The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section. It holds crew and cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will contain an engine, as well, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage, which in turn is used as a floating hull; the fuselage serves to position control and stabilization surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces, required for aircraft stability and maneuverability. This type of structure is still in use in many lightweight aircraft using welded steel tube trusses. A box truss fuselage structure can be built out of wood—often covered with plywood. Simple box structures may be rounded by the addition of supported lightweight stringers, allowing the fabric covering to form a more aerodynamic shape, or one more pleasing to the eye. Geodesic structural elements were used by Barnes Wallis for British Vickers between the wars and into World War II to form the whole of the fuselage, including its aerodynamic shape. In this type of construction multiple flat strip stringers are wound about the formers in opposite spiral directions, forming a basket-like appearance.
This proved to be light and rigid and had the advantage of being made entirely of wood. A similar construction using aluminum alloy was used in the Vickers Warwick with less materials than would be required for other structural types; the geodesic structure is redundant and so can survive localized damage without catastrophic failure. A fabric covering over the structure completed the aerodynamic shell; the logical evolution of this is the creation of fuselages using molded plywood, in which multiple sheets are laid with the grain in differing directions to give the monocoque type below. In this method, the exterior surface of the fuselage is the primary structure. A typical early form of this was built using molded plywood, where the layers of plywood are formed over a "plug" or within a mold. A form of this structure uses fiberglass cloth impregnated with polyester or epoxy resin, instead of plywood, as the skin. A simple form of this used in some amateur-built aircraft uses rigid expanded foam plastic as the core, with a fiberglass covering, eliminating the necessity of fabricating molds, but requiring more effort in finishing.
An example of a larger molded plywood aircraft is the de Havilland Mosquito fighter/light bomber of World War II. No plywood-skin fuselage is monocoque, since stiffening elements are incorporated into the structure to carry concentrated loads that would otherwise buckle the thin skin; the use of molded fiberglass using negative molds is prevalent in the series production of many modern sailplanes. The use of molded composites for fuselage structures is being extended to large passenger aircraft such as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner; this is the preferred method of constructing an all-aluminum fuselage. First, a series of frames in the shape of the fuselage cross sections are held in position on a rigid fixture; these frames are joined with lightweight longitudinal elements called stringers. These are in turn covered with a skin of sheet aluminum, attached by riveting or by bonding with special adhesives; the fixture is disassembled and removed from the completed fuselage shell, fitted out with wiring and interior equipment such as seats and luggage bins.
Most modern large aircraft are built using this technique, but use several large sections constructed in this fashion which are joined with fasteners to form the complete fuselage. As the accuracy of the final product is determined by the costly fixture, this form is suitable for series production, where a large number of identical aircraft are to be produced. Early examples of this type include the Douglas Aircraft DC-2 and DC-3 civil aircraft and the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress. Most metal light aircraft are constructed using this process. Both monocoque and semi-monocoque are referred to as "stressed skin" structures as all or a portion of the external load is taken by the surface covering. In addition, all the load from internal pressurization is carried by the external skin; the proportioning of loads between the components is a design choice dictated by the dimensions and elasticity of the components available for construction and whether or not a design is intended to be "self jigging", not requiring a complete fixture for alignment.
