 2–6 to join the tracks to and from Woodgrange Park and beyond, facilitating c2c services to serve Stratford and Liverpool Street, and, in future, the first part of the London Overground's extension to Barking Riverside Station. The easternmost bridge carries the westbound Underground tracks from platform 6 over the NR tracks to and from platforms 4 and 5 to the southern side of the LU tracks from platform 2.
This enables eastbound cross platform changes between LU trains on platform 2 and NR trains on platform 4. To the east of the station a subway reverses the effect of the above bridge; this enables westbound cross platform changes between LU trains on platform 6 and NR trains on platform 5. Barking and Dagenham London Borough Council has developed a Barking Station Masterplan for the redevelopment of the station, including the removal of retail units from the station concourse, expansion of ticket barriers, additional Oyster card machines, new building work to provide replacement retail and to increase natural light within the station. In 2009, the station was identified as one of the ten worst category B interchange stations for mystery shopper assessment of fabric and environment, it was planned to receive a share of £50m funding for improvements; as part of the 2011 renewal of the Essex Thameside franchise it was proposed that ownership of the station could transfer to Transport for London.
Following the 2010 general election the funding for planned works was withdrawn and the 2011 franchise renewal delayed until 2013. The new franchise invitation to tender proposes the transfer of building maintenance from Network Rail to the new operator, includes an option to complete the redevelopment works. In 2012, the public space outside the station on Station Parade was re-ordered and repaved, using funding from Transport for London. On
Stratford is a major multi-level interchange station serving the district of Stratford and the mixed-use development known as Stratford City, in the London Borough of Newham, east London. It is served by the London Underground, London Overground, Docklands Light Railway and is a National Rail station on the Great Eastern Main Line, 4 miles 3 chains from Liverpool Street. On the Underground it is a through-station on the Central line between Mile End and Leyton, it is the eastern terminus of the Jubilee line following West Ham. On the DLR it is a terminus for some trains and for others it is a through-station between Stratford High Street and Stratford International. On the Overground it is the terminus of the North London Line following Hackney Wick. There are limited off-peak services operated by c2c connecting to the London and Southend Railway line to Shoeburyness. In December 2019 the TfL Rail service will be re-branded as the Elizabeth line as part of the Crossrail project. In May 2020 the Elizabeth line service will be extended beyond Liverpool Street to Paddington, with onward connections from there to Reading and Heathrow Airport.
The station was opened in 1839 by the Eastern Counties Railway. Today it is owned by Network Rail and is in Travelcard zone 2/3. To distinguish it from Stratford-upon-Avon in Warwickshire it is sometimes referred to as Stratford, or as Stratford Regional to differentiate it from Stratford International, some 1,210 feet to the north. Stratford served as a key travel hub for Paralympic Games held in London. By the most recent National Rail entry and exit figures, it is the 6th busiest station in Britain and the busiest station in London, not a central London terminus. Stratford station was opened on 20 June 1839 by the Eastern Counties Railway with the first station building being located on Angel Lane which crossed the line on an over-bridge to the east of the station; the Northern and Eastern Railway opened a section of its authorised line from Broxbourne to join the ECR at Stratford on 15 September 1840. As well as a station, a railway works was built adjacent to the line to Broxbourne; this and the engine shed expanded into the area to the west of the station, now occupied by a shopping centre and Stratford International station.
The ECR tracks were set to a gauge of 5 ft on the recommendation of engineer John Braithwaite. At this time there was no legislation dictating the choice of gauge and indeed the directors favoured the Great Western Railway's broad gauge 7 ft. Braithwaite persuaded the directors otherwise on the grounds of additional cost but recommended the 5 ft gauge in an effort to reduce wear on locomotive parts; this choice meant that the Northern & Eastern Railway who were planning to share the ECR line between Stratford and Bishopsgate were forced to adopt the same gauge. With the extension of the ECR in the early 1840s it became apparent that standard gauge 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in was a more realistic choice and subsequently between September and October 1844 the gauge conversion was carried out. At the same time the associated Northern & Eastern Railway was converted. New station buildings were built in 1847 replacing the original structure on Angel Road; these were located in the V between the Cambridge and Colchester lines and access was via Station Road.
