Street performance or busking is the act of performing in public places for gratuities. In many countries the rewards are in the form of money but other gratuities such as food, drink or gifts may be given. Street performance dates back to antiquity. People engaging in this practice are called street buskers. Performances are anything. Performers may do acrobatics, animal tricks, balloon twisting, clowning, contortions, dance, fire skills, flea circus, fortune-telling, magic, living statue, musical performance, snake charming, storytelling or reciting poetry or prose, street art such as sketching and painting, street theatre, sword swallowing, ventriloquism; the term busking was first noted in the English language around the middle 1860s in Great Britain. The verb to busk, from the word busker, comes from the Spanish root word buscar, with the meaning "to seek"; the Spanish word buscar in turn evolved from the Indo-European word *bhudh-skō. It was used for many street acts, title of a famous Spanish book about one of them, El Buscón.
Today, the word is still used in Spanish but relegated for female street sex workers, or women seeking to be set up as private mistress of married men. There have been performances in public places for gratuities in every major culture in the world, dating back to antiquity. For many musicians street performance was the most common means of employment before the advent of recording and personal electronics. Prior to that, a person had to produce any music or entertainment, save for a few mechanical devices such as the barrel organ, the music box, the piano roll. Organ grinders were found busking in the old days. Busking is common among some Romani people. Romantic mention of Romani music and fortune tellers are found in all forms of song poetry and lore; the Roma brought the word busking to England by way of their travels along the Mediterranean coast to Spain and the Atlantic Ocean and up north to England and the rest of Europe. In medieval France buskers were known by the terms troubadours and jongleurs.
In northern France they were known as trouveres. In old German buskers were known as Spielleute. In obsolete French it evolved to busquer for "seek, prowl" and was used to describe prostitutes. In Russia buskers are called skomorokh and their first recorded history appears around the 11th century. Mariachis, Mexican bands that play a style of music by the same name busk when they perform while traveling through streets and plazas, as well as in restaurants and bars. Around the mid-19th century Japanese Chindonya started to be seen using their skills for advertising, these street performers are still seen in Japan. Another Japanese street performance form dating from the Edo period is Nankin Tamasudare, in which the performer creates large figures using a bamboo mat. In 19th century, Italian street musicians began to roam worldwide in search of fortune. Musicians from Basilicata the so called Viggianesi, would become professional instrumentalists in symphonic orchestras in the United States; the street musicians from Basilicata are sometimes cited as an influence on Hector Malot's Sans Famille.
In the United States, medicine shows proliferated in the 19th century. They were traveling vendors selling potions to improve the health, they would employ entertainment acts as a way of making the clients feel better. The people would associate this feeling of well-being with the products sold. After these performances they would "pass the hat". One-man bands have performed as buskers playing a variety of instruments simultaneously. One-man bands proliferated in urban areas in the 19th and early 20th centuries and still perform to this day. A current one-man band plays all their instruments acoustically combining a guitar, a harmonica, a drum and a tambourine, they may include singing. Many still busk but some are booked to play at other events. Folk music has always been an important part of the busking scene. Cafe, restaurant and pub busking is a mainstay of this art form. Two of the more famous folk singers are Joan Baez; the delta bluesmen were itinerant musicians emanating from the Mississippi Delta region of the USA around the early 1940s and on.
B. B. King is one famous example; the counterculture of the hippies of the 1960s staged "be-ins", which resembled some present-day busker festivals. Bands and performers would gather at public places and perform for free, passing the hat to make money; the San Francisco Bay Area was at the epicenter of this movement – be-ins were staged at Golden Gate Park and San Jose's Bee Stadium and other venues. Some of the bands that performed in this manner were Janis Joplin with Big Brother and the Holding Company, the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, Quicksilver Messenger Service, Country Joe and the Fish, Moby Grape and Jimi Hendrix. Christmas caroling can be a form of busking, as wassailing included singing for alms, wassail or some other form of refreshment such as figgy pudding. In Ireland the traditional Wren Boys and in England Morris Dancing can be considered part of the busking tradition. In India and Pakistan's Gujarati region Bhavai is a form of street art where there are plays enacted in the village, the barot or the village singer is part of the local entertainment scene.