Early aircraft were constructed of wood frames covered in fabric. As monoplanes became popular, metal frames improved the strength, which led to all-metal-structure aircraft, with metal covering for all its exterior surfaces - this was first pioneered in the second half of 1915; some modern aircraft are constructed with composite materials for major control surfaces, wings, or the entire fuselage such as the Boeing 787. On the 787, it makes possible higher pressurization levels and larger windows for passenger comfort as well as lower weight to reduce operating costs; the Boeing 787 weighs 1500 lb less than. Cockpit windshields on the Airbus A320 must withstand bird strikes up to 350 kt and are made of chemically strengthened glass, they are composed of three layers or plies, of glass or plastic: the inner two are 8 mm thick each and are structural, while the outer ply, about 3 mm thick, is a barrier against foreign object damage and abrasion, with a hydrophobic coating. It m
A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other. The first powered, controlled aeroplane to fly, the Wright Flyer, used a biplane wing arrangement, as did many aircraft in the early years of aviation. While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage over a monoplane, it produces more drag than a similar unbraced or cantilever monoplane wing. Improved structural techniques, better materials and the quest for greater speed made the biplane configuration obsolete for most purposes by the late 1930s. Biplanes offer several advantages over conventional cantilever monoplane designs: they permit lighter wing structures, low wing loading and smaller span for a given wing area. However, interference between the airflow over each wing increases drag and biplanes need extensive bracing, which causes additional drag. Biplanes are distinguished from tandem wing arrangements, where the wings are placed forward and aft, instead of above and below; the term is occasionally used in biology, to describe the wings of some flying animals.
In a biplane aircraft, two wings are placed one above the other. Each provides part of the lift, although they are not able to produce twice as much lift as a single wing of similar size and shape because the upper and the lower are working on nearly the same portion of the atmosphere and thus interfere with each other's behaviour. For example, in a wing of aspect ratio 6, a wing separation distance of one chord length, the biplane configuration will only produce about 20 percent more lift than a single wing of the same planform; the lower wing is attached to the fuselage, while the upper wing is raised above the fuselage with an arrangement of cabane struts, although other arrangements have been used. Either or both of the main wings can support ailerons, while flaps are more positioned on the lower wing. Bracing is nearly always added between the upper and lower wings, in the form of wires and/or slender interplane struts positioned symmetrically on either side of the fuselage; the primary advantage of the biplane over a monoplane is to combine great stiffness with light weight.
Stiffness requires structural depth and, where early monoplanes had to have this added with complicated extra bracing, the box kite or biplane has a deep structure and is therefore easier to make both light and strong. A braced monoplane wing must support itself while the two wings of a biplane help to stiffen each other; the biplane is therefore inherently stiffer than the monoplane. The structural forces in the spars of a biplane wing tend to be lower, so the wing can use less material to obtain the same overall strength and is therefore much lighter. A disadvantage of the biplane was the need for extra struts to space the wings apart, although the bracing required by early monoplanes reduced this disadvantage; the low power supplied by the engines available in the first years of aviation meant that aeroplanes could only fly slowly. This required an lower stalling speed, which in turn required a low wing loading, combining both large wing area with light weight. A biplane wing of a given span and chord has twice the area of a monoplane the same size and so can fly more or for a given flight speed can lift more weight.
Alternatively, a biplane wing of the same area as a monoplane has lower span and chord, reducing the structural forces and allowing it to be lighter. Biplanes suffer aerodynamic interference between the two planes; this means that a biplane does not in practice obtain twice the lift of the similarly-sized monoplane. The farther apart the wings are spaced the less the interference, but the spacing struts must be longer. Given the low speed and power of early aircraft, the drag penalty of the wires and struts and the mutual interference of airflows were minor and acceptable factors; as engine power rose after World War One, the thick-winged cantilever monoplane became practicable and, with its inherently lower drag and higher speed, from around 1918 it began to replace the biplane in most fields of aviation. The smaller biplane wing allows greater maneuverability. During World War One, this further enhanced the dominance of the biplane and, despite the need for speed, military aircraft were among the last to abandon the biplane form.
Specialist sports aerobatic biplanes are still made. Biplanes were designed with the wings positioned directly one above the other. Moving the upper wing forward relative to the lower one is called positive stagger or, more simply stagger, it can help increase lift and reduce drag by reducing the aerodynamic interference effects between the two wings, makes access to the cockpit easier. Many biplanes have staggered wings. Common examples from the 1930s include the de Havilland Tiger Moth, Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann and Travel Air 2000, it is possible to place the lower wing's leading edge ahead of the upper wing, giving negative stagger. This is done in a given design for practical engineering reasons. Examples of negative stagger include Breguet 14 and Beechcraft Staggerwing. However, positive stagger is more common; the space enclosed by a set of interplane struts is called a bay, hence a biplane or triplane with one set of such struts connecting the wings on each side of the aircraft is a single-bay biplane.
