Seneca the Younger
Seneca the Younger Lucius Annaeus Seneca and known as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature. Seneca was born in Córdoba in Hispania, raised in Rome, where he was trained in rhetoric and philosophy, his father was Seneca the Elder, his elder brother was Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus, his nephew was the poet Lucan. In AD 41, Seneca was exiled to the island of Corsica by the emperor Claudius, but was allowed to return in 49 to become a tutor to Nero; when Nero became emperor in 54, Seneca became his advisor and, together with the praetorian prefect Sextus Afranius Burrus, provided competent government for the first five years of Nero's reign. Seneca's influence over Nero declined with time, in 64 Seneca was forced to take his own life for alleged complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy to assassinate Nero, in which he was to have been innocent, his stoic and calm suicide has become the subject of numerous paintings. As a writer Seneca is known for his philosophical works, for his plays, which are all tragedies.
His prose works include a dozen essays and one hundred and twenty-four letters dealing with moral issues. These writings constitute one of the most important bodies of primary material for ancient Stoicism; as a tragedian, he is best known for plays such as his Medea and Phaedra. Seneca's influence on generations is immense—during the Renaissance he was "a sage admired and venerated as an oracle of moral of Christian, edification. Seneca was born at Córdoba in the Roman province of Baetica in Hispania, his father was Lucius Annaeus Seneca the elder, a Spanish-born Roman knight who had gained fame as a writer and teacher of rhetoric in Rome. Seneca's mother, was from a prominent Baetician family. Seneca was the second of three brothers. Miriam Griffin says in her biography of Seneca that "the evidence for Seneca's life before his exile in 41 is so slight, the potential interest of these years, for social history as well as for biography, is so great that few writers on Seneca have resisted the temptation to eke out knowledge with imagination."
Griffin infers from the ancient sources that Seneca was born in either 8, 4, or 1 BC. She thinks he was born between 4 and 1 BC and was resident in Rome by AD 5. Seneca tells us that he was taken to Rome in the "arms" of his aunt at a young age when he was about five years old, his father resided for much of his life in the city. Seneca was taught the usual subjects of literature and rhetoric, as part of the standard education of high-born Romans. While still young he received philosophical training from Attalus the Stoic, from Sotion and Papirius Fabianus, both of whom belonged to the short-lived School of the Sextii, which combined Stoicism with Pythagoreanism. Sotion persuaded Seneca when he was a young man to become a vegetarian, which he practised for around a year before his father urged him to desist because the practice was associated with "some foreign rites". Seneca had breathing difficulties throughout his life asthma, at some point in his mid-twenties he appears to have been struck down with tuberculosis.
He was sent to Egypt to live with his aunt, whose husband Gaius Galerius had become Prefect of Egypt. She nursed him through a period of ill-health. In 31 AD he returned to Rome with his uncle dying en route in a shipwreck, his aunt's influence helped Seneca be elected quaestor, which earned him the right to sit in the Roman Senate. Seneca's early career as a senator seems to have been successful and he was praised for his oratory. Cassius Dio relates a story that Caligula was so offended by Seneca's oratorical success in the Senate that he ordered him to commit suicide. Seneca only survived because he was ill and Caligula was told that he would soon die anyway. In his writings Seneca has nothing good to say about Caligula and depicts him as a monster. Seneca explains his own survival as down to his patience and his devotion to his friends: "I wanted to avoid the impression that all I could do for loyalty was die."In 41 AD, Claudius became emperor, Seneca was accused by the new empress Messalina of adultery with Julia Livilla, sister to Caligula and Agrippina.
The affair has been doubted by some historians, since Messalina had clear political motives for getting rid of Julia Livilla and her supporters. The Senate pronounced a death sentence on Seneca, which Claudius commuted to exile, Seneca spent the next eight years on the island of Corsica. Two of Seneca's earliest surviving works date from the period of his exile—both consolations. In his Consolation to Helvia, his mother, Seneca comforts her as a bereaved mother for losing her son to exile. Seneca incidentally mentions the death of a few weeks before his exile. In life Seneca was married to a woman younger than himself, Pompeia Paulina, it has been thought that the infant son may have been from an earlier marriage, but the evidence is "tenuous". Seneca's other work of this period, his Consolation to Polybius, one of Claudius' freedmen, focused on consoling Polybius on the death of his brother, it is noted for its flattery of Claudius, Seneca expresses his hope that the emperor will recall him from exile.