In the 2000s, some performers have begun "Cyber Busking". Artists post work or performances on the Internet for people to download or "stream" a
Toledo is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, United States. Toledo is at the western end of Lake Erie bordering the state of Michigan; the city was founded in 1833 on the west bank of the Maumee River, incorporated as part of Monroe County, Michigan Territory. It was re-founded after conclusion of the Toledo War, when it was incorporated in Ohio. After the 1845 completion of the Miami and Erie Canal, Toledo grew quickly; the first of many glass manufacturers arrived in the 1880s earning Toledo its nickname: "The Glass City." It has since become a city with an art community, auto assembly businesses, education and local sports teams. The population of Toledo as of the 2010 Census was 287,208, making it the 71st-largest city in the United States, it is the fourth-most-populous city in the U. S. state of Ohio, after Columbus and Cincinnati. The Toledo metropolitan area had a 2010 population of 651,429, was the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the state of Ohio, behind Cleveland, Cincinnati and Akron.
Various cultures of indigenous peoples lived along the rivers and lakefront of what is now northwestern Ohio for thousands of years. When the city of Toledo was preparing to pave its streets, it surveyed "two prehistoric semicircular earthworks for stockades." One was at the intersection of Oliver streets on the south bank of Swan Creek. Such earthworks were typical of mound-building peoples; this region was part of a larger area controlled by the historic tribes of the Wyandot and the people of the Council of Three Fires. The first European to visit the area was Étienne Brûlé, a French-Canadian guide and explorer, in 1615; the French established trading posts in the area by 1680 to take advantage of the lucrative fur trade. The Odawa moved from Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula at the invitation of the French, who established a trading post at Fort Detroit, about 60 miles to the north, they settled an area extending into northwest Ohio. By the early 18th century, the Odawa occupied areas along most of the Maumee River to its mouth.
They served as middlemen between the French and tribes further to the north. The Wyandot occupied central Ohio, the Shawnee and Lenape occupied the southern areas; the area was not settled by European-Americans until 1795 and later. After the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War, the regional tribes allied in the Western Confederacy, fighting a series of battles in what became known as the Northwest Indian War in an effort to repulse American settlers from the country west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River, they were defeated in 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. This loose affiliation of tribes included the Council of Three Fires. By a treaty in 1795, they ceded large areas of territory in Ohio to the United States, opening lands for European-American settlement. According to Charles E. Slocum, the American military built Fort Industry at the mouth of Swan Creek about 1805, but as a temporary stockade. No official reports support the 19th-century tradition of its earlier history there.
The United States continued to work to extinguish land claims of Native Americans. In the Treaty of Detroit, the above four tribes ceded a large land area to the United States of what became southeastern Michigan and northwestern Ohio, to the mouth of the Maumee River. Reserves for the Odawa were set aside in northwestern Ohio for a limited period of time; the Native Americans signed the treaty at Detroit, Michigan, on November 17, 1807, with William Hull, governor of the Michigan Territory and superintendent of Indian affairs, as the sole representative of the U. S. More European-American settlers entered the area over the next few years, but many fled during the War of 1812, when British forces raided the area with their Indian allies. Resettlement began around 1818 after a Cincinnati syndicate purchased a 974-acre tract at the mouth of Swan Creek and named it Port Lawrence, developing it as the modern downtown area of Toledo. To the north of that, another syndicate founded the town of Vistula, the historic north end.
These two towns bordered each other across Cherry Street. This is why present-day streets on the street's northeast side run at a different angle from those southwest of it. In 1824, the Ohio state legislature authorized the construction of the Miami and Erie Canal and in 1833, its Wabash and Erie Canal extension; the canal's purpose was to connect the city of Cincinnati to Lake Erie for water transportation to eastern markets, including to New York City via the Erie Canal and Hudson River. At that time no highways had been built in the state, it was difficult for goods produced locally to reach the larger markets east of the Appalachian Mountains. During the canal's planning phase, many small towns along the northern shores of Maumee River competed to be the ending terminus of the canal, knowing it would give them a profitable status; the towns of Port Lawrence and Vistula merged in 1833 to better compete against the upriver towns of Waterville and Maumee. The inhabitants of this joined settlement chose the name Toledo, "but the reason for this choice is buried in a welter of legends.