This provided sufficient strength for smaller aircraft such as the First World War-era Fokker D. VII fighter and the Second World War de Havilland Tiger Moth basic trainer; the larger two-seat Curtiss JN-4 Jenny is a two bay biplane, the extra bay being necessary as overlong bays are prone to flexing and can fail. The SPAD S. XIII fighter, while appearing to be a two bay bip
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it. Lift is the component of this force, perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction, it contrasts with the drag force, the component of the force parallel to the flow direction. Lift conventionally acts in an upward direction in order to counter the force of gravity, but it can act in any direction at right angles to the flow. If the surrounding fluid is air, the force is called an aerodynamic force. In water or any other liquid, it is called a hydrodynamic force. Dynamic lift is distinguished from other kinds of lift in fluids. Aerostatic lift or buoyancy, in which an internal fluid is lighter than the surrounding fluid, does not require movement and is used by balloons, dirigibles and submarines. Planing lift, in which only the lower portion of the body is immersed in a liquid flow, is used by motorboats and water-skis. A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it, it makes no difference whether the fluid is flowing past a stationary body or the body is moving through a stationary volume of fluid.
Lift is the component of this force, perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction. Lift is always accompanied by a drag force, the component of the surface force parallel to the flow direction. Lift is associated with the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, although it is more generated by many other streamlined bodies such as propellers, helicopter rotors, racing car wings, maritime sails, wind turbines in air, by sailboat keels, ship's rudders, hydrofoils in water. Lift is exploited by flying and gliding animals by birds and insects, in the plant world by the seeds of certain trees. While the common meaning of the word "lift" assumes that lift opposes weight, lift can be in any direction with respect to gravity, since it is defined with respect to the direction of flow rather than to the direction of gravity; when an aircraft is cruising in straight and level flight, most of the lift opposes gravity. However, when an aircraft is climbing, descending, or banking in a turn the lift is tilted with respect to the vertical.
Lift may act as downforce in some aerobatic manoeuvres, or on the wing on a racing car. Lift may be horizontal, for instance on a sailing ship; the lift discussed in this article is in relation to airfoils, although marine hydrofoils and propellers share the same physical principles and work in the same way, despite differences between air and water such as density and viscosity. An airfoil is a streamlined shape, capable of generating more lift than drag. A flat plate can generate lift, but not as much as a streamlined airfoil, with somewhat higher drag. There are several ways to explain; some are more physically rigorous than others. For example, there are explanations based directly on Newton’s laws of motion and explanations based on Bernoulli’s principle. Either can be used to explain lift. An airfoil generates lift by exerting a downward force on the air. According to Newton's third law, the air must exert an equal and opposite force on the airfoil, lift; the airflow changes direction as it passes the airfoil and follows a path, curved downward.
According to Newton's second law, this change in flow direction requires a downward force applied to the air by the airfoil. Newton's third law requires the air to exert an upward force on the airfoil. In the case of an airplane wing, the wing exerts a downward force on the air and the air exerts an upward force on the wing; the downward turning of the flow is not produced by the lower surface of the airfoil, the air flow above the airfoil accounts for much of the downward-turning action. Bernoulli's principle states that there is a direct mathematical relationship between the pressure of a fluid and the speed of that fluid, so if one knows the speed at all points within the airflow one can calculate the pressure, vice versa. For any airfoil generating lift, there must be a pressure imbalance, i.e. lower average air pressure on the top than on the bottom. Bernoulli's principle states that this pressure difference must be accompanied by a speed difference. Starting with the flow pattern observed in both theory and experiments, the increased flow speed over the upper surface can be explained in terms of streamtube pinching and conservation of mass.