In 49 AD Agrippina married her uncle Claudius, through her influence Seneca was recalled to Rome. Agrippina gained the praetorship for Seneca and ap
Heavy infantry refers to armed and armoured infantrymen trained to mount frontal assaults and/or anchor the defensive center of a battle line. This differentiates them from light infantry which are mobile and armoured skirmisher troops intended for screening and other roles unsuited to the heavier soldiers. Heavy infantry make use of dense battlefield formations, such as shield wall or phalanx, multiplying their effective weight of arms with weight of numbers. Heavy infantry were critical to many ancient armies, such as the Greek hoplites, Macedonian phalangites, Roman legionaries. After the fall of Rome, heavy infantry declined in Europe, but returned to dominance in the Late Middle Ages with Swiss pikemen and German Landsknechts. With the rise of firearms during early modern warfare, dense formations became too hazardous. By the early 18th century, heavy infantry were replaced by line infantry armed with muskets and bayonets and having no armour. In ancient Greece the hoplite was a common form of heavy infantry.
All hoplites had a shield and spear, a helmet as well. Wealthier hoplites were able to afford bronze breastplate or linothorax armor, while poorer hoplites wore little to no armor; the hoplite armor and shield were designed to block blows from spear points and swords. Hoplites would act as an army in the field. Hoplites were thought of as a force to be reckoned with because they would form a phalanx, a tight band of spearmen, which aided them against lighter infantry and cavalry. Herodotus has described an elite infantry unit of 10,000 soldiers, which he called the Immortals, in the army of the Achaemenid Empire, they were heavily-armed, carrying wicker shields, short spears, swords or large daggers and bow and arrow. Underneath their robes they wore scale armour coats, which means they were not "heavily-armored", but on the other hand, this would let them to carry more weapons; the regiment was followed by a caravan of covered carriages and mules that transported their special supplies. Alexander's army employed infantry known as the phalangite - soldiers equipped with a small shield and long pike, employed in a formation known as the sarissa phalanx.
Alexander had a flexible heavy infantry force known as the Argyraspides, or silver shields, who acted as his elite infantry. Post-Alexander Hellenistic States such as the Macedonians, Ptolemies, etc. would employ more armored phalangites, as well as their own variation of elite units such as the silver shields. The Celts were a diverse group of people that through migration, lived in an area stretching from the British Isles to Anatolia. A people with a strong warrior tradition, they varied in battle and equipment; some of the heavier armed Celts wore chainmail and "Galea" type helmets, threw javelins in battle - all of these elements were adopted by the Romans. Celts were respected for their battle prowess and served as mercenaries for other Mediterranean civilizations. In the military of ancient Rome, heavy infantry made up most of the Roman army; the heavy infantry of the pre-Marian Roman republic included the hastati and triarii. The hastati, the youngest men in the line, were armed with a sword, or gladius, two javelins, or pila.
The pila were thrown at a charging enemy before they were engaged in hand-to-hand combat. Hastati were equipped with a helmet, a shield and a bronze breast plate or coat of mail; the principes were armed just like the hastati, but they were older, more experienced and, because they had more money, were more to own better-quality arms. The final type of heavy infantry were the triarii, they were armed and armored just like the hastati except that instead of holding pila to throw at the enemy, they used a large spear known as the hasta. Incidentally, the hastati were armed with this weapon, which gave them their name, but the hasta were abandoned except by the triarii; the triarii were called in to end the battle and break the lines of the enemy. Rome's use of heavy infantry and a general lack of major cavalry forces meant they were stronger in pitched battle but more vulnerable to ambushes. After the Marian reforms of the late 2nd century BCE, property requirements were dropped and the three-lined maniples were replaced in favor of a single type of heavy infantry, the legionary, all equipped in nearly identical fashion to hastati and principes.
