Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations. NATO has defined special operations as "military activities conducted by specially designated, organized and equipped forces, manned with selected personnel, using unconventional tactics and modes of employment". Special forces emerged in the early 20th century, with a significant growth in the field during the Second World War, when "every major army involved in the fighting" created formations devoted to special operations behind enemy lines. Depending on the country, special forces may perform functions including airborne operations, counter-insurgency, counter-terrorism, foreign internal defense, covert ops, direct action, hostage rescue, high-value targets/manhunt, intelligence operations, mobility operations, unconventional warfare. In Russian-speaking countries, special forces of any country are called spetsnaz, an acronym for "special purpose". In the United States, the term special forces refers to the U.
S. Army's Special Forces, while the term special operations forces is used more broadly for these types of units. Special forces capabilities include the following: Special reconnaissance and surveillance in hostile environments Foreign internal defense: Training and development of other states' military and security forces Offensive action Support to counter-insurgency through population engagement and support Counter-terrorism operations Sabotage and demolition Hostage rescueOther capabilities can include body-guarding. Special forces have played an important role throughout the history of warfare, whenever the aim was to achieve disruption by "hit and run" and sabotage, rather than more traditional conventional combat. Other significant roles lay in reconnaissance, providing essential intelligence from near or among the enemy and in combating irregular forces, their infrastructure and activities. Chinese strategist Jiang Ziya, in his Six Secret Teachings, described recruiting talented and motivated men into specialized elite units with functions such as commanding heights and making rapid long-distance advances.
Hamilcar Barca in Sicily had specialized troops trained to launch several offensives per day. In the late Roman or early Byzantine period, Roman fleets used small, camouflaged ships crewed by selected men for scouting and commando missions. Muslim forces had naval special operations units, including one that used camouflaged ships to gather intelligence and launch raids and another of soldiers who could pass for Crusaders who would use ruses to board enemy ships and capture and destroy them. In Japan, ninjas were used for reconnaissance, espionage and as assassins, bodyguards or fortress guards, or otherwise fought alongside conventional soldiers. During the Napoleonic wars and sapper units were formed that held specialised roles in reconnaissance and skirmishing and were not committed to the formal battle lines; the British Indian Army deployed two special forces during their border wars: the Corps of Guides formed in 1846 and the Gurkha Scouts. During the Second Boer War the British Army felt the need for more specialised units became most apparent.
Scouting units such as the Lovat Scouts, a Scottish Highland regiment made up of exceptional woodsmen outfitted in ghillie suits and well practised in the arts of marksmanship, field craft, military tactics filled this role. This unit was formed in 1900 by Lord Lovat and early on reported to an American, Major Frederick Russell Burnham, the Chief of Scouts under Lord Roberts. After the war, Lovat's Scouts went on to formally become the British Army's first sniper unit. Additionally, the Bushveldt Carbineers, formed in 1901, can be seen as an early unconventional warfare unit; the German Stormtroopers and the Italian Arditi were the first modern shock troops. They were both elite assault units trained to a much higher level than that of average troops and tasked to carry out daring attacks and bold raids against enemy defenses. Unlike Stormtroopers, Arditi were not units within infantry divisions, but were considered a separate combat arm. Modern special forces emerged during the Second World War.
In 1940, the British Commandos were formed following Winston Churchill's call for "specially trained troops of the hunter class, who can develop a reign of terror down the enemy coast." A staff officer, Lieutenant Colonel Dudley Clarke, had submitted such a proposal to General Sir John Dill, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff. Dill, aware of Churchill's intentions, approved Clarke's proposal and on 23 June 1940, the first Commando raid took place. By the autumn of 1940 more than 2,000 men had volunteered and in November 1940 these new units were organised into a Special Service Brigade consisting of four battalions under the command of Brigadier J. C. Haydon; the Special Service Brigade was expanded to 12 units which became known as Commandos. Each Commando numbered around 450 men. In December 1940 a Middle East Commando depot was formed with the responsibility of training and supplying reinforcements for the Commando units in that theatre. In February 1942 the Commando training depot at Achnacarry in the Scottish Highlands was established by Brigadier Charles Haydon.
Under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Charles Vaughan, the Commando depot was responsible for training complete units and indivi
In the 2016 presidential campaign, Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders sought the Democratic Party's nomination in a field of six major candidates and was the runner up with 46% of the pledged delegates behind former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who won the contest with 54%. Sanders, the junior United States Senator and former Representative from Vermont, began with an informal announcement on April 30, 2015, a formal announcement that he planned to seek the Democratic Party's nomination for President of the United States on May 26, 2015, in Burlington, Vermont. Sanders had been considered a potential candidate for president since at least September 2014. Though he had run as an independent, he caucused with the Democratic Party, as many of his views align with Democrats. Running as a Democrat made it easier to participate in debates and get his name on state ballots. Sanders's chief competitor for the nomination was a former secretary of state. Sanders drew large crowds to his speaking events and his populist and social democratic politics won him particular support among Americans under 40.