For incompressible flow, the rate of volume flow must be constant within each streamtube since matter is not created or destroyed. If a streamtube becomes narrower, the flow speed must increase in the narrower region to maintain the constant flow rate, to satisfy the principle of conservation of mass; the upper streamtubes constrict as they flow around the airfoil. Conservation of mass says; the lower streamtubes expand and their flowrate slows. From Bernoulli's principle, the pressure on the upper surface where the flow is moving faster is lower than the pressure on the lower surface where it is moving slower; this pressure difference creates a net aerodynamic force. As explained below under a more comprehensive physical explanation, producing a lift force requires maintaining pressure differences in both the vertical and horizontal directions, thus requires both downward turning of the flow and changes in flow speed consistent with Bernoulli's principle; the simplified explanations given above are therefore incomplete because they define lift in terms of only one o
A cantilever is a rigid structural element, such as a beam or a plate, anchored at one end to a support from which it protrudes. Cantilevers can be constructed with trusses or slabs; when subjected to a structural load, the cantilever carries the load to the support where it is forced against by a moment and shear stress. Cantilever construction allows overhanging structures without external bracing, in contrast to constructions supported at both ends with loads applied between the supports, such as a supported beam found in a post and lintel system. Cantilevers are found in construction, notably in cantilever bridges and balconies. In cantilever bridges, the cantilevers are built as pairs, with each cantilever used to support one end of a central section; the Forth Bridge in Scotland is an example of a cantilever truss bridge. A cantilever in a traditionally timber framed building is called a forebay. In the southern United States, a historic barn type is the cantilever barn of log construction.
Temporary cantilevers are used in construction. The constructed structure creates a cantilever, but the completed structure does not act as a cantilever; this is helpful when temporary supports, or falsework, cannot be used to support the structure while it is being built. So some truss arch bridges are built from each side as cantilevers until the spans reach each other and are jacked apart to stress them in compression before joining. Nearly all cable-stayed bridges are built using cantilevers as this is one of their chief advantages. Many box girder bridges are built segmentally, or in short pieces; this type of construction lends itself well to balanced cantilever construction where the bridge is built in both directions from a single support. These structures are based on torque and rotational equilibrium. In an architectural application, Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater used cantilevers to project large balconies; the East Stand at Elland Road Stadium in Leeds was, when completed, the largest cantilever stand in the world holding 17,000 spectators.
The roof built over the stands at Old Trafford uses a cantilever so that no supports will block views of the field. The old, now demolished; the largest cantilevered roof in Europe is located at St James' Park in Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, the home stadium of Newcastle United F. C. Less obvious examples of cantilevers are free-standing radio towers without guy-wires, chimneys, which resist being blown over by the wind through cantilever action at their base. Another use of the cantilever is in fixed-wing aircraft design, pioneered by Hugo Junkers in 1915. Early aircraft wings bore their loads by using two wings in a biplane configuration braced with wires and struts, they were similar to truss bridges, having been developed by Octave Chanute, a railroad bridge engineer. The wings were braced with crossed wires so they would stay parallel, as well as front-to-back to resist twisting, running diagonally between adjacent strut anchorages; the cables and struts generated considerable drag, there was constant experimentation for ways to eliminate them.
It was desirable to build a monoplane aircraft, as the airflow around one wing negatively affects the other in a biplane's airframe design. Early monoplanes used either struts, or cables like the 1909 Bleriot XI; the advantage of using struts or cables is a reduction in weight for a given strength, but with the penalty of additional drag. This increases fuel consumption. Hugo Junkers endeavored to eliminate all major external bracing members, only a dozen years after the Wright Brothers' initial flights, to decrease airframe drag in flight, with the result being the Junkers J 1 pioneering all-metal monoplane of late 1915, designed from the start with all-metal cantilever wing panels. About a year after the initial success of the Junkers J 1, Reinhold Platz of Fokker achieved success with a cantilever-winged sesquiplane built instead with wooden materials, the Fokker V.1. The most common current wing design is the cantilever. A single large beam, called the main spar, runs through the wing nearer the leading edge at about 25 percent of the total chord.