One recounts that Washington Irving, traveling in Spain at the time, suggested the name to his brother, a local resident. Others award the honor to Two Stickney, son of the major
CBC Ottawa Broadcast Centre
The CBC Ottawa Broadcast Centre is an office and studio complex located on Sparks Street in downtown Ottawa, Canada. Its primary tenant is the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, with the building serving as the corporate headquarters of the CBC and hosting the originating studios for the CBC's various English and French language operations in the National Capital Region; the building was opened in 2004, contains 37,700 square metres of office space. The CBC operated out of various buildings throughout the city; the radio division occupied the sixth floor of the Château Laurier hotel, while the television division operated out of the Graham Spry Building in the Westboro neighbourhood. The CBC's Parliamentary Bureau operated out of the National Press Building on Wellington Street and the Booth Building on Sparks Street; the CBC head office occupied the Edward Drake Building in Ottawa south, but budgetary cutbacks in the 1980s and 1990s led to the sale of that building and to a drastic downsizing of the head office staff.
Prior to the opening of the Broadcast Centre, the remaining head office staff shared space with the television operations in the Westboro building. The Ottawa Broadcast Centre is owned by Morguard Investments. Not all of it is leased by the CBC, with the top floors occupied by the House of Commons administration, it is located at 181 Queen Street, between O'Connor Street. The rear of the building backs out on the Sparks Street pedestrian mall; the site had been vacant for several years and had been home to a Woolworths department store. Several of the studios and the newsroom are located at ground level on Sparks Street, allowing the public to observe from outside through 4 metre high windows. Eight different CBC news services, consisting of 200 editorial staff in the National Capital Region, operate in both English and French out of the main newsroom to produce content for radio and the internet; the main design feature of the Broadcast Centre is that it appears as a typical multi-storey office building on the Queen Street frontage, whereas the Sparks Street frontage is consistent with the low-rise development on the pedestrian mall.
Given the significant terracing of the building's Sparks Street façade above the fourth floor and the grade differential between Queen Street and Sparks Street, the building is 12 storeys on Queen Street, but appears to be only four storeys in height from ground level on Sparks Street. Although the building was designed to revitalize Sparks Street, critic Rhys Phillips described the building as "just another low-cost, banal building." Visitors and non-CBC employees working on the building's upper floors must access the building from Queen Street, thus directing pedestrians away from the pedestrian mall. A pathway linking the Queen Street lobby to Sparks Street was cut from the original design to make room for a larger newsroom. Councillor Diane Holmes called the building "the biggest disappointment" and "a whole block of deadness." Radio CBO-FM, CBC Radio One CBOF-FM, Ici Radio-Canada Première CBOQ-FM, CBC Music CBOX-FM, Ici Musique Television CBOFT-DT, Ici Radio-Canada Télé CBOT-DT, CBC Television Studios for CBC News Network programming, including Power & Politics View of the CBC Ottawa Building from street level on Sparks Street View of the CBC Ottawa Building from above, showing the terracing of the upper floors facing Sparks Street
National Capital Commission
The National Capital Commission is the Canadian Crown corporation responsible for planning, as well as taking part in the development and improvement of Canada’s Capital Region. It administers a large number of buildings in the National Capital Region; the NCC was created by Canada's Parliament in 1959 under the National Capital Act to replace the Federal District Commission, created in 1927, the earlier Ottawa Improvement Commission, created in 1899. The NCC was created to replace the FDC because the latter had failed to convince municipal governments to cooperate in planning efforts regarding the capital. Although the NCC was given the authority to implement its plans, an authority confirmed by the Supreme Court in Munro v. National Capital Commission, it has been criticized for failing to assert that authority effectively; the logo was modified in April 1999 with the formation of Nunavut as an independent territory from the Northwest Territories. The logo went from 10 shaded maple leaves and 2 blank maple leaves in a circular C shape, to ten shaded maple leaves and 3 blank maple leaves in a circular C shape.
After the 2006 elections, the Government of Canada asked for a formal review of the mandate of the NCC. A panel conducting the review, in its report, suggested that the Crown Corporation needed more money and should become more transparent. To achieve the latter, the governance of the organization was modified; the role of chairperson was, by amendment of the National Capital Act, divided between two positions: the Chairperson and the Chief Executive Officer. Moreover, the NCC created an Ombudsman office; the NCC is the responsibility of the Minister of Canadian Heritage Pablo Rodríguez. It is governed by the National Capital Act, which explains the boundaries of the National Capital Region in great detail, its headquarters are in the Chambers Building between Queen and Sparks Streets. In the 28th Canadian Ministry, under Stephen Harper the NCC reported to Parliament through the Minister of Foreign Affairs, through senior Ottawa-area cabinet ministers, the last of whom was Pierre Poilievre; the NCC board of directors has 15 members, including the chairperson and the chief executive officer.