Following the introduction of infantry tactics during the Warring States period, the Qin army developed an infantry force that would help it conquer the other states. Soldiers fulfilling the role of heavy infantry wore lacquered leather coat of plates or lamellar, were equipped with spears and wooden shields, dagger-axes and small and large shields covered in metal; some soldiers were equipped with long spears, long halberds, or pikes, fought in a formation akin to Swiss pikemen. The Han Dynasty that succeeded the Qin era would equip their soldiers with iron armor, which they were able to mass-produce due to state standardized metallurgical improvements. Unlike their contemporaries such as the post-Marian Romans, the Han military did not rely on their heavy infantry, but emphasized a more balanced force of infantry, missile troops, cavalry; the kingdom of Goguryeo in Korea was renowned for its military power and influence during the rule of Gwanggaeto the Great. The rapid expansion of Goguryeo into Manchuria and parts of easter
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
Iron Age sword
Swords made of iron appear from the Early Iron Age, but do not become widespread before the 8th century BC. Early Iron Age swords were different from steel swords, they were work-hardened, rather than quench-hardened, which made them about the same or only better in terms of strength and hardness to earlier bronze swords. This meant; the easier production and the greater availability of the raw material allowed for much larger scale production. Smiths learned that by adding an amount of carbon to the iron, they could produce an improved alloy. By quenching and tempering, swords could be made that would suffer much less damage, would spring back into shape if bent, it took a long time, before this was done and until the end of the early medieval period, many swords were still unhardened iron. Several different methods of swordmaking existed in ancient times, most famously, pattern welding. Over time, different methods developed all over the world; the Celtic Hallstatt culture – 8th century BC – figured among the early users of iron.
During the Hallstatt period, the same swords were made both in iron. At the end of the Hallstatt period, around 600–500BC, swords were replaced with short daggers; the La Tene culture reintroduced the sword, different from the traditional shape and construction of the Bronze Age and early Iron Age, much more like the swords that developed from them. The iron version of the Scythian/Persian Acinaces appears from ca. the 6th century BC. In Classical Antiquity and the Parthian and Sassanid Empires in Iran, iron swords were common; the Greek xiphos and the Roman gladius are typical examples of the type. The late Roman Empire introduced the longer spatha. Chinese steel swords make their appearance from the 5th century BC Warring States period, although earlier iron swords are known from the Zhou dynasty; the Chinese Dao is single-edged, sometimes translated as sabre or broadsword, the Jian double edged. With the spread of the La Tene culture at the 5th century BC, iron swords had replaced bronze all over Europe.
These swords evolved into, among others, the Roman gladius and spatha, the Greek xiphos and the Germanic sword of the Roman Iron Age, which evolved into the Viking sword in the 8th century. There are two kinds of Celtic sword; the most common is the "long" sword, which has a stylised anthropomorphic hilt made from organic material, such as wood, bone, or horn. These swords usually had an iron plate in front of the guard, shaped to match the scabbard mouth; the second type is a "short" sword with either an abstract or a true anthropomorphic hilt of copper alloy. Scabbards were made from two plates of iron, suspended from a belt made of iron links; some scabbards had front plates of bronze rather than iron. This was more common on Insular examples than elsewhere. Swords with ring-shaped pommels were popular among the Sarmatians from the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD, they were about 50–60 cm in length, with a rarer "long" type in excess of 70 cm, in exceptional cases as long as 130 cm. A semi-precious stone was sometimes set in the pommel ring.
These swords are found in great quantities in the Hungarian plain. They are similar to the akinakes used by the Persians and other Iranian peoples; the pommel ring evolves by closing the earlier arc-shaped pommel hilt which evolves out of the antenna type around the 4th century BC. Polybius reports that the Gauls at the Battle of Telamon had inferior iron swords which bent at the first stroke and had to be straightened with the foot against the ground. Plutarch, in his life of Marcus Furius Camillus reports on the inferiority of Gaulish iron, making the same claim that their swords bent easily; these reports have puzzled some historians, since by that time the Celts had a centuries long tradition of iron workmanship. In 1906 a scholar suggested that the Greek observers misunderstood ritual acts of sword-bending, which may have served to "decommission" the weapon; such bent swords have been found among deposits of objects dedicated for sacred purposes. The speculation has been repeated since. Radomir Pleiner, argues that "the metallographic evidence shows that Polybius was right up to a point.