In flight, the wings generate lift, the wing spars are designed to carry this load through the fuselage to the other wing. To resist fore and aft movement, the wing will be fitted with a second smaller drag-spar nearer the trailing edge, tied to the main spar with structural elements or a stressed skin; the wing must resist twisting forces, done either by a monocoque "D" tube structure forming the leading edge, or by the aforementioned linking two spars in some form of box beam or lattice girder structure. Cantilever wings require a much heavier spar. However, as the size of an aircraft increases, the additional weight penalty decreases. A line was crossed in the 1920s, designs turned to the cantilever design. By the 1940s all larger aircraft used the cantilever even on smaller surfaces such as the horizontal stabilizer, with the Messerschmitt Bf 109E of 1939–41 being one of the last World War II fighters in frontline service to have bracing struts for its stabilizer. Cantilevered beams are the most ubiquitous structures in the field of microelectromechanical systems.
An early example of a MEMS cantilever is the Resonistor, an electromechanic
Homebuilt aircraft known as amateur-built aircraft or kit planes, are constructed by persons for whom this is not a professional activity. These aircraft may be constructed from "scratch," from assembly kits. In the United States, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, homebuilt aircraft may be licensed Experimental under FAA or similar local regulations. With some limitations, the builder of the aircraft must have done it for their own education and recreation rather than for profit. In the U. S. the primary builder can apply for a repairman's certificate for that airframe. The repairman's certificate allows the holder to perform and sign off on most of the maintenance and inspections themselves. Alberto Santos-Dumont was the first to offer for free construction plans, publishing drawings of his Demoiselle in the June 1910 edition of Popular Mechanics; the first aircraft to be offered for sale as plans, rather than a completed airframe, was the Baby Ace in the late 1920s. Homebuilt aircraft gained in popularity in the U.
S. in 1924 with the start of the National Air Races, held in Ohio. These races required aircraft with useful loads of 150 lb and engines of 80 cubic inches or less and as a consequence of the class limitations most were amateur-built; the years after Charles Lindbergh's transatlantic flight brought a peak of interest between 1929 and 1933. During this period many aircraft designers and pilots were self-taught and the high accident rate brought public condemnation and increasing regulation to amateur building; the resulting federal standards on design, stress analysis, use of aircraft-quality hardware and testing of aircraft brought an end to amateur building except in some specialized areas, such as racing. In 1946 Goodyear restarted the National Air Races, including a class for aircraft powered by 200 cubic inch and smaller engines; the midget racer class spread nationally in the U. S. and this led to calls for acceptable standards to allow recreational use of amateur-built aircraft. By the mid-1950s both the U.
S. and Canada once again allowed amateur-built aircraft to specified limitations. Homebuilt aircraft are small, one to four-seat sportsplanes which employ simple methods of construction. Fabric-covered wood or metal frames and plywood are common in the aircraft structure, but fiberglass and other composites as well as full aluminum construction techniques are being used, techniques first pioneered by Hugo Junkers as far back as the late World War I era. Engines are most the same as, or similar to, the engines used in certified aircraft. A minority of homebuilts use converted automobile engines, with Volkswagen air-cooled flat-4s, Subaru-based liquid-cooled engines, Mazda Wankel and Chevrolet Corvair six-cylinder engines being most common; the use of automotive engines helps to reduce costs, but many builders prefer dedicated aircraft engines, which are perceived to have better performance and reliability. Other engines that have been used include motorcycle engines. A combination of cost and litigation in the mid-1980s era, discouraged general aviation manufacturers from introducing new designs and led to homebuilts outselling factory built aircraft by five to one.