He performed with white voters, but trailed Clinton by 30 or more percentage points among black voters. Sanders focused on income and wealth inequality, which he argued is eroding the American middle class, on campaign finance reform. Unlike most other major presidential candidates, Sanders eschewed an unlimited super PAC, instead choosing to receive most of his funding from direct individual campaign donations. In September 2015, The New York Times reported that the campaign had received one million individual donations, becoming the first in 2015 to reach that threshold. Sanders raised $20,000,000 in the month of January 2016, $5,000,000 more than Clinton during the same time period, with an average donation of $27. Sanders mentioned this $27 figure on the campaign trail as proof of his grassroots support. Following the final primary election, Clinton became the presumptive Democratic nominee. Sanders did not endorse Clinton, but said he would work with her to defeat the presumptive Republican nominee, Donald Trump.
On June 16, Sanders gave a live online speech to his supporters, saying, "The political revolution continues". On July 12, Sanders endorsed Clinton at a unity rally with her in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. On July 22, 2016, various emails from the Democratic National Committee, the governing body of the Democratic Party, were leaked and published, revealing apparent bias against the Sanders campaign on the part of the Committee and its chair, Debbie Wasserman Schultz. Schultz subsequently resigned as DNC chair and was replaced by Donna Brazile, implicated in the leaks and apologized to Sanders and his supporters. In the Democratic National Convention roll-call vote on July 26, 2016, Sanders received 1,865 votes, which consisted of 1,848 pledged delegates won in primary and caucus contests and 17 superdelegates. After the roll call, Sanders put forward a motion to formally nominate Clinton, which passed by voice vote. Regardless of its end result, the Sanders campaign is still considered one of the most pivotal moments in recent Democratic politics, as it ushered in an unprecedentedly fervent wave of small-dollar campaign finance, grassroots infrastructure, progressive activism that shifted the party and country's political discourse further left.
Sanders's previous political successes were in Vermont. He has been politically active nearly his entire adult life. While in college, Sanders protested against police brutality, led a weeks-long sit-in against housing segregation, worked as an organizer for the Congress of Racial Equality. In 1963, he travelled to Washington D. C. to attend the March on Washington for Freedom. As mayor of Burlington, Sanders played a prominent role in building support in Vermont for Jesse Jackson's presidential campaigns in 1984 and 1988. In a November 2013 interview, Sanders laid out several reasons for mounting his own presidential run, including global warming, economic inequality, frustration with the Citizens United Supreme Court decision, the importance of maintaining public programs like Medicare and Medicaid. In a March 6, 2014, interview with The Nation, Sanders stated that he was "prepared to run for President of the United States" in 2016, but did not announce a campaign; when pressed on the issue, Sanders said he was discussing the possibility with people around the country, but felt that it was premature to make an announcement.
After the 2014 congressional elections, Sanders continued to discuss running for president. On April 28, 2015, Vermont Public Radio reported that Sanders would announce his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination on April 30. In an interview with USA Today on April 29, Sanders stated that he was "running in this election to win," and launched a campaign website beginning his run. Sanders said he was motivated to enter the race by what he termed "obscene levels" of income disparity, the campaign finance system. On May 26, 2015, Sanders announced his candidacy at Burlington's Waterfront Park; the 2016 Democratic Party presidential debates occurred among candidates in the campaign for the party's nomination for President of the United States in the 2016 presidential election. The Democratic National Committee announced in May 2015. In February 2016, Clinton's and Sanders's campaigns agreed in principle to holding four more, for a total of ten. Critics alleged that the small number of debates and the schedule, with four of the ten on Saturday or
Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was generalissimus of the Army of Russia, the husband of Anna Leopoldovna, who reigned as regent of Russia for one year. Anthony Ulrich was the second son of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Princess Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, his mother's sister, wife of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, arranged for his marriage to HSH Duchess Elisabeth of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, daughter of Charles Leopold, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, granddaughter of Tsar Ivan V. The marriage took place in 1739; this marriage was intended to strengthen the relationships between the houses of Romanov and Habsburg. In 1740, their infant son, became emperor as Ivan VI. Duke Ernst Biron of Kurland was regent, but when rumors surfaced that Biron planned on exiling Anthony and Anna to Germany, they staged a coup and Anna was named regent. Not long after, a treacherous coup in 1741 removed the family from power; the new Empress, had Anthony Ulrich, his wife, their children imprisoned.
They remained so for the rest of their lives. The years of imprisonment were hard, the family was periodically denied many necessary things. All communication with the outside world, with the exception of a few servants, was banned; the governor of Arkhangelsk visited them to enquire about their health. In 1762, Catherine offered the Duke permission to leave Russia, with the condition he leave his children behind, he lost his eyesight. He was buried discreetly, the soldiers were forbidden to reveal the place of his burial, but his coffin was decorated with silver; the surviving children were released from prison into the custody of their aunt, the Danish queen dowager Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. They left Russia on 30 June, they settled in Jutland, where they lived in under a comfortable house arrest in Horsens for the rest of their lives, under the guardianship of Juliana and at the expense of Catherine. Having lived as prisoners, they were not used to social life, kept a small "court" of 40/50 people, all Danish except for the priest.
The pension granted them by Catherine was paid until the last of them died in 1807. Anthony Ulrich and Anna Leopoldovna had the following children: Ivan VI Catherine Antonovna of Brunswick Elizabeth Antonovna of Brunswick Peter Antonovich of Brunswick Alexei Antonovich of Brunswick At the House of Welf site Marie Tetzlaff: Katarina den stora