Its main role is to oversee the corporation, ensure that it meets its strategic objectives. The NCC board of directors meets at least four times per year; the members of the board are appointed by the minister responsible for the National Capital Commission, with the approval of the Governor-in-Council. Five are from the National Capital Region, eight are from other regions across Canada; the chairperson and CEO are appointed by the Governor-in-Council. Since April 2016, Gatineau Mayor Maxime Pedneau-Jobin and Ottawa Mayor Jim Watson have a non-voting ex-officio seat on the board. 1952–1959: Major General Howard Kennedy 1959–1961: Alan K. Hay 1961–1967: Lieutenant General Samuel Findlay Clark 1967–1969: A. John Frost 1969–1973: Douglas H. Fullerton 1973–1976: Edgar Gallant 1976–1977: Pierre Juneau 1978–1985: Charles Mills Drury 1985–1992: Jean Elizabeth Morrison Pigott 1992–2006: Marcel Beaudry 2007–2017: Russell Andrew Mills 2017–present: Marc Seaman 2007–2007: Micheline Dubé 2008–2012: Marie Lemay 2012–2014: Jean-François Trépanier 2014–2019: Mark Kristmanson 2019–present: Tobi Nussbaum The role of the NCC is to champion the interests of Ottawa and surrounding region as the nation's capital with regard to issues of national interest, such as the location of monument and museum sites, major streetscapes such as Confederation Boulevard.
The objects and purposes of the NCC are "to prepare plans for and assist in the development and improvement of the National Capital Region in order that the nature and character of the seat of the Government of Canada may be in accordance with its national significance."With 11% of the area’s landmass, the NCC is the largest landowner in Canada’s Capital Region. Its assets include: Gatineau Park the Greenbelt the Rideau Canal Skateway urban lands and parks Capital Pathway scenic parkways real property heritage buildings agricultural and research facilities and commemorative monuments The NCC is the steward of the Capital’s six official residences: Rideau Hall, 24 Sussex Drive, Harrington Lake, The Farm and 7 Rideau Gate; the continuing preservation and management of Confederation Boulevard, the ceremonial route linking key attractions in National Capital Region, on both sides of the Ottawa River, in Ottawa as well as Gatineau, are the responsibility of the NCC and its partners. These roles are in contrast with the mandates of the various municipal governments, which serve the benefit of their immediate resident, under provincial legislation, on issues like road maintenance, sewer and public transport.
The Government of Canada is the largest employer and largest landowner in these two areas, the NCC thus has a great deal of influence over the cities. This has sometimes been criticized by city officials from Ottawa and Gatineau for a lack of cooperation, such as in 1998 when the NCC proposed levelling a large strip of downtown Ottawa to build a ceremonial boulevard along the city's existing Metcalfe Street. Over the last thirty years, the activities of the NCC have been denounced or castigated by several Quebec governments, they considered municipal affairs to be a pu
Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century. It drew upon the principles of French neoclassicism, but incorporated Gothic and Renaissance elements, used modern materials, such as iron and glass, it was an important style in France until the end of the 19th century. It had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many prominent American architects who studied at the Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan; the "Beaux Arts" style evolved from the French classicism of the Style Louis XIV, French neoclassicism beginning with Louis XV and Louis XVI. French architectural styles before the French Revolution were governed by Académie royale d'architecture following the French Revolution, by the Architecture section of the Académie des Beaux-Arts; the Academy held the competition for the "Grand Prix de Rome" in architecture, which offered prize winners a chance to study the classical architecture of antiquity in Rome.
The formal neoclassicism of the old regime was challenged by four teachers at the Academy, Joseph-Louis Duc, Félix Duban, Henri Labrouste and Léon Vaudoyer, who had studied at the French Academy in Rome at the end of the 1820s, They wanted to break away from the strict formality of the old style by introducing new models of architecture from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Their goal was to create an authentic French style based on French models, their work was aided beginning in 1837 by the creation of the Commission of Historic Monuments, headed by the writer and historian Prosper Mérimée, by the great interest in the Middle Ages caused by the publication in 1831 of The Hunchback of Notre-Dame by Victor Hugo. Their declared intention was to "imprint upon our architecture a national character."The style referred to as Beaux-Arts in English reached the apex of its development during the Second Empire and the Third Republic that followed. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without major interruption until 1968.