In 2003, the number of homebuilts produced in the U. S. exceeded the number produced by any single certified manufacturer. The history of amateur-built aircraft can be traced to the beginning of aviation. If the Wright brothers, Clément Ader, their successors had commercial objectives in mind, the first aircraft were constructed by passionate enthusiasts whose goal was to fly. Aviation took a leap forward with the industrialization that accompanied World War I. In the post-war period, manufacturers needed to find new markets and introduced models designed for tourism. However, these machines were affordable only by the rich. Many U. S. aircraft designed and registered in the 1920s onward were considered "experimental" by the CAA, the same registration under which modern homebuilts are issued Special Airworthiness Certificates. Many of these were prototypes, but designs such as Bernard Pietenpol's first 1923 design were some of the first homebuilt aircraft. In 1928, Henri Mignet published plans for his HM-8 Pou-du-Ciel.
Pietenpol constructed a factory, in 1933 began creating and selling constructed aircraft kits. In 1936, an association of amateur aviation enthusiasts was created in France. Many types of amateur aircraft began to make an appearance, in 1938 legislation was amended to provide for a Certificat de navigabilité restreint d'aéronef. 1946 saw the birth of the Ultralight Aircraft Association which in 1952 became the Popular Flying Association in the United Kingdom, followed in 1953 by the Experimental Aircraft Association in the United States and the Sport Aircraft Association in Australia. The term "homebuilding" became popular in the mid-1950s when EAA founder Paul Poberezny wrote a series of articles for the magazine Mechanix Illustrated where he explained how a person could buy a set of plans and build their own aircraft at home; the articles gained the concept of aircraft homebuilding took off. Until the late 1950s, builders had kept to wood-and-cloth and steel tube-and-cloth design. Without the regulatory restrictions faced by production aircraft manufacturers, homebuilders introduced innovative designs and construction techniques.
Burt Rutan introduced the canard design to the homebuilding world and pioneered the use of composite construction. Metal construction in kitplanes was taken to a new level by Richard VanGrunsv
De Havilland DH.60 Moth
The de Havilland DH.60 Moth is a 1920s British two-seat touring and training aircraft, developed into a series of aircraft by the de Havilland Aircraft Company. The DH.60 was developed from the larger DH.51 biplane. The first flight of the Cirrus powered prototype DH.60 Moth was carried out by Geoffrey de Havilland at the works airfield at Stag Lane on 22 February 1925. The Moth was a two-seat biplane of wooden construction, it had a plywood covered fuselage and fabric covered surfaces, a standard tailplane with a single tailplane and fin. A useful feature of the design was its folding wings which allowed owners to hangar the aircraft in much smaller spaces; the Secretary of State for Air Sir Samuel Hoare became interested in the aircraft and the Air Ministry subsidised five flying clubs and equipped them with Moths. The prototype was modified with a horn-balanced rudder, as used on the production aircraft, was entered into the 1925 King's Cup Race flown by Alan Cobham. Deliveries commenced to flying schools in England.
One of the early aircraft was fitted with an all-metal twin-float landing gear to become the first Moth seaplane. The original production Moths were known as Cirrus I Moths. Three aircraft were modified for the 1927 King's Cup Race with internal modifications and a Cirrus II engine on a lowered engine mounting; the original designation of DH.60X was soon changed to Cirrus II Moth. The production run for the DH.60X Moth was short as it was replaced by variants, but it was still available to special order. Although the Cirrus engine was reliable, its manufacture was not, it depended on components salvaged from World War I–era 8-cylinder Renault engines and therefore its numbers were limited by the stockpiles of surplus Renaults. Therefore, de Havilland decided to replace the Cirrus with a new engine built by his own factory. In 1928 when the new de Havilland Gipsy I engine was available a company DH.60 Moth G-EBQH was re-engined as the prototype of the DH.60G Gipsy Moth. Next to the increase in power, the main advantage of this update was that the Gipsy was a new engine available in as great a number as the manufacture of Moths necessitated.