The line through the low level platforms first opened in 1846 as a goods only branch as far as Thames Wharf. The bridge under the main line was too low for many locomotives, so a number of engines were equipped with hinged chimneys in order they could operate the line. On opening there was a line that linked what is now known as the Great Eastern Main Line directly to the docks enabling through running from Colchester to Thames Wharf; the docks and associated railway networks expanded with passenger services to North Woolwich starting in 1847. There was an accident at Stratford station on 18 July 1846 when an up goods train ran into the back of a passenger train from Ipswich. There were 10 passengers injured one of whom died. In 1854 the newly opened London Tilbury and Southend Railway served Stratford joining the main line at Forest Gate Junction a few miles north, their services served Fenchurch Street and were routed via the Bow Road route although some carriages were detached at Stratford for onward working to Bishopsgate.
This practice was discontinued in 1856 as passengers preferred the more conveniently sited Fenchurch Street. In connection with the introduction of the new LTSR services a third line was built from Stratford to Bow Junction, used by down Fenchurch Street services and a new platform face opened, it soon became apparent that congestion was a problem at Stratford and by 1856 permission was sought to build a line from Barking to Gas Factory Junction, opened in 1858. After that LTSR trains were no longer routed via Stratford. By 1855 there were links from both the low and high-level stations to the North London Line as well as a spur that enabled trains from Liverpool Street to North Woolwich to avoid Stratford altogether, a short distance away. Services from the North London line started from Victoria Park and ran through to Stratford Market; this service operated from 1866 until 1874 and was operated by the GER and North London Railway in alternate years up until 31 October 1874. The North London Railway
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal
An island platform is a station layout arrangement where a single platform is positioned between two tracks within a railway station, tram stop or transitway interchange. Island platforms are popular on twin-track routes due to cost-effective reasons, they are useful within larger stations where local and express services for the same direction of travel can be provided from opposite sides of the same platform thereby simplifying transfers between the two tracks. An alternative arrangement is to position side platforms on either side of the tracks; the historical use of island platforms depends upon the location. In the United Kingdom the use of island platforms is common when the railway line is in a cutting or raised on an embankment, as this makes it easier to provide access to the platform without walking across the tracks. Island platforms are necessary for any station with many through platforms. Building small two-track stations with a single island platform instead of two side platforms does have advantages.
Island platforms allow facilities such as shops and waiting rooms to be shared between both tracks rather than being duplicated or present only on one side. An island platform makes it easier for wheelchair users and other people with physical limitations to change services between tracks or access facilities. If the tracks are above or below the entrance level, an island platform layout requires only one staircase and one elevator be built to access the platforms. Building the tracks and entrance at the same level creates a disadvantage. If an island platform is not wide enough to cope with passenger numbers, overcrowding can be a problem. Examples of stations where a narrow island platform has caused safety issues include Clapham Common and Angel on the London Underground. An island platform requires the tracks to diverge around the center platform, extra width is required along the right-of-way on each approach to the station on high-speed lines. Track centers vary for rail systems throughout the world but are 3 to 5 meters.
If the island platform is 6 meters wide, the tracks must slew out by the same distance. While this requirement is not a problem on a new line under construction, it makes building a new station on an existing line impossible without altering the tracks. A single island platform makes it quite difficult to have through tracks, which are between the local tracks. A common configuration in busy locations on high speed lines is a pair of island platforms, with slower trains diverging from the main line so that the main line tracks remain straight. High-speed trains can therefore pass straight through the station, while slow trains pass around the platforms; this arrangement allows the station to serve as a point where slow trains can be passed by faster trains. A variation at some stations is to have the slow and fast pairs of tracks each served by island platforms A rarer layout, present at Mets-Willets Point on the IRT Flushing Line, 34th Street – Penn Station on the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and 34th Street – Penn Station on the IND Eighth Avenue Line of the New York City Subway, uses two side platforms for local services with an island in between for express services.
The purpose of this atypical design was to reduce unnecessary passenger congestion at a station with a high volume of passengers. Since the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and IND Eighth Avenue Line have adjacent express stations at 42nd Street, passengers can make their transfers from local to express trains there, leaving more space available for passengers utilizing intercity rail at Pennsylvania Station; the Willets Point Boulevard station was renovated to accommodate the high volume of passengers coming to the 1939 World's Fair. Many of the stations on the Great Central Railway were constructed in this form; this was. If this happened, the lines would need to be compatible with continental loading gauge, this would mean it would be easy to change the line to a larger gauge, by moving the track away from the platform to allow the wider bodied continental rolling stock to pass while leaving the platform area untouched. Island platforms are a normal sight on Indian railway stations. All railway stations in India consist of island platforms.