The Beaux-Arts style influenced the architecture of the United States in the period from 1880 to 1920. In contrast, many European architects of the period 1860–1914 outside France gravitated away from Beaux-Arts and towards their own national academic centers. Owing to the cultural politics of the late 19th century, British architects of Imperial classicism followed a somewhat more independent course, a development culminating in Sir Edwin Lutyens's New Delhi government buildings; the Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial Roman architecture between Augustus and the Severan emperors, Italian Renaissance, French and Italian Baroque models but the training could be applied to a broader range of models: Quattrocento Florentine palace fronts or French late Gothic. American architects of the Beaux-Arts generation returned to Greek models, which had a strong local history in the American Greek Revival of the early 19th century. For the first time, repertories of photographs supplemented meticulous scale drawings and on-site renderings of details.
Beaux-Arts training made great use of clasps that link one architectural detail to another. Beaux-Arts training emphasized the production of quick conceptual sketches finished perspective presentation drawings, close attention to the program, knowledgeable detailing. Site considerations tended toward urbane contexts. All architects-in-training passed through the obligatory stages—studying antique models, constructing analos, analyses reproducing Greek or Roman models, "pocket" studies and other conventional steps—in the long competition for the few desirable places at the Académie de France à Rome with traditional requirements of sending at intervals the presentation drawings called envois de Rome. Beaux-Arts architecture depended on sculptural decoration along conservative modern lines, employing French and Italian Baroque and Rococo formulas combined with an impressionistic finish and realism. In the façade shown above, Diana grasps the cornice she sits on in a natural action typical of Beaux-Arts integration of sculpture with architecture.
Overscaled details, bold sculptural supporting consoles, rich deep cornices and sculptural enrichments in the most bravura finish the client could afford gave employment to several generations of architectural modellers and carvers of Italian and Central European backgrounds. A sense of appropriate idiom at the craftsman level supported the design teams of the first modern architectural offices. Characteristics of Beaux-Arts architecture included: Flat roof Rusticated and raised first story Hierarchy of spaces, from "noble spaces"—grand entrances and staircases—to utilitarian ones Arched windows Arched and pedimented doors Classical details: references to a synthesis of historicist styles and a tendency to eclecticism.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit. Lending activities can be performed either indirectly through capital markets. Due to their importance in the financial stability of a country, banks are regulated in most countries. Most nations have institutionalized a system known as fractional reserve banking under which banks hold liquid assets equal to only a portion of their current liabilities. In addition to other regulations intended to ensure liquidity, banks are subject to minimum capital requirements based on an international set of capital standards, known as the Basel Accords. Banking in its modern sense evolved in the 14th century in the prosperous cities of Renaissance Italy but in many ways was a continuation of ideas and concepts of credit and lending that had their roots in the ancient world. In the history of banking, a number of banking dynasties – notably, the Medicis, the Fuggers, the Welsers, the Berenbergs, the Rothschilds – have played a central role over many centuries.
The oldest existing retail bank is Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, while the oldest existing merchant bank is Berenberg Bank. The concept of banking may have begun in ancient Assyria and Babylonia, with merchants offering loans of grain as collateral within a barter system. Lenders in ancient Greece and during the Roman Empire added two important innovations: they accepted deposits and changed money. Archaeology from this period in ancient China and India shows evidence of money lending. More modern banking can be traced to medieval and early Renaissance Italy, to the rich cities in the centre and north like Florence, Siena and Genoa; the Bardi and Peruzzi families dominated banking in 14th-century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe. One of the most famous Italian banks was the Medici Bank, set up by Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici in 1397; the earliest known state deposit bank, Banco di San Giorgio, was founded in 1407 at Italy. Modern banking practices, including fractional reserve banking and the issue of banknotes, emerged in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Merchants started to store their gold with the goldsmiths of London, who possessed private vaults, charged a fee for that service. In exchange for each deposit of precious metal, the goldsmiths issued receipts certifying the quantity and purity of the metal they held as a bailee; the goldsmiths began to lend the money out on behalf of the depositor, which led to the development of modern banking practices. The goldsmith paid interest on these deposits. Since the promissory notes were payable on demand, the advances to the goldsmith's customers were repayable over a longer time period, this was an early form of fractional reserve banking; the promissory notes developed into an assignable instrument which could circulate as a safe and convenient form of money backed by the goldsmith's promise to pay, allowing goldsmiths to advance loans with little risk of default. Thus, the goldsmiths of London became the forerunners of banking by creating new money based on credit; the Bank of England was the first to begin the permanent issue of banknotes, in 1695.