The new Gipsy engines could be built in-house on a production-line side by side with the production-line for Moth airframes. This enabled de Havilland to control the complete process of building a Moth airframe and all, streamline productivity and in the end lower manufacturing costs. While the original DH.60 was offered for a modest £650, by 1930 the price of a new Gipsy-powered Moth was still £650, this in spite of its state-of-the-art engine. A metal-fuselage version of the Gipsy Moth was designated the DH.60M Moth and was developed for overseas customers Canada. The DH.60M was licence-built in Australia, the United States and Norway. In 1931 a variant of the DH.60M was marketed for military training as the DH.60T Moth Trainer. In 1931 with the upgrade of the Gipsy engine as the Gipsy II, de Havilland inverted the engine and re-designated it the Gipsy III; the engine was fitted into a Moth aircraft, re-designated the DH.60G-III Moth Major. The sub-type was intended for the military trainer market and some of the first aircraft were supplied to the Swedish Air Force.
The DH.60 T was re-designated the DH.60 T Tiger Moth. The DH.60T Tiger Moth was modified with swept back mainplanes. The changes were considered great enough that the aircraft was re-designated the de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth. Apart from the engine, the new Gipsy Moth was still a standard DH.60. Except for changes to accommodate the engine the fuselage remained the same as before, the exhaust still ran alongside the left side of the cockpits and the logo on the right side still read'De Havilland Moth'; the fuel tank was still housed in the bulging airfoil that formed the centre section of the upper wing. The wings could still be folded alongside the fuselage and still had de Havilland's patented differential ailerons on the bottom mainplanes and no ailerons on the top ones. Colour options still remained as simple as before: wings and tail in "Moth silver", fuselage in the colour the buyer chose; as there was no real comparison between the original DH.60 and the new DH.60G, the Gipsy Moth became the mainstay of British flying clubs as the only real recreational aircraft in the UK.
By 1929 it was estimated that of every 100 aeroplanes in Britain, 85 were Moths of one type or another, most of them Gipsy Moths. This in spite of the fact that with de Havilland switching from the Cirrus to its own Gipsy engine, surplus Cirrus engines were now pouring into the'free' market and a trove of Cirrus powered aircraft like the Avro Avian, the Klemm Swallow or the Miles Hawk started fighting for their share of the flying club and private market. Although replaced in production by the DH.60G-III Moth Major and by the DH.82 Tiger Moth, the Gipsy Moth remained the mainstay of the British flying scene up to the start of WWII. The war however marked the end of the Gipsy Moth and post-war it was replaced by ex-RAF Tiger Moths pouring into the civilian market. In retrospect one can say. Next to the Moth's maiden flight, 1925 marked the birth of the first five Royal Aero Club flying schools and because of its simplicity and reliable powerplant, the Moth was the aircraft of choice to equip the clubs.
Vice versa, the clubs gave de Havilland a secure supply of orders. De Havilland could use this aspect
The Ford Trimotor is an American three-engined transport aircraft. Production started in 1925 by the companies of Henry Ford and ended on June 7, 1933. A total of 199 Ford Trimotors were made, it was designed for the civil aviation market, but saw service with military units. The Ford Trimotor was a development of previous designs by William Bushnell Stout, using structural principles copied from the work of Professor Hugo Junkers, the noted German all-metal aircraft design pioneer, adapted to an airframe similar to the single engine Fokker F. VII - using the same airfoil cross section at the wing root. In the early 1920s, Henry Ford, along with a group of 19 other investors including his son Edsel, invested in the Stout Metal Airplane Company. Stout, a bold and imaginative salesman, sent a mimeographed form letter to leading manufacturers, blithely asking for $1,000 and adding: "For your one thousand dollars you will get one definite promise: You will never get your money back." Stout raised $20,000, including $1,000 each from Henry Ford.