In Toronto, 29 subway stations use island platforms. In Sydney, on the Eastern Suburbs Railway and the Epping Chatswood Railway, the twin tunnels are spaced and the tracks can remain at a constant track centres while still leaving room for the island platforms. A slight disadvantage is. In Edmonton, all 18 LRT stations on the Capital Line and Metro Line use island platforms; the Valley Line under construction, utilizes the new low-floor LRT technology, but will only use island platforms on one of the twelve stops along the line. In southern New Jersey and Philadelphia, PATCO uses island platforms in all of its 13 s
A passing loop or passing siding is a place on a single line railway or tramway located at a station, where trains or trams travelling in opposite directions can pass each other. Trains/trams going in the same direction can overtake, provided that the signalling arrangement allows it. A passing loop is double-ended and connected to the main track at both ends, though a dead end siding known as a refuge siding, much less convenient, can be used. A similar arrangement is used on the gauntlet track of cable railways and funiculars, in passing places on single-track roads. Ideally, the loop should be longer than all trains needing to cross at that point. If one train is too long for the loop it must wait for the opposing train to enter the loop before proceeding, taking a few minutes. Ideally, the shorter train should leave second. If both trains are too long for the loop, time-consuming "see-sawing" operations are required for the trains to cross. On railway systems that use platforms high-level platforms, for passengers to board and disembark from trains, the platforms may be provided on both the main and loop tracks or on only one of them.
The main line has straight track. If the station has only one platform it is located on the main line. If passenger trains are few in number, the likelihood of two passenger trains crossing each other low, the platform on the loop line may be omitted; the through road has straight track. A possible advantage of this layout is that trains scheduled to pass straight through the station can do so uninterrupted; this layout is used at local stations where many passenger trains do not stop. Since there is only one passenger platform, it is not convenient to cross two passenger trains if both stop. An example is Scone railway station, but the northern end was rearranged to resemble a main and loop configuration. A disadvantage of the platform and through arrangement is the speed limits through the turnouts at each end. In the example layout shown, trains take the left-hand track in their direction of running. Low-speed turnouts restrict the speed in one direction. Two platform faces are needed, they can be provided either at a single island platform or two side platforms.
Overtaking is not possible at this kind of up-and-down loop as some of the necessary signals are absent. Crossing loops using up-and-down working are common in British practice. For one thing, fewer signals are required if the tracks in the station are signaled for one direction only. In France, they use spring switches and the speed is restricted in both directions; the speed restriction in one direction can be eliminated with higher-speed turnouts, but this may require power operation, as the longer and heavier high-speed turnouts may be beyond the capability of manual lever operation. It is possible to cross trains at stations equipped with only a siding. At Bombo, the crossing loop had no platform, as freight trains became longer it became inadequate to hold them. Molong used to have a short loop, but it was replaced by a long stretch of a former branch line, a dead-end siding. Berry has had its short loop removed and an shorter dead-end siding substituted. Long freight trains do not need to cross each other here, freight trains can cross passenger trains waiting in that short siding provided that the freight train arrives second and leaves first.
If a crossing loop is several times the length of the trains using it, is suitably signalled trains proceeding in opposite directions can pass each other without having to stop or slow down. This reduces the time lost by the first train to arrive at the crossing loop for the opposing train to go by; this system is referred to as a dynamic loop. In the AusLink project for the Junee to Melbourne line every other section of single line will be duplicated to provide so-called passing lanes. About 220 km of the 450 km line will be duplicated. In Sweden, the passing loops are 750 m long, made for cargo trains. Passenger trains are much shorter, at least on most single track lines, less than 200 m; the signalling system now allows two passenger trains to cross without stopping, but one has to slow down to 40 km/h, because of the limited length of the loop and the sharp curves in the switch points. For Norway an investigation has been made about future high-speed railways, using 250 km/h as cruise speed.
The most promising link would be a new Oslo-Trondheim railway, suggested to be a single track along a 370 km-long route. It is suggested to have about 15 km-long passing loops, more like 15 km double track, located about 80 km apart; this would enable passing at 160 km/h, but there could be only one train per hour per direction on the rail line. See High-speed rail in Norway; some railways fit catchpoints at the ends of crossing loops so that if a train overruns the loop, it is derailed rather than collide with an opposing train. Since the available space for crossing loops is limited, they do not have an overlap between the starting signals and the end of the double line. In Australia, the Australian Rail Track Corporation policy provides for overlaps of about 500 m and 200 m in an effort to avoid derailment or colli