To judge from the swords examined in this survey, only one third could be described as conforming to the quality which he ascribed to Celtic swords. So, it is quite possible that some of the better quality swords would have failed in battle." He argues that the classical sources are exaggerated. Plutarch's claim that Celtic swords would bend back is implausible, as only a slight bending would be likely. Pleiner notes that metallurgical analysis performed on Celtic swords suggests that they were only work hardened and only few were quench hardened though they contain enough carbon to be hardened. Quench hardening takes the full advantage of the potential hardness of the steel, but leaves it brittle, prone to breaking. Quite this is because tempering wasn't known. Tempering is heating the steel at a lower temperature after quenching to remove the brittleness, while keeping most of the hardness. There is other evide
The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire
A gladiator was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, condemned criminals. Some gladiators were volunteers who risked their lives and their legal and social standing by appearing in the arena. Most were despised as slaves, schooled under harsh conditions marginalized, segregated in death. Irrespective of their origin, gladiators offered spectators an example of Rome's martial ethics and, in fighting or dying well, they could inspire admiration and popular acclaim, they were celebrated in high and low art, their value as entertainers was commemorated in precious and commonplace objects throughout the Roman world. The origin of gladiatorial combat is open to debate. There is evidence of it in funeral rites during the Punic Wars of the 3rd century BC, thereafter it became an essential feature of politics and social life in the Roman world, its popularity led to its use in more lavish and costly games.
The gladiator games lasted for nearly a thousand years, reaching their peak between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century AD. The games declined during the early 5th century after the adoption of Christianity as state church of the Roman Empire in 380, although beast hunts continued into the 6th century. Early literary sources agree on the origins of gladiators and the gladiator games. In the late 1st century BC, Nicolaus of Damascus believed. A generation Livy wrote that they were first held in 310 BC by the Campanians in celebration of their victory over the Samnites. Long after the games had ceased, the 7th century AD writer Isidore of Seville derived Latin lanista from the Etruscan word for "executioner," and the title of Charon from Charun, psychopomp of the Etruscan underworld; this was repeated in most early modern, standard histories of the games. Reappraisal of pictorial evidence supports a Campanian origin, or at least a borrowing, for the games and gladiators. Campania hosted the earliest known gladiator schools.
Tomb frescoes from the Campanian city of Paestum show paired fighters, with helmets and shields, in a propitiatory funeral blood-rite that anticipates early Roman gladiator games. Compared to these images, supporting evidence from Etruscan tomb-paintings is late; the Paestum frescoes may represent the continuation of a much older tradition, acquired or inherited from Greek colonists of the 8th century BC. Livy places the first Roman gladiator games in the early stage of Rome's First Punic War against Carthage, when Decimus Iunius Brutus Scaeva had three gladiator pairs fight to the death in Rome's "cattle market" Forum to honor his dead father, Brutus Pera; this is described as a munus, a commemorative duty owed the manes of a dead ancestor by his descendants. The development of the munus and its gladiator types was most influenced by Samnium's support for Hannibal and the subsequent punitive expeditions against the Samnites by Rome and her Campanian allies; the war in Samnium afterwards, was attended with equal danger and an glorious conclusion.
The enemy, besides their other warlike preparation, had made their battle-line to glitter with new and splendid arms. There were two corps: the shields of the one were inlaid with gold, of the other with silver... The Romans had heard of these splendid accoutrements, but their generals had taught them that a soldier should be rough to look on, not adorned with gold and silver but putting his trust in iron and in courage... The Dictator, as decreed by the senate, celebrated a triumph, in which by far the finest show was afforded by the captured armour. So the Romans made use of the splendid armour of their enemies to do honour to their gods. Livy's account skirts the funereal, sacrificial function of early Roman gladiator combats and reflects the theatrical ethos of the Roman gladiator show: splendidly, exotically armed and armoured barbarians and degenerate, are dominated by Roman iron and native courage, his plain Romans virtuously dedicate the magnificent spoils of war to the Gods. Their Campanian allies stage a dinner entertainment using gladiators who may not be Samnites, but play the Samnite role.