In 1925, Ford bought its aircraft designs. The single-engined Stout monoplane was turned into a trimotor, the Stout 3-AT with three Curtiss-Wright air-cooled radial engines. After a prototype was built and test-flown with poor results, a suspicious fire caused the complete destruction of all previous designs, the "4-AT" and "5-AT" emerged; the Ford Trimotor using all-metal construction was not a revolutionary concept, but it was more advanced than the standard construction techniques of the 1920s. The aircraft resembled the Fokker F. VII Trimotor, its fuselage and wings followed a design pioneered by Junkers during World War I with the Junkers J. I and used postwar in a series of airliners starting with the Junkers F.13 low-wing monoplane of 1920 of which a number were exported to the US, the Junkers K 16 high-wing airliner of 1921, the Junkers G 24 trimotor of 1924. All of these were constructed of aluminum alloy, corrugated for added stiffness, although the resulting drag reduced its overall performance.
So similar were the designs that Junkers sued and won when Ford attempted to export an aircraft to Europe. In 1930, Ford countersued in Prague, despite the possibility of anti-German sentiment, was decisively defeated a second time, with the court finding that Ford had infringed upon Junkers' patents. Although designed for passenger use, the Trimotor could be adapted for hauling cargo, since its seats in the fuselage could be removed. To increase cargo capacity, one unusual feature was the provision of "drop-down" cargo holds below the lower inner wing sections of the 5-AT version. One 4-AT with Wright J-4 200-hp engines was built for the U. S. Army Air Corps as the C-3, seven with Wright R-790-3 as C-3As; the latter were upgraded to Wright R-975-1 radials at 300 hp and redesignated C-9. Five 5-ATs were built as C-4As; the original 4-AT had three air-cooled Wright radial engines. It carried a crew of three: a pilot, a copilot, a stewardess, as well as eight or nine passengers; the 5-AT had more powerful Pratt & Whitney engines.
All models had wings. Unlike many aircraft of this era, extending through World War II, its control surfaces were not fabric-covered, but were made of corrugated metal; as was common for the time, its rudder and elevators were actuated by metal cables that were strung along the external surface of the aircraft. Engine gauges were mounted externally, on the engines, to be read by the pilot while looking through the aircraft windshield. Another interesting feature was the use of the hand-operated "Johnny brake." Like Ford cars and tractors, these Ford aircraft were well-designed inexpensive, reliable. The combination of a metal structure and simple systems led to their reputation for ruggedness. Rudimentary service could be accomplished "in the field" with ground crews able to work on engines using scaffolding and platforms. To fly into otherwise-inaccessible sites, the Ford Trimotor floats; the rapid development of aircraft at this time, along with the death of his personal pilot, Harry J. Brooks, on a test flight, led to Henry Ford's losing interest in aviation.
While Ford did not make a profit on its aircraft business, Henry Ford's reputation lent credibility to the infant aviation and airline industries, Ford helped introduce many aspects of the modern aviation infrastructure, including paved runways, passenger terminals, hangars and radio navigation. In the late 1920s, the Ford Aircraft Division was reputedly the "largest manufacturer of commercial airplanes in the world." Alongside the Ford Trimotor, a new single-seat commuter aircraft, the Ford Flivver or "Sky Flivver" had been designed and flown in prototype form, but never entered series production. The Trimotor was not to be Ford's last venture in aircraft production. During World War II, the largest aircraft manufacturing plant in the world was built at the Willow Run, Michigan plant, where Ford produced thousands of B-24 Liberator bombers under license from Consolidated Aircraft. William Stout left the Metal Airplane division of the Ford Motor Company in 1930, he continued producing various aircraft.
In 1954, Stout purchased the rights to the Ford Trimotor in an attempt to produce new examples. A new company formed from this effort brought back two modern examples of the trimotor aircraft, renamed the Stout