The Royal Bank of Scotland established the first overdraft facility in 1728. By the beginning of the 19th century a bankers' clearing house was established in London to allow multiple banks to clear transactions; the Rothschilds pioneered international finance on a large scale, financing the purchase of the Suez canal for the British government. The word bank was taken Middle English from Middle French banque, from Old Italian banco, meaning "table", from Old High German banc, bank "bench, counter". Benches were used as makeshift desks or exchange counters during the Renaissance by Jewish Florentine bankers, who used to make their transactions atop desks covered by green tablecloths; the definition of a bank varies from country to country. See the relevant country pages under for more information. Under English common law, a banker is defined as a person who carries on the business of banking by conducting current accounts for his customers, paying cheques drawn on him/her and collecting cheques for his/her customers.
In most common law jurisdictions there is a Bills of Exchange Act that codifies the law in relation to negotiable instruments, including cheques, this Act contains a statutory definition of the term banker: banker includes a body of persons, whether incorporated or not, who carry on the business of banking'. Although this definition seems circular, it is functional, because it ensures that the legal basis for bank transactions such as cheques does not depend on how the bank is structured or regulated; the business of banking is in many English common law countries not defined by statute but by common law, the definition above. In other English common law jurisdictions there are statutory definitions of the business of banking or banking business; when looking at these definitions it is important to keep in mind that they are defining the business of banking for the purposes of the legislation, not in general. In particular, most of the definitions are from legislation that has the purpose of regulating and supervising banks rather than regulating the actual business of banking.
However, in many cases the statutory definition mirrors the common law one. Examples of statutory definitions: "banking business" means the business of receiving money on current or deposit account and collecting cheques drawn by or paid in by customers, the making
Morgan's was a Montreal-based Canadian department store chain. At its peak, the company had stores in Ontario. In its last years, the chain was known in Quebec as Morgan without the possessive. Morgan's is the predecessor of The Bay department store chain in Ontario; the first store was opened in Montreal in 1845 by Scottish immigrant Henry Morgan as Henry Morgan and Company at 240 Notre Dame Avenue moved in 1852 to 208 McGill Street and again in 1866 to St. James Street at Victoria Square; the second store to operate under the Morgan's name opened in 1950 on Queen Mary Road in the Snowdon section of Montreal. Other stores opened on the island of Montreal, several Ontario cities. Ownership of the store was split evenly between Mr. Morgan and his partner David Smith. Smith's portion was purchased by Henry's brother, James Morgan; the store stayed in under the ownership and management of the original Morgan brothers and their descendents for over 100 years of business. Morgan's was purchased in 1960 by Hudson's Bay Company.
In 1964, the stores in Ontario were converted into the new name The Bay. At that point, the Morgan's logo was replaced with a new logo with a similar design to the Bay's logo for the Quebec stores still operating under the Morgan's name; the Quebec stores were converted in June 19, 1972. The Morgan's flagship store in downtown Montreal has been a Bay store since Morgan's was absorbed into The Bay; the Morgan locations in Montreal's shopping centres are all in operation as Bay stores. Only the Queen Mary Road site has been shut down. In 1945 Morgan's Department Store commissioned a Wedgwood bowl, designed by Keith Murray, to commemorate the store's 100th anniversary in Montreal. Black and white transfer prints on the front and back contrast Montreal as it was in 1845 and in 1945. Relief portraits on each side of Jean Baptiste and John Bull are surrounded by colourful maple leaves, rose and fleur-de-lis and celebrate the city's French and English heritage; the inside of the bowl is decorated with the coat of arms and motto Concordia Salus, colourful maple leaves, the following English and French inscriptions around the upper rim: "Discovered by Jacques Cartier in 1534, Founded by Maisonneuve in 1642, Decouvert par Jacques Cartier en 1534, Fonde par Maisonneuve en 1642".
The underside of the bowl has the Morgan's and Wedgwood logos and provides the population data for Montreal in 1845 and 1945. This footed bowl measures 12 1/4" in diameter, is 6 3/4" high. Montreal: St. Catherine St. Queen Mary Road, Le Boulevard Shopping Centre, Dorval Gardens, Centre Rockland Toronto: Lawrence Plaza, Cloverdale Mall, Eglinton Square, Bloor/Yonge Hamilton: Greater Hamilton Shopping Centre Ottawa: Sparks Street Hudson's Bay Company List of Canadian department stores The Bay