Other groups and tribes would join the cast list. Most gladiators were armoured in the manner of the enemies of Rome; the munus became a morally instructive form of historic enactment in which the only honourable option for the gladiator was to fight well, or else die well. In 216 BC, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, late consul and augur, was honoured by his sons with three days of gladiatora munera in the Forum Romanum, using twenty-two pairs of gladiators. Ten years Scipio Africanus gave a commemorative munus in Iberia for his father and uncle, casualties in the Punic Wars. High status non-Romans, Romans too, volunteered as his gladiators; the context of the Punic Wars and Rome's near-disastrous defeat at the Battle of Cannae link these early games to munificence, the celebration of military victory and the religious expiation of military disaster. The next recorded munus, held for the funer
In the European High Middle Ages, the typical sword was a straight, double-edged weapon with a single-handed, cruciform hilt and a blade length of about 70 to 80 centimetres. This type is depicted in period artwork, numerous examples have been preserved archaeologically; the high medieval sword of the Romanesque period developed from the Viking sword of the 9th century. In the Late Medieval period, late forms of these swords continued to be used, but as a sidearm, at that point called "arming swords" and contrasting with the two-handed, heavier longswords. Though the majority of late-medieval arming swords kept their blade properties from previous centuries, there are surviving specimens from the 15th century that took the form of a late-medieval estoc, specialised for use against more armoured opponents. After the end of the medieval period, the arming sword developed into several forms of the early modern one-handed straight swords, such as the side-sword, the rapier, the cavalry-focused Reiterschwert and certain types of broadsword.
The term "arming sword" is first used in the 15th century to refer to the single-handed type of sword after it had ceased to serve as the main weapon, was on its way to being used as a side-sword. "Arming sword" in late medieval usage refers to the when worn as a side-arm, but as a modern term it may refer to any single-handed sword in a late medieval context. The terms "knight's sword" or "knightly sword" are modern retronyms to specify the sword of the high medieval period. Period terminology for swords is somewhat fluid; the common type of sword in any given period would be referred to as "sword". During the high medieval period, references to swords as "great sword" or "small" or "short sword" does not indicate their morphology, but their relative size. Oakeshott notes that this changes in the late medieval period, beginning towards the end of the 13th century, when the "bastard sword" appeared as an early type of what would develop into the 15th-century longsword; the term "romanesque sword" does not see significant use in English, but it is more current in French, German and in Slavic languages, identifying the swords by them being contemporary with the corresponding Romanesque period in art history.
The knightly sword develops in the 11th century from the Viking Age sword. The most evident morphological development is the appearance of the crossguard; the transitional swords of the 11th century are known as Norman swords. In the 10th century, some of the "finest and most elegant" of the Ulfberht type of "Viking" swords began to exhibit a more slender blade geometry, moving the center of mass closer to the hilt to improve wieldability; the one-handed sword of the high medieval period was used with a shield or buckler. In the late medieval period, when the longsword came to predominate, the single-handed sword was retained as a common sidearm of the estoc type, came to be referred to as an "arming sword" evolving into the cut and thrust swords of the Renaissance. At the end of the medieval period, the estoc arming sword develops into the Spanish espada ropera and the Italian spada da lato, the predecessors of the early modern rapier. In a separate development, the schiavona was a heavier single-handed sword used by the Dalmatian bodyguard of the Doge of Venice in the 16th century.
This type influenced the development of the early modern basket-hilted sword which in turn developed into the modern cavalry sword. The most widespread typology for the medieval sword was developed by Ewart Oakeshott in 1960 based on blade morphology. Oakeshott introduced an additional typology for pommel shapes. A more recent typology is due to Geibig. Geibig's typology focusses on swords from continental the transitional period from the early to the high medieval period and does not extend to the late medieval period. Blade length was from 69 to 81 centimetres. Pommels were most of the'Brazil-nut' type from around 1000–1200 AD, with the'wheel' pommel appearing in the 11th and predominating from the 13th to 15th centuries. However, Oakeshott is emphatic on the point that a medieval sword cannot conclusively be dated based on its morphology. While there are some general trends in the development of fashion, many of the most popular styles of pommels and blades remain in use throughout the duration of the High Middle Ages.
The common "knightly swords" of the high medieval period fall under types X to XII. Type X is the Norman sword as it developed out of the early medieval Viking sword by the 11th century. Type XI shows the development towards a more tapering point seen during the 12th century. Type XII is a further development, typical throughout the Crusades period, showing a tapering blade with a shortened fuller. Subtype XIIa comprises the longer and more massive "great-swords" which developed in the mid-13th century designed to counter improvements in mail armour. Type XIII is the knightly sword typical of the 13th century. Swords of this type have l